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Full text of "Kilobaud Microcomputing Magazine (May 1981)"

T.M. 



Trash Your Typewriter 



Word Processing 
Is Here ! 






5 





Osborne's 
Shocking 

New Micro 




Great Strides in Speech Synthesis □ The Animated Apple II D A PIE Taster's 
Report □ AIM-65 in a Lite-or-Death Situation □ Cure Those Sorcerer Blues 
□ Not-so-Dumb Challenger 1 □ PET Program Finder □ Melodious Micro 
Interface □ A Tiger's-Eye View of Graphics □ Heath Business Program 



Big Savings for SS-50 Bus Computerists 



L 




Save 
$140! 



LFD-400 Mini-Disk System 

$459.95 

The choice of knowledgeable 680X computerists 
since 1977 • Proven clock-data separation circuitry 
and other superior design features • Reliable hard- 
sector diskette formatting • Stores up to 102 Kbytes of 
formatted data on 40 tracks • Comes complete with 
4-drive controller, drive assembly. 6800 or 6809 ROM 
disk operating system, interconnecting cable and compre- 
hensive users manual • Add-on drives cost only $399.95 
each. 

*" 14 REGULAR $599.95 



SBC 9'SingIe-Board Computer 

$139.95 



A computer or a fully compatible SS- 
50 bus MPU card • Interchangeable 
6802 or 6809 processor • Extendable 
1-Kbyte ROM monitor • Parallel and 
serial I/O ports — selectable, full-range bit rate 
generator tor serial I/O • Extendable addressing • 
On-card 1-Kbyte RAM • Provision for additional 
EPROM • On-card voltage regulator circuits 

REGULAR $199.95 




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Save 
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6809 MPU Upgrade Adapter 

$39.95 



Upgrades 6800 MPU cards to 6809 pro- 
cessing power • Configured for SWTP MP- 
A2 MPU card but may be used with other 
MPUs • Plug-in installation requires no trace 
cutting or soldering — easy to restore MPU to 
original configuration • Assembled and tested • In- 
cludes user instructions • 6809 ROM operating system 
PSYMON/A2. for use with the 6809 MPU Adapter — 
$69.95. 



»^245 



REGULAR $69.95 



The ELECTRIC WINDOW 1 

$169.95 

Memory-mapped instant display updating • 
Software-defined display formats • Expand- 
able 128-symbol character generator — 
characters are fully formed and feature true 
baseline descenders • On-card display RAM 
can be remapped • Video output can be composite 
or separate sync-video • Voltage regulation circuitry 
included on card. For an application review of the 
ELECTRIC WINDOW: see Peter Stark's comments 
on page 87 of the January 1981 issue of Kilobaud/ 
MICROCOMPUTING. 

REGULAR $249.95 " 16 




Save 
$80! 



Percom Price-Slashing, 

Profit-Zapping 
Fifth Anniversary Sale! 

After five years of solid accomplishments, it's time to celebrate. So we've 
slashed prices for a gigantic 5th anniversary sale. Now, for a limited time, 
you can get Percom design and Percom quality at enormous savings. But 
don't wait. Sale ends May 31st and quantities are limited to stock on hand. 



Save $100.00 on fully assembled, tested and 
burned-in RAM cards! Hurry, regular prices in 
effect after May 31st 

These RAM cards feature 1 -Mbyte extended addressing; buffered 
data, address and control lines; and, on-card voltage regulation. 
Cards are fully tested and burned-in. User manuals include 6800 & 
6809 diagnostic memory test programs. 

M24SS 24-Kbyte STATIC RAM CARD 

$399.95 REGULAR $499.95 



available in 8- and 16-Kbyte versions at regular prices. 8-Kbyte RAM expansion 
kit includes extra RAM chip, plus sockets and other parts. Kit price is $1 39 95 • 
Uses 2114L RAM chip. 



»^204 



M48DSS 16-Kbyte DYNAMIC RAM CARD 



Save 
$100! 



ciuae bouu & 



$399.95 REGULAR S499.95 



Save 
$100! 



Memory is organized as three independent 8- 
Kbyte blocks. Each block may be located at any 
8-Kbyte boundary of a 64-Kbyte address space • Also 



^ 



Expandable to 48 Kbytes • Memory is organized as three 
independent 16-Kbyte blocks. Each block may be 
located in any of the four 16-Kbyte zones of a 64-Kbyte address space • 
Special "map-out" strapping can be used to depose any 8-Kbyte block 
from upper 32-Kbyte memory • Uses type 4116 RAM chips • 16-Kbyte 
RAM expansion kit includes extra RAM chip, plus sockets and other parts 
Kit price is $99.95. 



»x69 



Watch for the COLOf?AMA-50! 

This soon-to-be-announced color VDG card for the SS-50 bus features 
eleven colorful display formats in 2 to 8 colors, plus 2-color alpha- 
numerics; full graphic resolutions from 64X64 pixels to 256X192 
pixels, memory-mapped instant display control; low-cost modulator 
option for TV interface; 1 -Mbyte extended addressing; cassette I/O 
option; and. operating software. Introductory price is only $219.95. 



PEHQOM 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY INC 

?11 N KIRBY GARLAND TEXAS 
(?14)27P 3421 



PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 
PRICES DO NOT INCLUDE SHIPPING AND HANDLING. 

COLORAMA 50. ELECTRIC WINDOW. LFD 400. PSYMON and SBC 9 are trademarks of Percom Data Company. Inc 



Nobody supports the SS-50 bus like Percom 

Our field-proven software for 680X computers includes monitors, 
operating systems, drivers, editors, assemblers, debuggers and high- 
level languages like Super BASIC — our popular extended disk BASIC 
interpreter. 

Some of the other hardware products available include versatile proto- 
typing cards in both 30- and 50-pin versions, extendable 50-pin 
motherboards and 30-pin I/O card motherboards. Function cards, 
prototyping cards and motherboards are optionally available with gold- 
plated bus connectors. Also, most function cards are available in 86- 
pin, EXORciser bus compatible versions. 

Quality Percom products are available at Percom dealers nation- 
wide. Call toll-free, 1-800-527-1592, for the address of 
your nearest dealer, or to order direct from Percom. 



EXORciser is a trademark of Motorola Corporation 





TM 





TM 



the two 




ii 



microcomputer contenders 



When you decide to buy a microcomputer system, 
it usually gets down to one model versus another. 
Will it be the SuperBrain from Intertec ... or one of 
those other models from Intertecs competitors? 
Well, there's really not much of a choice in the 
price/performance competition. The SuperBrain 
wins hands down! And it's a pretty tough contender 
if reliability, factory support and nationwide service 
are important to you. So what do you do? Choose 
our SuperBrain just because you know it's best? 
Or keep waiting for someone to announce some- 
thing better? — 

WAIT NO LONGER... 

It wasn't enough that our SuperBrain had such 
standard features as twin double-density disk drives 
with nearly 350,000 bytes of disk storage. A full 
64K of dynamic RAM. A CP/M* Disk Operating 
System which assures compatibility to literally 
hundreds of application packages. A crisp, 12" non- 
glare screen with a full 24 line by 80 column display. 
A full-featured ASCII keyboard with a separate 
keypad and individual cursor control keys. Twin 
RS232 serial ports for fast and easy connection to 
a modem or a printer. Plus, dual Z80 processors 
which operate at 4 megahertz to insure lightning- 
fast program execution. No, it wasn't enough. So 
we changed it. We made it even better! 



ANNOUNCING SUPERBRAIN QD... 

Our new QD model boasts all the features of our 
phenomenally popular SuperBrain with the addition 
of double-sided disk drives. So, for only a modest 
increase in price, you can order your next SuperBrain 
with more than twice the disk storage. But, best of 
all, you can field upgrade the disk capacity of either 
model to a whopping 10 megabytes! Now how's 
that for a choice? 

HOW DID WE DO IT? 

The secret of SuperBrain QD's incredible disk 
storage lies within our new double-density, double- 
sided disk drives. Nearly 750,000 bytes of data 
can be formatted on two specially designed 5 1 / 4 " 
drives. More than enough to tackle almost any 
serious small business application. Plus, SuperBrain 
QD's 64K of dynamic RAM will handle even your 
most complicated programming tasks. 

Of course, if you really need megabytes instead 
of kilobytes, just add our 10 megabyte Compu- 
Star™ Disk Storage System. It connects in seconds 
and gives you the capability to expand your system 
into a powerful multi-user network with up to 255 
CompuStar terminals. You can add users one at a 
time as you need them. So no matter how much 
your needs expand, your original investment in 
computer hardware is always protected. 




BUT IS IT RELIABLE? 

Our best salesmen are our present customers. 
Not only have SuperBrain and QD users been 
impressed with the inherent reliability of the sys- 
tems, they tell us that no other microcomputers 
available offer such a unique modular design con- 
cept. Just about the only service tool required is a 
common screwdriver. But of course if you'd rather 
let us do the service, our total commitment to product 
and customer support, with service outlets in most 
major cities, will guarantee your satisfaction for 
many years to come. 




The CompuStar™ Disk Storage System 

. . . Connects in seconds to either model. 



THE DECISION IS YOURS... 

Whether your next microcomputer is the Super- 
Brain or our QD model, you'll be purchasing what 
is becoming one of the world's most popular micro- 
computer systems. And regardless of which model 
you choose, you'll probably never outgrow it because 
you can keep expanding it. 

Call or write us today for more information on 
our full line of microcomputer systems. Ask for our 
"SuperBrain Buyer's Guide" and read why so many 
customers like yourself have made the SuperBrain 
and the SuperBrain QD their top two choices for 
performance, value and reliability. 




INTRTEC 



SJl=SY5TEI 



^3 



SYSTEMS 



® 



2300 Broad River Rd . Columbia, S C . 29210 
(803) 798-9100 TWX 810-666-2115 



•Registered trademark ot Digital Research Inc 



MICROCOMPUTING 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 

Sherry Smythe 

EDITORIAL MANAGER 

Jeff DeTray 

PUBLICATIONS MANAGER 

Edward Ferman 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Dennis Brisson 

ASSISTANT MANAGING EDITOR 

Susan Gross 

COPY EDITOR 

Eric Moloney 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANT 

Linda Stephenson 

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANTS 

Pat Graham, Nancy Noyd 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Robert Baker, Ken Barbier, Frank Derfler, 
Jr., Rod Hallen, Peter Stark, Sherm Wantz 



PRODUCTION MANAGER/PUBLICATIONS 

Nancy Salmon 
ASSISTANT PRODUCTION MANAGER 

Michael Murphy 
ART DIRECTOR 

Diana Shonk 

ADVERTISING GRAPHICS 

Robert Drew, Bruce Hedin, Steve Baldwin 

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT 

Joan Ahem, Linda Drew, Kenneth 

Jackson, Ross Kenyon, Maryann Metivier, 

Theresa Ostebo, Jane Preston, Suzanne 

Self, Susan Symonds, Thomas Villeneuve 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

William Heydolph, Terrie Anderson, 

Bill Suttenfield 

TYPESETTING 

Barbara Latti, Sara Bedell, Michele 

DesRochers, Luann Keddy, Mary Kinzel, 

Linda Locke, Karen Stewart 

CORPORATE CONTROLLER 

Charles Garniss, Jr. 

EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT 

Leatrice O'Neil 
ACCOUNTING MANAGER 

Knud Keller 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 

Debra Boudrieau 

CIRCULATION 

Doris Day, Pauline Johnstone, 

Dion Owens, designer 

BULK SALES MANAGER 

Ginnie Boudrieau 

ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT 

Matthew Smith 

ADVERTISING 
603-924-7138 

Kevin Rushalko, Mgr. 

Louise Caron, Hal Stephens, 

Marcla Stone 



BUSINESS 

34 In Search of the Processed Word Craig Anderton 

Can a professional writer find happiness with a word processor? 

86 Norty, Ronnie and Me Edgar FCouaai 

Covering Reagan's move to the White House was a job for North Star. 

93 Beyond Gutenberg Bob Woodbury 

A revolutionary approach to publishing. 

118 Datalog Raymond Massa 

Index it fast with this Heath business program. 

GENERAL INTEREST 

32 Processing Written Words Dennis Bathory Kitsz 
Features to look for in a good word processing program. 

106 The Osborne I Computer Adamosbome 

TNs new portable micro represents a challenge to the industry. 

GRAPHICS 

112 The Animated Apple II Edward Burlbaw 
Liven up your computer with RAM Applesoft. 

1 84 A Tigers-Eye View of Computer Graphics Jim Hansen 

The IDS 440 printer shows its stripes. 
HARDWARE PROJECTS AND MODIFICATIONS 

102 AIM for Total Control Dr. Michael Bazaral 
Using the AIM-65 as a dedicated controller. 

148 Name That Tune CaryN. Davids 

A piano keyboard and a computer make beautiful music together. 

156 Multiple Control with the Multifaceted H8 Larry t wier 

The complete hardware and software to design a multi-channel A/D converter. 

179 A PIE Taster's Report GaroidR. stone 

A palatable method to attach a parallel printer to your PET. 

195 Soulful Software Sounds Raymond J. Bell 

General Instrument's sound generator livens up PET programs. 

208 N ot-so-Dumb Dumb Terminal j c Daly 

Hardware /software instructions for dial-up capability. 

212 Programming the 2716 Stephen D.Merrin 

A simple do-it-yourself approach using the 1802. 



North Star 



Heath 



Osborne 



Apple 



AIM-65 

Z-80 

Heath 

PET 

PET 

OSi 

1802 




Page 134. 



Page 32. 




4 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Contents: May 1 98 1 



Apple 
6800 



CP/M 

TRS-80 

CP/M 



Charles Piatt Hot Rod Word Processors 

Test-drive the Cadillac and Chevy of word processing systems. 

r. Fowier t. Dowaea k. Knecnt, g. Head Word Processing Roundup 

A look at WordPro 4 Plus, Spellguard, Wordcraft-80, Scripsit, VEDIT. 

David cGoodteiiow Inspiration from the Muse 

Super-Text II serves as a guiding genius. 

Peter a stark 6800's Best-Ke pt Secrets 

This 68XX installment examines text editors and processors. 

Word Processing Directory 

A sampling of available word processing software. 

Steven Gurainick The Verdict on Spellbinder 

An attorney pleads the merits of this word processing system. 

Larry Nickel Adva nces in Speech Synthesis 

New ICs make it easy to give voice to your micro. 

Rod Haiien Double Your Memory, Double Your Fun 

Twice the storage with the Discus 2D system. 



REVIEWS 
40 

45 

53 

56 

68 

72 

134 

190 



Apple 
Exidy 
North Star 
PET 



SOFTWARE 
Henry Simpson A Simple Text Processor 80 

A program designed for Apple II users. 

Randy LHenne Sure Cure forThose "?SN ERROR" Blues 142 

Intraline editing is just what the doctor ordered. 

Jim work Hippity-Hop Memory Test 166 

Get the jump on faulty memory components before they cause problems. 

Robert w Baker Find That Program! 200 

Get your library in order with this PET program. 



■ 



Publisher's Remarks-6 

PET-pourrMO 

Computer Blackboard-16 

Micro Quiz-18 

Dial-up Directory-20 

Micro-Scope-22 

As the Word Turns-26 

Letters to the Editor-28 

Corrections-214 



DEPARTMENTS 
Computer Clinic-214 

Calendar-216 

Classifieds-218 

Club Notes-218 

Dealer Directory-219 

New Products-244 

New Software-250 

Reader Reviews-254 

Perspectives-258 



Page 148. 






.. o i o i o 1 o 1 .. 

XXoXXXXX, 

.. I I I 0- I •• 



..0 



.. 



X/j 

XXI 

X XX'XXXX 



XX, 

l/X 



Page 166. 



Volume V 
No. 5 



This month: 

This month's cover (by Martin Paul) en- 
titled "Trash Your Typewriter" dramati- 
cally illustrates a point that many comput- 
erists have known for a long time: You no 
longer have to suffer the drudgery and te- 
dium of typing; there is a better way. It is 
inevitable that if you own a microcomput- 
er, sooner or later you will want to do word 
processing on it. 

To help you discover what to look for, 
what systems are available and how to use 
them, we have devoted a large section of 
the magazine to word processing. We've 
included a software directory which pro- 
vides a sampling of word processing sys- 
tems, their costs, the manufacturer and 
some of their features. More in-depth re- 
views on other systems are also provided. 
You'll learn how word processing allows 
you, with the ease of a few keystrokes, to 
manipulate text, make corrections and 
produce copies. Word processing makes 
writing easier, particularly where drafts 
and multiple letters are required. 

It is not surprising, then, that several of 
this issue's word-processing application 
articles were written by professional writ- 
ers, whose livelihood depends on efficient- 
ly processing written words. Our contribu- 
tors attest that word processing saves 
time, makes text composition easier and. 
in at least one case, improves the quality of 
work. 

But, with such advanced features as au- 
tomatic spelling correction and hyphena- 
tion, word processing is seen by others as a 
threat to our language skills and as an im- 
personalizing factor in human correspon- 
dence. Will processed words, like pro- 
cessed food, dull our senses? Or is it just 
another tool we must learn to use to sur- 
vive in this world where speed in commu- 
nication is vital? 

For good or bad, as our cover states, 
word processing is here! 

— The Editors 



Kilobaud Microcomputing (ISSN 0192-4575) is published 
monthly by Wayne Green, Inc., 80 Pine St., Peterborough 
NH 03458. Subscription rates in U.S. are $25 for one year 
and $53 for three years. In Canada: $27 for one year only, 
U.S. funds. Foreign subscriptions (surface mail)— $35 for 
one year only, U.S. funds. Foreign air mail subscriptions 
—$62 for one year only, U.S. funds. Canadian Distributor: 
Micron Distributing, 409 Queen St. West, Toronto, Ontar- 
io, Canada M5V 2A5. In Europe, contact: Monika Nedela, 
Markstr. 3, D-7778 Markdorf, W. Germany. South African 
Distributor: KB Microcomputing, PO Box 782815, Sand- 
ton, South Africa 2146. Australian Distributor: Electronic 
Concepts, Attention: Rudi Hoess, 55 Clarence Street, 
Sidney 2000, Australia. Second-class postage paid at Pe- 
terborough NH 03458 and at additional mailing office* 
Phone: 603-924-3873. Entire contents copyright 1981 by 
Wayne Green, Inc. No part of this publication may be (e 
printed or otherwise reproduced without written permis- 
sion from the publisher. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 5 



PUBLISHER'S REMARKS 



By Wayne Green 



Wanted: Workers 
To Help Industry Grow 



Job Opportunities 

The microcomputer field will be need- 
ing tens of thousands of people over the 
next few years. Seldom before have we 
seen as many opportunities for people to 
get into a new field and go so far so quick- 
ly. 

For instance, we need hundreds, or 
perhaps even thousands, of engineers 
and technicians to help the manufactur- 
ers keep up with the state of the art in 
technology. This is going to take a rather 
substantial percentage of the budget be- 
cause the art is going to be moving so rap- 
idly. 

Then these firms need a full comple- 
ment of people for management, adver- 
tising, production, packaging, shipping, 
bookkeeping, accounting, marketing, 



personnel, data processing, etc. Import- 
ers will have their special problems, with 
service, distribution, warehousing, keep- 
ing reps in line, advertising, etc. 

Next we have the programming busi- 
ness. The larger program publishers 
such as Instant Software will need many 
of the same type of people as the manu- 
facturers—employees for advertising, 
quality control, personnel, handling, 
packing, shipping, bookkeeping, ac- 
counting, marketing, warehousing, eval- 
uation, documentation, art, typesetting, 
graphics, printing, packaging, purchas- 
ing, and so on. It seems endless. 

Programmers, most of whom will be 
working at home with their own comput- 
ers, will be involved in a business which 
is estimated by 1990 to reach at least $4 
billion per year in royalties. 




The VIC, first shown here at the CES show in Las Vegas in January, and priced at 
$400, could just raise hell with the color computer market. It all depends on how se- 
rious Commodore is about supporting the system with advertising, software and ac- 
cessories. It is, after all, the complete system that is important in the long run. Here 
I'm looking at the new VIC, with Commodore's English manager, Kit Spencer. Their 
Canadian rep is in the middle. Commodore has done particularly well in England, 
where, by the way, they have been advertising. 



6 Microcomputing, May 1981 




Then there will be a wide variety of 
database services which will have infor- 
mation for sale. Information of virtually 
any kind will be on tap— at a price. This 
will be the eventual solution to the infor- 
mation explosion. If you want to know 
where to get pictures of a bullet going 
through a light bulb, you'll be able to find 
the source quickly. If you want data on 
the speed of the bullet, you'll have that 
immediately available. There will be data 
—both historical and current— on all the 
firms in the stock market. Any informa- 
tion that will be needed will be available. 

As more and more uses for computers 
are invented, we will have a growth in the 
number of accessories available. Many of 
these will be intelligent peripherals. For 
instance, a doctor might want a gadget to 
hook onto the finger of a patient to help 
his computer take the patient's history. 
This would measure the blood pressure, 
the temperature and the moisture of the 
finger as the questions are asked by the 
computer. This would, in essence, serve 
as a miniature lie detector to indicate any 
emotional responses. This is most help- 
ful for doctors, for it helps them find the 
emotional content of most illnesses. 

Lie detectors will find more and more 
use, so that may be a popular accessory— 
but it will be only one of hundreds. Each 
of these will provide an opportunity for a 
new small firm to be established, or for a 
big firm to get even bigger. Again, they'll 
need the whole range of supporting tal- 
ent, like any other manufacturer. 

Will each manufacturer be able to set 
up and run service centers all over the 
world, or will independent service or- 
ganizations soon start growing to meet 
the need of businesses and schools for in- 
stant service or computers? Once a busi- 
ness gets a computer, everything stops 
when the computer stops, so service is 
going to be critical. 

Most other fields have required reps to 
handle the interface between the manu- 
facturers and the dealers. It just might be 
that micros will go the same route. In- 
deed, Instant Software set up their na- 



META TECHNOLOGIES 



26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 

CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321-3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



^161 



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MICROSOFT™ BASIC DECODED $29.95 
1001 THINGS TO DO WITH YOUR 

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'RINGS' & 
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Help prevent data loss and media damage 
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REFILLS (50 Hub Rings) $ 5.95 

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CLEANING KIT for 5 l A" drives $24.95 



PLASTIC LIBRARY CASES 

(not shown) 
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bVA-'mch diskette case $3.50 

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SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS $19.95 

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box of 10 



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PLAIN JANE™ Diskettes $21.95 

lOboxesof 10 (eachbox)$21.50 

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lOboxesof 10 (each box)$25.95 

8-inch FLOPPIES 

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CALL FOR INFORMATION ON 
OTHER PRODUCTS 



TRS-80 is a trademark of the 
Radio Shack Division of Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark of VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE, AIDS-I, AIDS-III, CALCS-III, 

CALCS-IV, MERGE III are 

trademarks of MTC. 

©1981 by Metatechnologies 

Corporation, Inc. 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged. 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

May 1, 1981 THRU 

May 31, 1981, 

Prices, Specifications, 
and Offerings subject to 
change without notice. 

8105 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• COD 



•Add $3.00 for shipping 

& handling 
•$3.00 EXTRA for COD. 
•Ohio residents add 61/2% 

sales tax. 



tional rep organization over a year ago, 
one of the first in the business. 

With equipment costs and interest 
rates being high, we may see a rapid 
growth of distributors. These firms can 
keep the inventory costs of dealers down, 
so they will be valuable. We'll need peo- 
ple for these firms, in all categories. 

The new field is already requiring 
teachers, and many more will be needed. 
Dealers are setting up classes to teach 
programming and the use of the comput- 
ers. We are likely to see a lot more of that. 
Then there is a need for teaching sales- 
men and other people in this new indus- 
try. We are running classes in business 
management at Instant Software and 
have upcoming classes in sales, service, 
etc. 

The need for information is insatiable, 
so we'll be needing free-lance authors to 
write the articles and books to allow us to 
better use our systems. Publishers need 
the full range of talent— editors, artists, 
photographers, printers. 

As you become acquainted with what 
is happening and what is expected ahead 
for microcomputing, you'll become 
aware of the need for more types of busi- 
nesses. 

No one knows how many dealers there 
will be, but they will probably number 
thousands. Each of these will need a wide 
range of talent. It is going to be a very 
large industry in five years. 

If you put that at a personal level, this 
means that no matter what specialty you 
decide on, you are going to be in great de- 
mand. We already need people experi- 
enced in microcomputer advertising, but 
have virtually no one with that back- 
ground. As firms become bigger and big- 
ger, the ad budgets are going to escalate, 
too, and an ad consultant will be able to 
name his price. 

This is no field for people without a lot 
of drive; there are just too many oppor- 
tunities. The hard workers will be mov- 
ing right along with this growth, going to 
the top. 



$20,000 for an Article? 

According to several of our authors, 
writing an article published in Microcom- 
puting adds about $1000 per year in sal- 
ary when they go on the job market. That 
should bring in at least $20,000 over a 
20-year period. These published authors 
are recognized as "experts" in their 
fields. And, for those who want to eventu- 
ally be established as consultants, a port- 
folio of published articles is a sure way to 
become accepted. 

But this presents a dilemma for would- 
be consultants. They realize that it is a 
publish-or-perish world, yet they are re- 
luctant to give their expertise away for 
the mere price of an article. The tendency 
is to guard knowledge and try to get top 
dollar for it. This seldom is profitable in 
the long run. The more successful con- I 



8 Microcomputing, May 1981 




Another system which drew crowds was the HP-83. 1 even spotted top people from 
Apple and Tandy warily looking this one over. 



sultants write as much as they can, 
knowing that they will always be able to 
keep ahead of those who are reading the 
small fraction of their knowledge which 
finds its way into print. 

What can you write about? Well, start 
with your field of expertise. We are also 
looking for articles, written in English, on 
your experiences with commercial prod- 
ucts, software or hardware. There are 
thousands of businessmen who would 
like to know the details about a product 
you may have found of value. 

Another interesting topic is a hard- 
ware/software/accessory combination 
which is working well for any specific 
type of business or profession. Unfortu- 
nately, much of the software being pro- 
moted is poor (at best), so objective evalu- 
ations of top-notch programs are needed. 

On the hardware side, how about an ar- 
ticle on interfacing the Casio M-10 elec- 
tronic musical instrument so it can be 
used as a keyboard for computerized mu- 
sic? What about the Sharp Memowriter? 
That should interface to the Sharp pocket 
computer (121 1), the same as the Radio 
Shack Pocket Computer. Let's see some 
work on hooking these and other gadgets 
into our systems. 



Chrysler Strikes Again 

Not all my ideas are good ones. One of 
the poorest ideas I've had was to get a van 
to be used as a portable office, so I could 
get some work done while traveling. We 
went to the Chrysler dealer in the next 
town and put $200 down on a Dodge van. 

The delivery date came and went, and 
still nothing from the dealer, despite con- 
siderable pressure and promises. So we 
asked for the $200 deposit to be returned. 
Not only were we unable to get the depos- 
it back, but when we contacted Chrysler 
about this dealer, they said they could do 



nothing to control their dealers. We even- 
tually bought our Dodge van from an- 
other outfit in the same town. 

After the first few hundred miles, a 
strange misery surfaced. I would get into 
the van, drive it about a half mile and it 
would stop. To get it going again required 
a team of mechanics to open up the en- 
gine (which is between the two front 
seats), take off the air filter and pour gas 
into the carburetor. There was a "little 
problem" with the automatic choke. 

This trouble has stayed with me for 
three years, even after many visits to the 
Chrysler repair shops, the installation of 
a hand choke, the removal of the hand 
choke, and so on. Now they're putting in 
a hand choke again. How would you like 
to get into a van for a trip and wonder if it 
will run at every start during the trip? 

So, from my viewpoint, not only has 
Chrysler been making gas guzzlers, it's 
also been making cars with engines 
which do not run dependably. I've seen 
some of the service bulletins on the prob- 
lem, so I know that I am not at all alone 
with this monster. The van gets 12 miles 
to the gallon, but it makes up for it by 
having a 36-gallon tank. 



Dictionary Needed 

Several of the minicomputer word pro- 
cessors offer a built-in dictionary on a 
disk, and it is time for a similar service for 
micros. The program should be able to 
look up the words as they are being typed 
with the usual microcomputer word pro- 
cessor programs and then signal the op- 
erator when a word is misspelled. Then 
you need to have that dictionary on a 
disk. 

If anyone decides to tackle this project, 
I think that one of the publishers can 
make it very popular. I know Instant Soft- 
ware is looking hard for this one.D 





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By Robert W. Baker 



PET-POURR1 

Conversing in Programming 

Assembly Language ThJ'SS 



Assembly-Language 
Programming 

Many PET owners are newcomers to 
the world of computer programming. 
They've had enough trouble learning 
how to program in BASIC without being 
further confused with assembly- or ma- 
chine-language programming. However, 
by not knowing how to use assembly-lan- 
guage programs, they are missing out on 
a number of valuable utilities and useful 
routines that are published in various 
magazines from time to time. After many 
requests, I thought it would be valuable 
to provide a basic introduction to assem- 
bly-language programming and describe 
how to enter and use an assembly-lan- 
guage program. 

As most PET owners are aware, the 
PET is based on the 6502 microproces- 
sor. The 6502 only understands ones and 
zeroes, corresponding to on or off states, 
so data and instructions are normally 
represented in binary notation. Users, on 
the other hand, find it difficult to work 
with the binary number system and 
therefore use a more convenient repre- 
sentation such as hexadecimal (base 16) 
or decimal. A typical 6502 instruction to 
load the value 21 (decimal) into the ac- 
cumulator may be shown as: 

10101001 00010101 in binary 

A9 15 In hexadecimal 

Since most programmers find numeric 
representation of instructions tedious to 
work with, a symbolic representation is 
commonly used. For example, the pre- 
ceding instruction might be written as: 

LDA*21 

In this case, LDA is the symbol for A9, 
load the accumulator. 

A computer program called an assem- 
bler is used to translate the symbolic 
form LDA to the numeric form A9. The 
symbolic program is referred to as source 
code, and the numeric program generat- 
ed by the assembler is called the object 
code. Some assemblers also produce a 
listing which shows the correlation be- 
tween the source code and the object 



code. Only object code can be executed 
on the processor, but a special Loader 
program may be needed to get the object 
code generated by the assembler into 
memory and ready to be executed. 

Each machine instruction has a sym- 
bolic name, referred to as an operation 
code, op code or mnemonic. Each ma- 
chine instruction in assembly language 
consists of an op code, and possibly an 
operand, which specifies the data on 
which the operation is to be performed. 
The operand portion of an instruction 
specifies either an address or a value, and 
may contain an expression such as L2 + 2 
for computed values. 

Additionally, any instruction may be 
labeled for reference by other instruc- 
tions, as shown by: 

L2 LDA *12 

In this example, the label is L2, the op 
code is LDA, and the operand is # 12. La- 
bels are used on instructions as branch 
targets and on data elements for refer- 
ence as operands. 

Most assemblers also allow comments 
following the instruction operands. This 
provides a convenient way to document 
the program flow or logical operation for 
later reference. Assembler directives are 
another important feature of most as- 
semblers. These are special instructions 
to the assembler to reserve storage space, 
generate data constants or otherwise 
control the assembler operation. 

There are many different assemblers 
available for the PET at varying prices. 
Simple assemblers may assemble source 
code from BASIC DATA statements and 
POKE the object code directly into mem- 
ory. Others may read the source code 
from tape or disk files and create an ob- 
ject file that must later be loaded by a spe- 
cial loader program (such as with the 
Commodore assembler). 

Assemblers written in BASIC are inex- 
pensive and relatively slow, but will usu- 
ally run with any ROM set. Assemblers 
written in machine code run much faster 
and usually provide a number of fea- 
tures, but are more expensive and de- 



pend on a particular ROM set. Be aware of 
any limitations or requirements of an as- 
sembler before considering it for your 
particular environment. 

Sample listing 1 shows an assembly 
listing for a very simple machine-lan- 
guage program. Let's disregard the actu- 
al function of the program for now and 
just look at the listing and what it tells us. 
The first column of four-digit numbers 
indicates the hexadecimal memory loca- 
tions where every instruction or data 
constant is located. The next three col- 
umns of two-digit hexadecimal values in- 
dicate the object code, starting at the cor- 
responding location indicated on that 
line. 

The next column shows the source 
code line numbers. These are generally 
shown merely for convenience. They 
may, however, be used by a special editor 
for editing or creating the source code. 
The remainder of the line is the actual 
source code that was used to generate the 
object code shown on that line. There 
may also be comments on the source 
code line to document the program oper- 
ation. 

To get this program into your machine, 
if you have an assembler program, you 
might just type in the source code and as- 
semble the program. At worst, you might 
have to convert the assembler syntax 
from that used in the article to the form 
used by your assembler. 

However, if you don't have an assem- 
bler you can still enter and use the pro- 
gram. Just use the PET monitor program 
to enter the object code directly into the 
memory locations specified in the assem- 
bly. If the program is short (like Sample 
listing 1), entering the object code should 
be fairly simple; entering larger pro- 
grams may not be a very pleasant task. 

To enter the object code directly, first 
activate the PET monitor as outlined in 
the manuals. Usually you can do a SYS 
1024 to get into the monitor. Then, dis- 
play the memory area to be modified by 
using the monitor M xxxx.yyyy com- 
mand. Here the xxxx value is the starting 



10 Microcomputing, May 1981 




With the Storwrif er™ Daisy 
Wheel 25 cps printer from C. Itoh. 

A business letter, written on a 45 cps 
word-processing printer, might take 
about two minutes to print. 

With the Starwriter, it might take 
closer to three. 

The typical 45 cps printer retails for 
about $3,000. 

But the Starwriter 25 retails for about 
$1, 895— thus saving you about $1, 000. 

And therein lies the biggest difference 
between the Starwriter 25 and the more 
expensive, daisy wheel printers. 

The Starwriter 25 comes complete 
and ready-to-use, requiring no changes 
in hardware or software. It uses indus- 
try-standard ribbon cartridges, and it is 
"plug-in" compatible to interface with a 



wide variety of systems, to help lower 
system-integration costs. 

Using a 96-character wheel, it 
produces excellent letter-quality print- 
ing on three sharp copies with up to 163 
columns, and offers the most precise 
character-placement available, for out- 
standing print performance. 

C. Itoh's warranty; 

3 months on parts and labor, sup- 
ported by one of the best service organi- 
zations in the industry. 





it 



OFF 



Leading Edge Products, Inc., 
225 Turnpike Street, 
Canton, Massachusetts 02021 

Dear Leading Edge: 

I'd like to know more about the Starwriter, and 
how spending a minute can save me a grand. 
Please send me the name of my nearest dealer. 

Name 

Title 

Company 

Street 



City /State 

Phone: Area Code. 
Number 



Zip. 



KM-5 



LEADING 
EDGE. 



Leading Edge Products, Inc., 225 Turnpike Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021 
Dealers: For immediate delivery from the Leading Edge Inventory Bank™ call toll free 1-800-343-6833 

In Massachusetts, call collect (617) 828-8150. Telex 951-624 



•See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 11 



0384- R2 64 
0386- 8E D4 00 
6389- 20 BR F0 

038C- R0 00 
038E- R9 80 
0390- 3D 98 83 
0393- 8C 9? 03 



0396- 
0399- 
039B- 
039C- 
G39F- 
03R1- 
03R3- 
03R6- 
03R8- 
03RR- 

03RD- 

03RE- 

U3B0- 

03B2- 

03B4- 

03B7- 

G3B9- 

03BC- 

03BD- 

83BE- 

03C1- 

03C4- 

03C6- 

03C9- 

03CB- 

03CD- 

03CF- 



B9 
29 
18 
2C 
F0 
69 
2C 
DO 
69 
20 

C8 
C0 

DO 
R9 
20 
R9 
20 
98 
18 
6D 
3D 
90 
EE 
H0 
C9 
D0 
60 



00 

7F 

D0 
02 
40 
Dl 
02 
40 
28 



28 
E4 
0D 
28 

0fl 

28 



86 



03 



03 



Fl 



Fl 



Fl 



97 
97 
03 
98 

00 

E8 
C7 



03 
03 

03 



03D0- 40 
03D1- 20 



00 1 
0040 
0050 
0060 
0070 
0080 
0090 
0100 
0110 
0120 
0130 
0140 
0150 
0166 
0170 
0180 
0190 
0200 
0210 

0220 
0230 
0240 
0250 
0260 
0270 
0280 
0290 

0300 
0310 

0320 
0330 
0340 
0350 
0360 
0370 
0380 
0390 

0400 
0410 

042O 
0430 
0440 
0450 
0460 
0470 
0480 
0490 

0500 
0510 

0520 
0530 
0540 
0550 
0560 
0570 



.LS 

******************** 

SIMPLE SCREEN PRINT 

BV= ROBERT BAKER 

; ******************** 



LSTN 
I OUT 



GET 



RSC 1 
RSC2 



LNOK 



BIT6 
BIT5 



.DI 


$FOBA 


.BI 


$F128 


.BR 


900 


LDX 


#$04 


STX 


$D4 


JSR 


LSTN 


LBV 


#0 


LDR 


#$80 


STR 


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STY 


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LDR 


$8000 


AND 


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CLC 




BIT 


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BEQ 


RSC 1 


RDC 


#$40 


BIT 


BITS 


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JSR 


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CPY 


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GET 


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TVR 




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.EN 





;CMND IEEE TO LSTN 
;IEEE OUT FRM REG<R> 

:USE TRPE #2 BUF 

;OPEN PRINTER 

;SET FIRST SCREEN RDR 



;GET SCREEN CHR 
• MRSK OFF RVS BIT 

.; CONVERT TO RSC 1 1 



; PRINT CHR 

; INC CHR CNT 

;DONE LINE ? 

;HO, CONTINUE 

;GET CflRR I ROE-RETURN 

;TO PRINTER 

;RND LINE FEED 

;TO PRINTER 

:GET CHR CNT FOR LINE 

;SET NEXT LINE RDR 

iSKIP IF NO CRRRV 
:ELSE INC HI-BVTE 
; RESET CHR CNT 
;FULL SCREEN? 
:NO, KEEP GOING 
;VES, STOP 

;BIT CONSTRNTS 



Sample listing 1 . Simple screen print. 



hexadecimal address and yyyy is the 
ending hexadecimal address. You can 
get the hexadecimal addresses directly 
from the first column of the assembly list- 
ing. 

If the program is long, choose a block of 
memory that will fit on the PET screen. 
Now enter the data in the appropriate lo- 
cations, as indicated in the assembly list- 
ing. The data will normally be shown in 
hexadecimal in the listing, the form in 
which it will be accepted by the monitor. 
Just remember to hit return on each line 
to enter the data into memory. Fig. 1 is a 
memory display showing how the sam- 
ple program was entered using the moni- 
tor. 

When you've finished entering a ma- 
chine-language program into memory, 
it's always a good idea to first save it on 
tape or disk before doing anything else. If 
you make a mistake in entering the pro- 
gram, it could cause the entire system to 
hang when the program is run. If this 
were to happen, you'd lose the program 
you just entered when you reset or pow- 
ered-off the system to regain control. 



The monitor command -• S," filename", 
dd,xxxx,yyyy can be used to save a copy 
on tape (dd = 01 or 02) or disk (dd = 08). 
You must specify the starting address 
(xxxx), and one plus the ending address 
(yyyy) of the area of memory to be saved. 

There's one point that many PET own- 
ers are not aware of. You do not need to 
use the monitor to load a machine-lan- 
guage program that was saved on tape or 
disk. The normal BASIC load command 
will load either a BASIC or a machine-lan- 
guage program. Both are saved as a sim- 
ple memory dump between two locations 
with the same file header. 

Once you've saved a copy on tape or 
disk, try the program for proper opera- 
tion. If you have a problem, reload the 
program and double-check the values en- 
tered using the monitor. Also, be sure the 
proper starting address was used to exe- 
cute the program or routine. The normal 
starting address should be given in the 
article. 

Occasionally, there may be alternate 
starting addresses for different functions 
or options. Also, some programs may ex- 



0384 


R2 


04 


8E 


D4 


00 


20 


BR 


F0 


038C 


R0 


00 


R9 


80 


8D 


98 


03 


8C 


0394 


97 


03 


B9 


00 


80 


29 


7F 


18 


039C 


2C 


D0 


03 


FO 


02 


63 


46 


2C 


03R4 


Dl 


03 


DO 


02 


69 


40 


20 


28 


: 03RC 


Fl 


C8 


C0 


28 


DO 


E4 


R9 


OD 


03B4 


20 


28 


Fl 


R9 


OR 


20 


28 


Fl 


03BC 


98 


18 


6D 


97 


03 


8D 


97 


03 


03C4 


90 


03 


EE 


98 


03 


RO 


00 


C9 


03CC 


E8 


DO 


C7 


60 


40 


20 


00 


FF 



Fig. 1. Memory display showing how 
the sample program was entered using 
the monitor. 



pect parameters at specific locations set 
by the calling BASIC program or certain 
BASIC variables defined in a specific or- 
der. Be sure to read the article for specific 
details on how the program runs and 
what it expects. 

Another way to double-check a ma- 
chine-language program entered by the 
monitor is to use a disassembler, which is 
a simple program that converts object 
code back into symbolic assembler form. 
For those interested, a simple BASIC dis- 
assembler program is given in Sample 
listing 2. This program requests a start- 
ing address and then asks if printed out- 
put is desired. It then produces a disas- 
sembly starting from the location speci- 
fied. 

This program can also be helpful in 
looking at routines in the BASIC ROMs of 
the PET itself, if the appropriate starting 
address is given. I should warn, however, 
that if the starting address is not the first 
byte of an instruction (if it's actually an 
instruction operand), the output may be 
unpredictable. You may have to experi- 
ment with the starting address to get de- 
sirable results. 

Sample listing 3 shows the disassem- 
bler output of Sample listing 2. As you 
can see, the disassembly is much like the 
assembly listing except there are no la- 
bels. All addresses are shown as absolute 
addresses, in hexadecimal notation. This 
disassembler provides the decimal as 
well as the hexadecimal location of each 
instruction for added convenience. 

Also, on all branch instructions the ac- 
tual target address, rather than the rela- 
tive offset, is indicated. Thus, the disas- 
sembler can be used to verify that the 
correct instructions have been entered at 
the appropriate places. 

Now let's take a look at the actual ma- 
chine-language program given in Sam- 
ple listing 1 . The program was assembled 
using the MAE assembler from Eastern 
House Software that I reviewed in the Au- 
gust 1980 issue of Kilobaud Microcom- 
puting (p. 20). This program provides a 
simple routine to print the contents of the 
PET screen on the printer. 

For convenience, it assumes the PET is 
in the uppercase/graphics mode with a 
40-column display. It converts all reverse 
image characters to normal image (mask- 
ing off bit 7) to avoid sending the printer 



12 Microcomputing, May 1981 



i«ii««*w:i:«« 


■roau4*fli 


BDC&KteiettitWJB 


900 


0384: 


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04 




LDX 


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902 


0386: 


8E 


D4 


00 


STX 


*80D4 


905 


0389 


20 


BR 


F0 


JSR 


$FOBA 


908 


838C 


R0 


00 




LDV 


#$00 


910 


Q38E : 


fl9 


80 




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912 


0390 : 


8B 


98 


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STfi 


$0398 


915 


0393 • 


8C 


9? 


03 


STV 


$0397 


918 


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00 


80 


LDR 


$8000. V 


921 


0399 


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AND 


#$7F 


923 


039B : 


18 






CLC 




924 


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2C 


D0 


03 


BIT 


$8306 


927 


039F: 


F0 


02 




BEQ 


$03A3 


929 


031=11: 


69 


40 




ABC 


#$40 


931 


03R3 : 


2C 


Dl 


03 


BIT 


$03D1 


934 


03R6 : 


D0 


02 




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$03RR 


936 


03A8 : 


69 


4G 




ROC 


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JSR 


$F128 


956 


83BC : 


98 






TVR 




957 


03BD : 


18 






CLC 




958 


03BE: 


6B 


97 


03 


RDC 


$0397 


961 


03C1: 


8D 


97 


03 


STR 


$0397 


964 


03C4 : 


90 


03 




BCC 


$03C9 


966 


03C6 : 


EE 


98 


03 


INC 


$0398 


969 


03C9 : 


R0 


00 




LDV 


#$00 


971 


03CB : 


C9 


E8 




CMP 


#$E8 


973 


03CB : 


D6 


C7 




BNE 


$0396 


975 


03CF : 


60 






RTS 




976 


03D0 : 


40 






RTI 




977 


03D1 


28 


00 


FF 


JSR 


$FF00 



Sample listing 3. Disassembler output 
of the program of Sample listing 1 . 



controls for turning reverse image on and 
off. Since the screen values are not the 
same values that must be sent to the 
printer, each character must be translat- 
ed before being printed. 

The program uses two routines from 
the BASIC ROMs, and was written for BA- 
SIC 3.0. The routine at $F0BA (LSTN) 
commands the IEEE device to listen. The 
routine at $F128 (IOUT) outputs a char- 
acter from the 6502 accumulator to the 
IEEE device. These addresses are defined 
symbolically in lines 0120 and 0130 in 
the assembly listing. The method used to 
communicate with the printer may not 
be the preferred way to use the IEEE de- 
vice, but it's simple and it works. 

The program resides in the second cas- 
sette buffer, starting at location 900 dec- 
imal. This is indicated in the assembly 
listing line 0150, where the assembler di- 
rective .BA is used to specify the begin- 
ning address. To execute the machine- 
language routine, simply execute the 
SYS 900 command. Whatever is current- 
ly on the screen will be printed on the 
printer. 

At the end of the program are two data 
constants in locations $03D0 and $03D 1 . 
The assembler .BY directive is used in 
lines 0550-0560 to create single-byte 
data constants. These constants are used 
for converting the screen values to ASCII 
for the printer. The actual conversion is 
done in lines 0270-0340 of the source 
code. The conversion consists of adding 
$40 to the character code if bit 6 is set ( 1), 
and/or $40 if bit 5 is clear (0). 



"0" OR C$ > "9" THEN 140 



10 REM ******#♦***♦*****♦♦ *********** 

20 REM 

30 REM MACHINE LANGUAGE D IS- ASSEMBLER 

40 REM 

50 REM BY: ROBERT BAKER 

60 REM 

70 REM ****************************** 

80 = 

90 PRINT'TW D I S - ASSEMBLE R 

190 PRINT":«WWINITIALIZING 

110 DIM M$<255>: H$="0123456789ABCDEF" 

120 FOR X=0 TO 255: READ A$: IF A$="* H THEN A$="0*?*" 

130 A$=LEFT$<A$+" ."#6>: M*<X)=A$ : MEXT X 

140 PR I NT 'TENTER DECIMAL STARTING ADDRESS* 

150 PR I NT "OR HEX ADDRESS PRECEDED BV $'M 

160 INPUT R$: IF LEFT$<R$,1>="$" THEN 190 

170 FOR X=l TO LEN<R*>: C$=MID$CA$, X, 1 > : IF C$ 

180 NEXT X= A=INT''VAL<A$:v'8>*8: GOTO 250 

190 A=0: IF LEN<A$K2 THEN 146 

200 FOR X=2 TO LEN<A$>: C$=MID$<A$, X, 1 > = IF C$ < "0" THEN 140 

210 IF C$<="9" THEN A=A*16+VAL<C$> : GOTO 240 

220 IF C$<"A" OR C$>"F n THEN 140 

230 A=A*16+ASC<C$>-55 

240 NEXT X 

250 INPUT"*WRNT PRINTED COPY <Y/N> NIIII";C$ 

260 P=3IF LEFT$<C$,1)="V" THEN P=4 

270 OPEN 4,P 

280 PR I NT 'T]";: IF P=3 THEN 300 

290 PR I NT "DEPRESS RNY KEY TO HRLT PRINTER" PR I NT#4 

300 PPINT#4,"a LOC-DEC/HEX OBJECT DISSRSSEMBLV ■: PRINT#4 

310 IF P=3 THEN FOR N=l TO 20 

320 IF fl>65536 THEN A=R-65536 

330 R$=STR$<fi>: L=LEN<R$>: PRIHT#4, SPCC7-L) ; fl$; " "; 

340 V=R: GOSUB 620: PRINT#4," : " ; 

350 V=PEEKXR>: GOSUB 630: PRINT#4, " ";: A=fi+1 : R$=M$<V) 

360 IF LEFT$<A$, 1)="0" THEN PRINT»4,SPC<?);MID*<Rt«2>3) : GOTO 540 



370 V=PEEK<fl>: GOSUB 630: PRINT#4," 
380 IF LEFT$<R$, 1>="2" THEN 470 
390 PRINT#4,SPC<4);MID$<:R$,2,3>; " " 



: R=R+1 

IF MID$<R$,5,1>0"R" THEN 420 



400 

410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 



IF V>127 THEN V-V-256 



V=A+V: GOSUB 610: GOTO 530 

IF MID$<:A$,5, 1)="#" THEN PRINT#4,"#$"; : GOSUB 630: GOTO 530 

IF MID$<A$,6, 1> = ">" THEN PR I NT#4 , " ■:. " ; 

PRINT#4,"$"; : GOSUB 630: if MID$<A$, 5, 1 >=" " THEN 530 

IF MID$<A$,5,2>="V>" THEN PR I NT #4, " > , Y" : GOTO 540 

PR I NT#4 , " > " ; M I D$ < A$ , 5 , 2 > : GOTO 540 
470 V1=V: V=PEEKXA>: GOSUB 630 A=A+1 : PRINT#4, " " ;MID$<A$, 2, 3> ; M "J 
480 V=V1+<256*V) 

490 IF MID$<A$,5,1>=">" THEN PRINT#4, "<" ; GOSUB 610: PRINT#4, •')•' : GOTO 540 
500 GOSUB 610 
510 IF MID$<:A$,5,1> = " 



530 



OR STOP <X,R,S> ? 
140 



THEN 
520 PRINT#4,%";MID$<A$,5,1); 
530 PRINT#4 

540 IF P=3 THEN NEXT N: GOTO 560 
550 GET C$: IF C$="" THEN 320 
560 PRIW'MsCONTINUE, RESTART, 
570 GET C$: IF C$="C" THEN 280 
580 IF C$="R" THEN CLOSE 4: GOTO 
590 IF C$0"S" THEN 570 
600 PRINT#4 CLOSE 4- END 
610 PRINT#4,"$"; 

620 V=INT<Y/256>: GOSUB 630: V=V- < V*256 > 
630 H=INT<'vV16): L=V-<:H*16> 

640 PRINT#4,MID$<:H$,H+1, 1>.;MID$<H$,L+1,1>; : RETURN 
650 DATA 0BRK, 10RAX >,*,*,*, 1 ORA, 1ASL,* 
66^ DATA 0PHP , 10RA# , 0ASL , * , * , 20RA , 2ASL , * 
6?& DATA 1BPLR, 10RAY), *,*,*, 10RAV, 1ASLX,* 
680 DATA 0CLC , 20RRV ,*,*,*, 20RAX , 2ASLX , * 
69& DATA 2JSR,1ANDX>,*,*,1BIT,1AND,1R0L,* 
700 DATA 0PLP , 1 AND# , 0ROL , * , 2B I T , 2AND , 2R0L , * 
710 DATA 1BMIR, 1ANDV), *,*,*, 1ANDX, 1R0LX,* 
720 DRTR 0SEC , 2ANDY ,*,*,*, 2ANDX , 2R0LX > * 
730 DATA 0RTI,1EQRX>,*,*,*,1EORMLSR,* 
740 DATA 0PHA , 1 EOR# > 0LSR , * > 2 JMP , 2E0R , 2LSR , * 
750 DATA 1 BVCR , 1 EORV ) , * , * , * , 1 EORX , 1 LSRX , * 
760 DRTA 0CLI,2EORV,*,*,*,2EORX,2LSRX,* 
770 DATA 0RTS , 1 ADCX > > * , * , * , 1 RDC , 1 ROR , * 
780 DRTR 0PLA , 1 ADC# > 0ROR , * , 2 JMP > , 2ADC , 2R0R , * 
790 DATA 1 BVSR , 1 RDCV >,*,*,*, 1 ADCX , 1 RORX > * 
800 DRTA 0SE I , 2RDCV ,*,*,*, 2RDCX , 2R0RX > * 
810 DRTR *, 1STRX>,*,*,1STV,1STR, 1STX,* 
820 DATA 0DEV , * , 0TXA , * , 2ST V , 2ST A , 2STX , 
830 DRTA 1 BCCR , 1 STAY > , * , * , 1 STVX , 1 ST AX , 1 STXV , * 
840 DATA 0TVA,2STAV,0TXS,*,*,2STAX,*,* 
850 DRTA 1LDY#,1LDAX),1LDX#,*,1LDV,1LDA,1LDX,* 
860 DATA 0TAY, 1LDA#, ©TAX, *, 2LDV, 2LDA, 2L0X#* 
870 DATA 1 BCSR , 1 LDAV > , * , * , 1 LDVX , 1 LDAX , 1 LDXV , * 
880 DATA 0CLV , 2LDAV , 0TSX , * , 2LDVX , 2LDAX , 2LDXV , * 
890 DATA 1 CPV# > 1 CMPX > , * > * , 1 CPV , 1 CMP , 1 DEC , * 
900 DATA I NV , 1 CMP# , 0DEX , * , 2CPV , 2CMP , 2DEC , * 
9 1 DATA 1 BNER , 1 CMPV > , * , * , * , 1 CMPX , 1 DECX , * 
0CLD , 2CMPV ,*,*,*, 2CMPX , 2DECX , * 
1 CPX# , 1 SBCX > , * , * , 1 CPX , 1 SBC , 1 1 NC , * 
1 NX i 1 SBC# i ©NOP i * > 2CPX . 2SBC , 2 1 NC , * 
1 BEQR , 1 SBC V > , * , * > * , 1 SBCX , 1 1 NCX , * 
08ED # 2SBCV ,*,*,*, 2SBCX , 2 1 NCX > * 



920 DATA 
930 DATA 
940 DATA 
950 DRTR 
960 DATA 
RE ADV. 



Sample listing 2. Machine-language disassembler. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 13 




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14 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Starwriter 

If you've been waiting for a reasonably- 
priced letter-quality printer, take a good 
look at C. Ron's Starwriter. Its a 25-char- 
acter-per-second daisywheel printer for 
under $1900, list. Current retail prices 
even range as low as $1500! The printer 
is available with either parallel or serial 
interfaces, but the serial interface seems 
to be the most commonly found. Either 
version requires an IEEE interface adapt- 
or to connect to the PET, but an RS-232 
adaptor appears to be cheaper and easier 
to find. The printer will run at 2400 baud 
with the CmC ADA- 1450 interface. (A 45 
cps Starwriter version is also available at 
a higher price.) 

The printer uses a standard Diablo 
plastic print wheel and Diablo HyType II 
cartridge ribbons. You can use paper up 
to 15 inches wide, with 136 (pica) or 163 
(elite) characters per line. The printers 
are normally friction-feed, but tractor- 
feed and pin-feed options are available. 

Several internal DIP switches on the 
serial model select various options for the 
8085 microprocessor controlling the 
printer: 

• Serial baud rate 300 to 2400 baud 

• Even, odd or no parity 

• Seven or eight data bits 

• One or two stop bits 

• Auto line feed on or off 

The printer can operate in one of two 
modes: serial or line mode. In line mode 
the printer provides bidirectional print- 
ing and a programmable vertical format 
unit (VFU). In serial mode, the printer on- 
ly prints in one direction but a number of 
escape codes are available for: 

• Half-line feed up or down 

• Proportional spacing 

• Horizontal and vertical tabs 

Also, backspacing is only supported in 
serial mode. 

If you're using Word Pro 3 or 4 on the 
PET, there is a simple patch available 
from various dealers to make the Star- 
writer work just like the NEC Spin writer. 
This gives you semi-proportional spac- 
ing, underlining and excellent print qual- 
ity. Word Pro will use the proportional 
spacing features of the Starwriter to in- 
sert extra space between words on a line 
to justify the right margin. 

The only drawback to using the Star- 
writer is that the printer must provide an 
automatic linefeed after carriage returns 
to work with Word Pro. If you print list- 
ings or regular program output, you'll 
have to defeat the auto linefeed or else 
live with double spacing. Of course, it 
goes without saying that the Starwriter 
will not print the PET graphics, so it's 
still nice to have the Commodore printer 
for listings. 

After heavily using a Starwriter for sev- 
eral weeks, I am impressed with its quali- 
ty, performance and dependability. The 
25 characters-per-second printer is not 
the fastest printer around, but it suits my 
application just perfectly. With this kind 



of quality, who cares if it takes a few more 
minutes to print an article? I still use my 
Commodore printer for program listings 
and general work, but I do my important 
work on the Starwriter. 



Miscellany 

I just learned from a reader in Texas 
that VisiCalc does not support non-Com- 
modore printers for printed output. He 
was told by Personal Software, however, 
that there would be a fix coming around 
the third quarter of 1981 (under warran- 
ty). Hopefully, they will get to it sooner, 
especially if Commodore comes out with 
a new printer for the PET/CBM line. 

The MAE User Group (November 1980 
column) is no longer charging a fee to 
copy programs. Simply send a diskette, a 
suitable mailer and sufficient return 
postage. As part of their new policy, pro- 
grams on cassette and program listings 
are no longer available. By the way, sev- 
eral programs were recently dropped 
from their exchange, and the original 
disks have been reorganized. For more 
information on the exchange, write 
James Strasma, c/o Grace UMC, 120 
West King St., Decatur, IL 62521. 

The foreign-language-character-gener- 
ator ROMs that I mentioned in the De- 
cember 1980 column are really only one 
ROM. West River Electronics, producers 
of the chips, pointed out my mistake and 
mentioned that the ROM is now only $60. 
After trying both the foreign-language 
and math-character-generator ROMs, I 
must say they are very nice and could be 
valuable for schools. For more informa- 
tion, write West River Electronics, PO 
Box 605, Stony Brook, NY 1 1790. 

I recently received another assembler 
program for review, and thought I should 
at least mention it here. This assembler 
package is written in machine language 
but uses cassette tape to load and save 
source files. The program contains both 
an editor and an assembler in one pack- 
age, and will run on any 16K or 32K PET 
with BASIC 3.0 ROMs. 

The editor is elaborate and takes a 
while to get used to. The assembler is fast 
and rather good. Unfortunately, no price 
was mentioned in the material I received, 
so it's hard to compare against the as- 
semblers currently available here. 

If you're interested in more informa- 
tion, you can write Ing W. Hofacker, 
Fachbuchverlag Elektronic, 8 Munchen 
75, Postfach 437 West Germany. For 
your information, this is the same group 
that produced the Monjana monitor ROM 
that is being sold here in the US by El- 
comp Publishing in Chino, CA. However, 
as far as I know Elcomp is not carrying 
the assembler program. □ 

Address correspondence to Robert W. 
Baker at 15 Windsor Drive, Atco, NJ 
08004. 







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Microcomputing, May 1981 15 



COMPUTER BLACKBOARD 



Multi-digit 
Microcomputing 



By Walter Koetke 



Programming 
As Easy as 

1/ /-i 0/ . . . 



Multiple Precision 
Arithmetic 

Can you calculate the exact value of 
3 169 °? Sure you can— if you're willing to 
make an unreasonably large investment 
of time. After all, 3 169 ° is just the product 
of 1690 threes. When you've finished 
with your computation, check your re- 
sults with the exact result in Fig. 1 . 

Multiple precision computation is a 
subject that fascinates many students, 
and certainly one that is appropriate 
whenever computing facilities are avail- 
able. The versions of BASIC available on 
most microcomputers are quite accurate 
for the vast majority of computations. 
This article begins to address techniques 
useful when you need not six or 16, but 
hundreds of significant digits. 

Let's begin with long division. This se- 
quence can be introduced in the fourth 
grade. How many of the ideas should be 
introduced is a function of the students' 
interest and experience. I recently initiat- 
ed the sequence with a group of sixth 
graders who extended the ideas well be- 
yond the scope of this article. 

Consider the simple problem of divid- 
ing one integer by another (N/D). The 
simple BASIC command PRINT N/D or 
something quite similar will print the 
quotient containing the maximum num- 
ber of significant digits available on your 
microcomputer. However, if we want at 



least 100 significant digits, they're not 
readily available in any programming 
language. 

As is often the case, considering a spe- 
cific example is an excellent way to be- 
gin. Suppose we wish to calculate the 
quotient 3/19. Our pencil and paper com- 
putation should look something like: 

.15789 
19 / 3.0 
1 9 
TTT5 
95 
~~ ISO 
133 



170 
152 

171 

9 and so forth 

Writing a program to do multiple preci- 
sion division requires that we teach the 
computer to divide just as we divide by 
hand. Suppose the division to be com- 
pleted is expressed as the fraction N/D. 
Suppose also that the numerator (N) is al- 
ways less than the denominator (D). 

The first step in our pencil and paper 
division was to add a zero after the nu- 
merator. Because multiplying by 10 has 
the effect of adding a zero to any integer, 
we can begin our program as: 

10 INPUT N. D 
20 N = NM0 

We now determine by hand the inte- 
gral quotient when the modified numera- 
tor is divided by the denominator. In the 
example, we determine that the integral 



1690 



2162322544055891559315875978782433652461260249704563831345277 

2647855318021640281421234480413924290587312687859449745429161 

8240591714754223919985547889613322010803681803367441735913887 

4626196236463471424594485101801102109916256845936490572221393 

3825894284050557926701299583067795146324216198127410871644243 

9554527134675975439635249282233051493653186244711594666812427 

1763610298430121078182989630896400875710215596428130038916403 

3959093400535634093971861296511876523627010380567814710340743 

8210906709846663237799028110885274899260493865135882329363817 

7544399023827005395825252628355739126848076295669514196184729 

4946870660103493334488308362566741692523461366306963838451359 

5351161345063493359737359106482033575396987609695677876285577 

4961559986821038313547017915855421684937438477219310169582373 
17760130089449 



Fig. 1 



quotient of 30 divided by 19 is 1 . We then 
write this result. These steps can be add- 
ed to our program as: 

30 Q = INT(N/D) 
40 PRINT Q; 

We next calculate the remainder after 
this division. In our example, the first re- 
mainder is 30- 19, or 11. This is done 
with the BASIC command 

50 R = N-Q*D 

Younger students will require addi- 
tional explanation of the calculation of 
the remainder R. What happens next? 
The entire process begins again. The first 
remainder (11 in the example) can be 
considered to be a new numerator. We 
then multiply the new numerator by 10 
and divide the product by 19, and so 
forth. This is represented in our program 
as: 

60 N = R 
70 GOTO 20 

Be sure that students fully understand 
the meaning of these two lines. Realizing 
that the division process is just the con- 
tinued repetition of the process repre- 
sented in statements 20 through 60 is the 
key to understanding multiple precision 
division. 

Listing 1 contains the program we just 
developed for multiple precision division 
and one run of that program. A few cos- 
metic statements have been added, but 
the division algorithm is unchanged. 

Even young students using this pro- 
gram are not satisfied when the output 
becomes a repeated sequence of zeroes, 
which occurs for all terminating deci- 
mals. Enter the program and try a few ex- 
amples. The program in Listing 1 should 
be valid using any vendor's version of 
BASIC. 

Adding a command to terminate the 
program as soon as the decimal termi- 
nates is very easy, if students understand 
the division algorithm. Quite simply, we 
wish to terminate the program in Listing 
1 whenever the remainder (R) is zero. 



Walter Koetke, Putnam/North West- 
chester BOCES, Yorktown Heights, NY 
10598. 



16 Microcomputing, May 1981 



This is done by adding the single com- 
mand 

55 IF R = THEN END 

Some students will incorrectly terminate 
the program whenever the quotient (Q) is 
zero. Helping these students understand 
why this answer is incorrect is very im- 
portant. 

The next improvement desired by 
most students is to terminate the pro- 
gram whenever a repeating decimal be- 
gins to repeat. After all, typing .3 to repre- 
sent 1/3 or .142857 to represent 1/7 is 
certainly sufficient, if not more desirable. 
Asking students to do this is an excellent 
exercise, as the correct answer certainly 
reflects an understanding of the division 
process. Before asking, however, restrict 
the problem to the single case in which 
the entire decimal portion is repeated. 
Don't worry about cases such as 1/12 
(1/12 = .083333. . .), in which the repeat- 
ing decimal portion does not repeat the 
first two digits. One modification of our 
program that will provide this additional 
capability is: 

11 S = N 

56 IF S = R THEN PRINT" R" : END 

Notice that "R" is printed when a repeat- 
ing decimal terminates. This is needed to 
distinguish repeating decimals from ter- 
minating decimals. 

Students must understand the use of 
subscripts if they wish to pursue this pro- 
gram any further. The next likely im- 



. ■» 



5 PRINT "ENTER NUMERATOR (N) AND DENOMINATOR (D) WITH N 

10 INPUT N> D 

12 IF N >= D THEN 5 

17 PRINT 

20 N=N*10 

30 Q=INT(N/D) 

40 PRINT QJ 

50 R=N-Q*D 

60 N=R 

70 GOTO 20 



D 



RUN 
ENTER NUMERATOR <N) AND DENOMINATOR <D> UITH N 
? 3, 19 



D 



» 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 




1 





5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


2 


1 





5 


1 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


o 


1 





5 




6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


2 


1 





5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


2 


1 





5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


2 


1 





5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


2 


1 





5 


9 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


2 


1 





5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 




1 





5 


n 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


n 

*-> 


1 





5 


wk 


6 


3 


1 


5 


7 


8 


9 


4 


7 


3 


6 


8 


4 


2 





































READY 



Listing 1 . Division program and sample run. 



provement is to have the program termi- 
nate after a full cycle of any repeating 
decimal has been printed. Subscripts are 
necessary, as each remainder must be 
compared to every preceding remainder 
rather than just to the original numera- 
tor. The program given in Listing 2 uses 
subscripts in this manner. 

Although this is a relatively simple pro- 
gram, creative mathematics teachers 



can use the idea represented to explore 
many challenging questions. For exam- 
ple, consider the fraction 1/D. Which val- 
ues of D will have D - 1 digits in their re- 
peating cycle? Is there a pattern or meth- 
od for predicting whether a given D will 
result in: a terminating decimal; a repeat- 
ing decimal containing D - 1 digits; or a 
decimal with both a repeating and a non- 
repeating portion? 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 17 



The topic of multiple precision integer 
multiplication will prod the imagination 
of many students. To implement the re- 
quired algorithms in BASIC requires sub- 
scripts, but don't let that make you hesi- 
tate to use this topic with elementary 
school students. With a brief introduc- 
tion involving a few easy examples, the 
younger students can handle subscripts 
quite well. 

We'll begin our exploration of multiple 
precision multiplication with an easily 
defined and managed problem. Let's 
multiply an N-digit integer by a single 
digit. Consider the specific example: 

517 

x 4 

2068 

Although this example doesn't require 
any additional precision, it does require 
all of the concepts needed to implement a 
multiple precision algorithm. One meth- 
od for representing the problem is to use 
one subscripted variable to represent 
each digit of the multi-digit number and 
another subscripted variable to represent 
each digit of the product. While this rep- 
resentation is far from a model of efficient 
memory use, the model is easy to under- 
stand and quite effective for about 7000 
digits on a 16K microcomputer. 

The first step in the program is to pro- 



vide a means for entering an N-digit num- 
ber. One of the simplest procedures is to 
use BASIC'S READ/DATA commands. 
Therefore, the first lines of our multiple 
precision multiplication program are: 

10 DATA 3 the number of digits in the N-digit 

number 
20 DATA 5. 1, 7 the N-digit number itself 
30 DATA 4 the single digit multiplier 

40 READN 
50 DIMD(N) 

60 FDR 1 = N to 1 STEP - 1 
70 READD(I) 
80 NEXT I 
90 READM 

Because we've agreed that the product 
will also be represented by a subscripted 
variable, that variable must also be di- 
mensioned. Therefore, we'll rewrite line 
50 to read 

50 DIMD(N), A(N+1) 

Now we can proceed to represent our 
algorithm for pencil and paper multipli- 
cation in BASIC. The first step is to com- 
pute the product of the right-most digit 
and the multiplier. The second step is to 
determine how much of this product is 
"carried" to the next position. Step three 
is to write the units position on the paper. 
The same process is then repeated in a 
right-to-left manner for each position of 
the N-digit number. The only exception 
is that each new product must be in- 
creased by the previous carry. If we de- 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 






"J 



DIM R(3000) 

PRINT "ENTER NUMERATOR (N) AND DENOMINATOR (D) WITH 

INPUT Nf D 

P=0 

R(0)=N 

PRINT ' 

N=N*10 

Q=INT(N/D) 

PRINT Q? 

P=P+1 

R<P)=N-Q*D 

IF R<P)=0 THEN C=P 

FOR C=0 TO P-l 
IF R(C)=R(P) THEN 180 

NEXT C 

N=R(P) 

GOTO 70 

PRINT 

PRINT C 

PRINT P 



N 



D 



GOTO 180 



"NON-REPEATING DIGITS" 
■REPEATING DIGITS" 



RUN 

ENTER NUMERATOR <N) AND DENOMINATOR <D) WITH N < D 

? 3, 19 

1578947368421052 

NON-REPEATING DIGITS 

18 REPEATING DIGITS 
READY 
> 

RUN 

ENTER NUMERATOR (N) AND DENOMINATOR (D) WITH N < D 



? 124, 512 



2 



4 2 18 7 5 
7 NON-REPEATING DIGITS 
REPEATING DIGITS 
READY 



RUN 

ENTER NUMERATOR <N> AND DENOMINATOR (D) WITH N < D 

? 1» 12 

. 8 3 

2 NON-REPEATING DIGITS 

1 REPEATING DIGITS 
READY 



Listing 2. 



fine a start-up carry of 0, then we can rep- 
resent all products including the first as 
being increased by the carry. The BASIC 
form of this algorithm is: 

100 c = o 

1 10 FOR I = 1 TO N 
120 P = D(I)*M+C 
130 C = INT(P/10) 
140 A(I) = P-CM0 
150 NEXT I 
160 A(N+1)=C 

All that remains is to print the final 
product. We can, however, make a major 
improvement. Notice that once we calcu- 
late the 1 th position of the product, we no 
longer need the i th position of the N-digit 
number. By using the same variable to 
represent the product as we use to repre- 
sent the N-digit number, we reduce the 
amount of memory used by almost one- 
half. While saving space is not an impor- 
tant factor with this example, it often can 
be with more significant multiple preci- 
sion programs. The space can be saved 
by reentering the following lines: 

50 DIMD(N+1) 
140 D(I) = P-C*10 
160 D(N + 1) = C 

Now we'll complete the last step of 
printing the final product: 

170 PRINT "THE PRODUCT IS:" 
180 IFC>0THENN = N+1 
190 FOR I = N to 1 STEP - 1 
200 PRINT D(I); 
210 NEXT I 

Enter this program. Be sure you under- 
stand each of the steps. The concepts are 
not difficult. If programming is relatively 
new to you, the statements may appear 
tedious. Rest assured, however, that this 
program is quite manageable by seventh 
grade students as well as many younger 
ones. 

In fact, the exact value of 3 169 ° illustrat- 
ed in Fig. 1 was produced by a program 
written by a twelve-year-old, who wrote 
this shortly after "discovering" the tech- 
niques presented in the preceding pro- 
gram. Next month we'll examine his 
work. We'll also look at a program for 
computing the exact value of large facto- 
rials. If you've always wanted to see the 
exact value of 999!, don't miss next 
month's column! □ 




Analysis of Algorithms 

During the execution of this program, 
how many different elements of A are ac- 
cessed? 

10 DATA 5, 10, 4, 10. 4, - 10, 8, 9, -5, 

-9 
20 READX 

30 IF X<0 THEN GOTO 70 
40 A(X) = X»X 
50 READX 
60 GOTO 20 
70 STOP 

Answer on page 243. 



18 Microcomputing, May 1981 




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DIAL-UP DIRECTORY 



TRS-80 

Terminal Programs 



By Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 

Support from 
Radio Shack 

And ISI 



Come on in! I was just going through 
my mail. Stay for a few minutes and we'll 
see what's new in the world of data com- 
munications. I have several programs to 
tell you about and some interesting mail 
to catch up on. 

TRS-80 Comm 

Here on top of the stack, I have four pro- 
grams for TRS-80 data communications 
—two from Radio Shack and two from In- 
stant Software, Inc. 

The Radio Shack Videotex programs 
make the TRS-80 Model I/III and the Col- 
or Computer into terminals designed for 
smooth interface with the CompuServe 
information utility. 

The Model I/III Vidtex (catalog 26-2220) 
is a machine-language program which 
can work from disk or tape. It requires a 
16K Level II system with communica- 
tions hardware. For the Model I, that 
means an expansion interface, RS-232C 
card and modem (or a Lynx or Termcom). 
The Model III needs the RS-232C card 
and a modem. The program will support 
the lowercase modification if it has been 
installed. It has its own keyboard decod- 
er, which allows the transmission of con- 
trol codes, and special characters such as 
the square brackets. 

The Color Computer comes with an 
RS-232C port installed. A 4K system can 
load and run the terminal software. The 
Videotex program for the Color Comput- 
er (catalog 26-2222) provides a little more 
operating flexibility than the Model I ver- 
sion in that messages can be prepared off 
line for later transmission. This feature 
saves money because the message is 
transmitted faster than it can be typed, 
lowering system-use time and long-dis- 
tance phone bills. 

The off-line message preparation sys- 
tem includes a character editing capabili- 
ty. The maximum length of the message 
depends on the amount of memory in the 



20 Microcomputing, May 1981 



computer. A 4K system can hold three 
pages of data. Lowercase characters can 
be transmitted, but not displayed. 

Both Videotex packages come with a 
CompuServe user identification number 
and one hour of paid service. You must 
establish a CompuServe account (appli- 
cation included) to use more than that 
hour. 

Both programs recognize the control 
codes transmitted by CompuServe to 
clear the screen, change screen width 
and position the cursor. This allows nice 
formatting of the material on the screen 
for easy reading. 

The Videotex programs can be used for 
communications with all electronic mes- 
sage systems and information utilities. 
They provide a well-integrated commu- 
nications system. The programs sell for 
$29.95. 

Instant Software 

Instant Software's Communicator pro- 
gram allows remote operation of your 
TRS-80 through the serial port. The re- 
mote terminal can be connected by tele- 
phone and a modem or simply by wire for 
local use. 

As an example, suppose you have a 
multidisk TRS-80 system worth several 
thousands of dollars in your office. In- 
stead of trying to recreate the entire sys- 
tem at home, you could leave it with the 
Communicator running and operate it by 
telephone using a $400 Color Computer 
and modem as a terminal at home. With 
an additional bit of software, an auto-an- 
swering modem would provide unat- 
tended operation. (Handy, as long as you 
don't have to change disks.) 

Conceptually, the Communicator par- 
allels the remote unit with the TRS-80 
keyboard. The video display shows 
everything coming in through the RS- 
232C port and the keyboard. The port 
has priority if two entries are made at the 



same time. 

The program is simple to use. The ISI 
instruction pamphlet is loaded with in- 
formation on how it works and how it can 
be modified to meet individual needs. 
The Communicator is an excellent start 
for those of you who would like to write 
your own electronic message system pro- 
gram. It does the hard part of interfacing 
to the serial port; you can write the rest in 
BASIC. The Communicator sells for 
$9.95 from Instant Software. 

The other cassette holds Terminal-80, 
which can, in one of its modes, provide 
the same kind of remote operation as the 
Communicator. Terminal-80 also has a 
dumb terminal mode and LPRINT and 
LLIST features. The dumb terminal al- 
lows full conversational operation with 
message systems or between TRS-80s. 
LLIST can send programs out the 
TRS-80 port for transmission to another 
TRS-80. Terminal-80 uses a translation 
table to provide proper transmission and 
reception of control codes. 

Terminal-80 is a good program for per- 
sons who frequently exchange data di- 
rectly. The ease of switching between the 
host computer and terminal modes 
makes it easy for two persons running 
the program to enter each other's system 
and manipulate files and list and save 
programs between systems. The ISI in- 
struction pamphlet even contains direc- 
tions on how to modify a TRS-80 Model I 
for lowercase operation. The program 
sells for $24.95 from Instant Software. 

ISI has also just recently released a pro- 
gram called Omniterm for the TRS-80 
Model I, which just might be the "smart- 
est" terminal program around. I won't go 
into all of the details yet— it deserves a 
full review— but if you don't have a smart 
terminal program for your Model I, or if 

Frank Derfler, Jr. , PO Box 691 , Herndon, 
VA 22070. 



you aren't happy with the one you do 
have, then you should consider this pro- 
gram. Omniterm is available for $95 on 
disk from Instant Software, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. 

Mailbag 

Let's see what's in this pile of mail on 
the desk. Here is a note from Lance Mick- 
lus. He wants everybody to know that he 
has a version of the ST80-III terminal pro- 
gram for the TRS-80 Model III (see Dec. 
'80 "Dial-up Directory," p. 202). And a 
letter from Don Stoner and the folks at 
the Microperipheral Corporation says 
they have a cassette or disk terminal pro- 
gram they call Smart 80 for the Model III. 

Here is a notice from the folks at Atari. 
The 800 and 400 systems come with sev- 
eral excellent books on programming 
and operating, but they contain no nitty- 
gritty information on the hardware or op- 
erating system. This has been particular- 
ly frustrating to small software and gad- 
get companies who would like to provide 
programs and accessories for these fine 
computers. 

But Atari is ready to tell all. For $27 
/pJus $3 shipping) Atari will send you the 
operating system and hardware manuals 
for the Atari systems. Now we should 
really see the goodies for Atari start to roll 
out. Call them at 800-538-8543 (800-672- 
1404 in California) to place an order. 

I've received many letters from readers 
asking basic questions about how to get 
started using data communications sys- 
tems. Here is a typical one from a gentle- 
man in Cumberland, RI. He asks, "How 
do you use material from a file to leave 
messages on bulletin boards? Also, how 
do I know if I should use seven-bit or 
eight-bit words? How many stop bits and 
what parity should I use?" 

Since these questions are so common- 
ly asked, let me review the most common 
practice again. Usually, systems use sev- 
en-bit words, even parity, and one stop 
bit at 300 baud (two at 1 10 baud). The 
format probably is not critical to success- 
ful communications. Parity often is not 
counted by "hobby class" systems, so it 
may be of no importance. You might go 
for years with the setup described and 
never meet a system you could not enter. 

How to transfer prestored messages 
and files is a much more difficult ques- 
tion. The answer hinges both on the soft- 
ware you are using and the system you 
are transmitting to. Your terminal soft- 
ware must be able to transmit the con- 
tents of files out through the serial port as 
ASCII characters. In some cases, this can 
be done simply with a command like 
LIST. Files stored in unique ways (com- 
pressed, hex, etc.) may have to be con- 
verted before transmission. 

The system you are transmitting to de- 
termines how your data can be sent. The 
Mail system on The Source is very easy to 
send to. After it is ready to receive your 
message (the TO and SUBJECT ques- 



tions answered), it will accept a steady 
stream of characters. Termination is 
done by a special .SEND command. 

Other systems, such as CompuServe's 
Email and most Apple Bulletin Board 
Systems, ask for your input one line at a 
time with a wait and prompt between 
lines. Your software must wait for the 
prompt and transmit the next line only 
after receiving it. Many large mainframe 
systems may even prompt a character at 
a time. 

The bottom line is, have a good termi- 
nal program. We have reviewed and 
mentioned many programs in these col- 
umns and there are many more to come. 

Well, let's see what else is buried under 
this stack. Ah, here is a handy pocket 
guide to The Source they recently re- 
leased. It is much easier to use than most 
of their previous documentation. The 
Source has initiated a conference and dis- 
cussion feature allowing interchange on 
selected topics. So far, the most popular 
topic seems to be how to use electronic 
conference systems. 

The Source is now carrying a listing of 
electronic message systems (bulletin 
boards, forums, etc.). Source users can 
read this list by entering: BASIC(ll) 
TCH416>READ at the system prompt 
(>). The list has annotations on the status 
of systems, and the author (Donnie, 
TCH322) welcomes updated informa- 
tion. 

They have also initiated a number of 
user-contributed special-interest files. 
These include files on record reviews, 
video music, PET, authors and FCC ac- 
tions. Entering DATA SHARE at the 
command prompt will get you started. 

The Source is still adjusting to the addi- 
tion of some greatly expanded comput- 
ing power. We will visit with them soon 
to find out what kind of service their new 
computers are providing. 

ABBS Info 

That reminds me— several people have 
written asking how to contact Craig 
Vaughn regarding ABBS software. Craig 
is now affiliated with The Source and liv- 
ing in northern Virginia. This area has 
become the hotspot of commercial data 
communications activity. Craig and Bill 
Blue each had a hand in developing the 
original ABBS system software, and 
Craig is marketing the latest version 
(about $65). He can be reached at Micro 
Software Systems, 7927 Jones Branch 
Drive, Suite 400, McLean, VA 22102 
(phone 703-385-2944). 

Craig has been working on version 4 + 
of the ABBS software. If you want to see 
one of the most advanced electronic mes- 
sage systems around, you might try dial- 
ing into Craig's development system at 
703-255-2129. It isn't always up, but if 
you catch it you will enjoy experimenting 
with many of the features. Craig has in- 
cluded special user bulletin boards with- 
in the message system and many other 



features. 

CompuServe 

Speaking of special-interest systems, 
CompuServe now has special-interest 
subsystems running for Microconnec- 
tion users, amateur radio operators. 
Heath computer users, TRS-80 operators 
and Model III owners. They also carry 
special corporate newsletters from both 
Radio Shack and Atari. 

Some of the special- interest subsys- 
tems are a little tricky to get into. Com- 
mands are entered from Micronet. One 
typical entry into the Microconnection 
system would be IRUN USER.CMD 
(70003,241). You can get to any other 
subsystem from there. These subsys- 
tems contain a wealth of information and 
provide a very nice national forum for the 
exchange of information. 

Keep It Coming 

I haven't reached the bottom of my 
mailbag, but I have run out of space. If 
you operate a message system or market 
a data communications product, I would 
like to hear from you. Questions and 
comments are always welcome, but 
please include a stamped envelope if you 
expect an answer to paper mail. Send 
electronic mail to TCB967 on The 
Source, 70003,455 on CompuServe or 
via the AMRAD CBBS (703)-734-1387.D 





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Microcomputing, May 1981 21 



MICRO-SCOPE 



Micro Primer 
For Educators 



Compiled by Eric Maloney 

Classroom 
Computer 

News 



The Classroom 
Computer News 

"It was clear to me that information on 
computers suitable for educators was 
sorely lacking," says Lloyd Prentice. 

So with the support of Intentional Edu- 
cations in Boston, MA, Prentice helped 
found the Classroom Computer News. 

The bimonthly magazine is one of the 
more impressive of the new specialized 
computer publications. Faced with the 
dual curse of computer and education 
jargon, it has managed to avoid both, in- 
stead publishing material that is well- 
written and well-edited. And though the 
magazine is printed on newsprint, it is 
clean and professionally designed. 

Prentice, a professor of education at 
Boston University, says that CCATs objec- 
tive is to help "put educators in control of 
the technology." 

"We're concerned with the way the 
computer is being used in classrooms," 
he says. "If it's misused, it could be very 
oppressive; but if it's used to its potential, 
it could be very exciting." 

The CCN manages to squeeze a wealth 
of information in its 32 pages. The Janu- 
ary-February issue, for example, includ- 
ed articles on grant-seeking, educational 
software, a high school math program, a 
software evaluation consortium and 
pocket computers; dart board and con- 
stellation-plotting programs; a review of 
the Sinclair ZX-80; standing features 
such as "When Kids Ask," "Administra- 
tion" and "Media"; book reviews; new 
products; and short news items. 

The magazine is not afraid to discuss 
the political and social issues, either. One 
Prentice editorial, for instance, tackles 
the problem of unrewarded expectations. 

"Emotionally, the computer promises 
power," he says. "We've seen that up un- 
til now computerized control of informa- 
tion has given government, banks, insur- 
ance companies and other large busi- 
nesses enormous power in our society. 
I So we've come to expect that access to 



HH4.... 



Liilpfiimt^fNews 



NOVIMBKR.DE 



.1060 



VOLUME 1. NO 3 



taoo 



MICRONEWS 



"OW-CO* h^l I apex *> dnb. d" vc"i that 
portend anpntiene aoregr i«m< •>•+* 

tin 1.x >'r nrti* M < ••■ /w»<Mf<l 

crjmpuMn The dnvrt introduced by 
funttu lUt bdhon <omp*ny wore 
•4m«|ibvm«nd((Ml)W Thn n 
1* timet me tmoum of intomMhon m 

^•btte* * ieventn ^w^fc (. offfgiete 

lVmaity 

• Wang Labor atoriet major menu 
lecture* of wneM computet Km had 
probfemi lot M "t programme** io«t 
verted *\ own graduate uhooi The 
Wang rnwupe at Oeduete Studies 
T|ilgabj|iiiig»' Met* opened recently 
to appneentt from aero** the country 
The MNuk tev* On«i Garonne 
Wecdw plem lo 'pm*» vmaM and 
tetecl < u"« uium Mend* «cedem« 
mm m n ii ni and technical tubynm 

• PlATo m4I known educational to* 
w*np package for time vHanng ivwm 
mat toon be available lo> Apple 

i onptMn Apple * Glen ftjhn va v* 
*>»'* people ere now converting 
f*lATO programy Trwv he leett wiN 
greatly expend the educational to* 
war* available *o> rhe Apple 



CONTENTS 

ConsMf Herat* 

MMfCnw w 

A Machine lor the 

Wheat Human tang 
ONM 
from Hardbacks M>Softw*ft 

■uv^sN 

An Adnunrtt m or Loofcv 

m VtwCjfc 

S«WC**I TOOHIW SpKi«l rWHdt 

Alexander and eendrejon 
WricdrVoievjor* tor Teacher* 
VryiuH AVe&fdCeme 

Programming I 

The Slatting Caw? 
Marroa.n the 
School Library * future J 



Newr>oducn 




* Merei v - to* wad* wudenei and Ira* h 



CJompfuter Literacy: 

What Should Schools 

Be Doing About It? 



by D*niet H Watt 



•*ar* thai we can mr 10 develop the 

new MJu'll<onjl program* nf will 

iequne during the oen few yee*t 



The term icxnpuw literacy I 
coming >mo wtdetpreed um 
wriKoui a c lee' generally agreed 
upon oXinmon I ih.n* ihai the con 
cept remain* poorly defined tor te» 
er»l riMont f.itt the everyday <on 
cept of Irteracy it not clearly defined 
having different meaningt m differ 
em content Second compuier 
technology ii pronterating to rapidly 
>n «M phete* of ow> kvet that any 
pa'tKuU' notion of the tpeofH 
knowledge necettary lo be compul 
et literate tend* 10 be tuipetted at 
Quickly at it " formulated Thud 
now iha* there h widetpread agree 
mem that compuier bte>acv n of 
fundamental national •mportence 
many p eople with drier te goeh are 
frying to attach met label lo then 
own paitK ulai <deat Tei we need to 
formulate a concept of computer hi 

4 omplimentjrt Ittue - For Vubt* npf Kin Inturmalior Vt Pan*' ( 



M* definition of (ompwtei Irteracy 
t bated on an interpretation pi the 
common meaning o' literary Dk 
tioner> definttiom of literacy tnwaU* 
•nclude phcetet turh at the abmty 
to read and wrue and the ttaie of 
being weA informed educated 
Thete defmitioni include no tpecifii 
wandaidt The concept of whai I 
meam to be Mer«te <v> vary from 
culture to culture and from group 
to group within a given cuhuie lit 
er«o hat to be i» »id «t a con 
ttnuum from a minimal abUtiy 10 
read newt headhnet at one etiieme 
to the Irteracy tkiHt of a pton n nonal 
writer or tkiUed academic at lb* 

rteate turn to page th 



cheap and powerful information tools 
will give us the same. But we must re- 
member that power comes from political 
advantage and economic scarcity, not 
through purchase of what is essentially a 
consumer commodity." 



Since Altair 

Prentice has been interested in micro- 
computers since the early days of Altair. 
In 1977, he proposed a graduate-level 
course at Boston University on comput- 
ers in education. The school agreed that 
it was a good idea. 

"It was an instant success, and has 
been standing-room-only ever since," 
Prentice says. 

Prentice found support for the maga- 
zine from Intentional Educations, a non- 
profit curriculum development organiza- 
tion. They decided in June to go ahead 
with the project, and the first issue came 
out in September of 1980. 

The magazine circulates about 37,000 
copies, of which about 1400 are paid sub- 
scriptions. But, says Prentice, most of the 



promotion has been done only in the mag- 
azine itself. He hopes to have 10,000- 
12,000 subscribers by the end of the 
year. 

The magazine boasts a full staff on its 
masthead, including an associate editor, 
features editor, contributing editors, re- 
gional contributors, an art director, a cir- 
culation manager and a director of adver- 
tising. Prentice says that they decided 
early to focus their energies on the edito- 
rial product. 

"Our main concern is with the quality 
of the editorial matter," he says. "We can 
satisfy the advertisers with slick paper, 
or our readers with quality material. We 
chose our readers." 

He says that the magazine is heavily 
edited, so that it will be presented in 
"plain English." 

So far. Prentice says, the reception 
"has been phenomenal." 

"People are already saying that we're 
going to be one of the most influential 
publications in the field," he says. 
"Readers are actually offering their ser- 
vices to us gratis." 

Classroom Computer News has taken 
giant strides. Educators will find it to be 
an important tool as they seek ways to 
use microcomputers "in ways that are 
liberating rather than oppressive." 

A one-year subscription to Classroom 
Computer News is $9. Address inquiries 
to Box 266, Cambridge, MA 02138. 



VDT Blues 

Are video display terminals harmful to 
your health? A variety of complaints by 
editors and reporters working in auto- 
mated newsrooms has raised the possi- 
bility. Now the Newspaper Guild and the 
Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New 
York City have laid plans for a compre- 
hensive study of 2000 employees in 
American and Canadian Guild locals. 

Through eye exams, radiation tests 



22 Microcomputing, May 1981 



and questionnaires, the study will try to 
determine whether VDTs do, in fact, pose 
a health problem, from either nonioniz- 
ing radiation or other causes. It is being 
done in conjunction with a larger survey 
planned by Mount Sinai and the Workers 
Institute for Safety and Health. 

The study is in response to a number of 
reports of health problems among news- 
papermen working on VDTs. According 
to the January- February issue of the Co- 
lumbia Journalism Review, at least five 
journalists have developed cataracts that 
might have been caused by VDT radia- 
tion. The magazine also reported that 
four pregnant women working with 
VDTs at the Toronto Star gave birth to 
children with birth defects. 

Scientists have long agreed on the 
damaging effects of ionizing radiation, 
such as is associated with nuclear power 
plants and X-rays. But the biological ef- 
fects of nonionizing radiation— which 
does not alter the structure of cells — have 
been the subject of a great deal of contro- 
versy, particularly since the boom in 
commercial microwave ovens. 

The thermal effects of nonionizing ra- 
diation in large doses are apparent to 
anyone who has ever used a microwave, 
but scientists vigorously disagree over 
whether low-level doses can be harmful. 
Animal experiments have shown evi- 
dence of behavioral changes, while some 
doctors also claim to have discovered 
hormonal imbalances and hematological 
changes in humans. 

The Newspaper Guild-Mount Sinai proj- 
ect will begin later this year. 



Ward, Sears Leap In 

Montgomery Ward and Sears, Roe- 
buck, and Co. have reached agreements 
with manufacturers to market micro- 
computers. 

Ward will be selling the Ohio Scientific 
line, while Sears will market the Atari 
400 and 800 micros. 

Ward has already opened four stores — 
two in Texas and two in Minnesota. The 
OSI shops are located in Ward depart- 
ment stores, and are designated Mont- 
gomery Ward-Ohio Scientific Computer 
Shops. They will sell the Challenger IP 
and 4P microcomputers. 

While initial reports said that OSI 
planned to market a business system 
through Ward, spokesman Bill Koppel- 
man says that the stores will concentrate 
on the home computer market. 

"We're not letting Ward sell business 
systems, because they can't sell them 
properly," he says. "A business system 
needs a lot of support that you really 
can't give in a retail outlet." 

He says that the stores will be manned 
by OSI personnel, although a few will 
have M-W clerks trained by OSI. 

"I assume this is a control group that 
they're using to see how successful they 
are," he says. 



Koppelman says that well-trained sales 
people are the key to how well the stores 
do. He says that the original Sears-Atari 
experiment failed because "they had in- 
experienced clerks selling the product. A 
$3.50 an hour clerk is going to have a 
hard time selling a $1000 product." 

OSI and Ward had hoped for 19 stores 
by the end of 1980, but ran into "logisti- 
cal problems." They hope to eventually 
expand to about 50 outlets. 

The four shops already in operation — 
in Friendswood and Pasadena, TX, and 
Bloomington and Roseville, MN— were 
selected for the department stores' size 
and the amount of traffic. All four are in 
large suburban malls near large cities. 

Finding out what Sears and Atari are 
up to is a major chore. Sears has sold the 
Atari since December 1979 in some of its 
larger stores, and offered it for a while 
through its catalog. One Atari spokes- 
man acknowledged in February that the 
400 and 800 micros were being sold, and 
even said that Atari was hoping to "set 
up some kind of training program for 
sales personnel"; meanwhile, Director of 
Public Relations Michael Fournell was 
saying that "Sears is talking to us but 
nothing has been nailed down." 

In January, Sears said that it was plan- 
ning to open five business-machine spe- 
cialty stores by late fall of 1981, but de- 
clined to say which computers the stores 
would offer. Apple, Commodore and Atari 
were all mentioned as possible partners. 

Finally, at the American Toy Fair in 
New York last February, Atari President 
Ray Kassar said that Atari and Sears had 
reached an agreement, but Sears 
wouldn't confirm his statement. 



Computers through 
Subscriptions 

Elementary schools and their students 
will soon be able to earn Tandy comput- 
ers, software and users courses by selling 
books and magazine subscriptions. 

The program is being offered by Tandy 
and QSP, a magazine subscription sales 
organization. 

The way the program works, children 
in grades K-6 buy books or sell subscrip- 
tions and subscription renewals to par- 
ents and relatives. The school then re- 
ceives a credit equal to 40 percent of the 
money raised. It can use that credit for a 
TRS-80 or software, or to send school per- 
sonnel to microcomputer-user courses 
sponsored by Tandy. 

William E. Drake of QSP says that the 
firm is contacting schools, but that "it's 
pretty much a soft-peddle right now." He 
says that the program will probably not 
go into full-swing until this coming fall. 

QSP, a subsidiary of Reader's Digest, 
Inc., is used by schools and nonprofit or- 
ganizations primarily for fund-raising. 
High schools will, for example, sponsor 
subscription drives to help pay for dances 



prices 




on ve \ tter s 
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Apple II 

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HP-85 

5V«" Dual Master Disc Drive List $2500 $2125 

5%" Single Master Disc Drive List $1500. . $1275 

HP 7225A Graphics Plotter List $2050 $1845 

HP 85 16K Memory Module List $395 $355 

HP 85 Application Pacs Standard List $95 $85 

Serial (RS-232C) Interface Module List $395. . $355 
GPIO Interface Module List $495 $445 



HP-41CVwith five times 



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HP-41C 

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HP-32E Scientific w/ Statistics 



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ersonal 

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Microcomputing, May 1981 23 



and other class activities. 

For more information on the program, 
contact William E. Drake, QSP, Inc., Box 
2003, Ridgefield, CT 06877. 



RFII 

Centronics Data Computer Corpora- 
tion's models 730 and 737 printers have 
been modified to meet the Federal Com- 
munications Commission's radio fre- 
quency interference regulations without 
a resultant price increase. 

"It turns out that we had a good design 
to begin with, and were at the point 
where we were making some modifica- 
tions anyway," says Steve Robinson, 
Centronics manager of microcomputer 
printers. 

Centronics, which is based in Hudson, 
NH, sent out a news release on Feb. 25 
stating that the printers had received 
class B certification. Class B computing 
devices are those which are intended for 
use in residential areas. 

The original deadline for certification 
was January 1981, but many compa- 
nies—including Apple, Commodore, Ex- 
atron, Lobo and Heath — received exten- 
sions until April 1 . Some companies, like 
Apple and Heath, have already an- 
nounced that modification costs will be 
passed on to the consumer. 

A complete story on the new RFI regu- 
lations appeared in Microcomputing's 
April issue ("FCC Takes Aim Against RFI 
Polluters," by Chris Brown and Eric 
Maloney, p. 30). 



RFI II 

Also on the RFI front, the Federal Com- 
munications Commission has adopted 
procedures for manufacturers to use in 
testing and verifying computing devices. 

Verification is required for those de- 
vices that do not need certification. This 
includes Class A equipment (including 
computing devices intended for commer- 
cial use) and most Class B equipment. In 
verification the manufacturer does not 
have to notify, or get approval from, the 
FCC. 

The new procedures go into effect on 
July 1. Until then, computing devices 
can be tested with either the new or inter- 
im procedures. Devices already verified 
don't need to be re tested. 



Programs Unlimited 

A software supermarket has opened at 
the Westbury Shopping Center in Jericho, 
NY, on Long Island. 

Programs Unlimited owners claim that 
it is the first of its kind in the country, and 
say that some 100 more stores are 
planned over the next two years. 

The major feature of the store is that 
customers are able to test software before 



buying. Computer models available in- 
clude the TRS-80, Apple II, Commodore 
and Atari. 

The store carries some 600 programs 
from a variety of sources. According to 
the press release, these programs are pre- 
tested and selected by "a team of ex- 
perts." The store also offers customers a 
money-back guarantee if the software 
they buy is unsatisfactory. 

Programs Unlimited will also sell 
books, computers and peripherals. 

Programs Unlimited's president is 
Richard Taylor, who, in addition to being 
a veteran of the New York City Opera 
Company, is a computer programmer. 

Programs Unlimited is a wholly-owned 
subsidiary of Cut & Curl, Inc., which runs 
some 500 hair salon franchises. 



Software Markets 

Two software guides, one for vendors 
and one for consumers, are now available. 

The 1981 Software Writers Market 
lists some 1800 places where authors can 
market their software. It includes service 
bureaus, computer manufacturers, mail- 
order specialists, book publishers, com- 
puter magazines, consulting companies 
and 1500 retail computer stores. 

Each entry tells how the firm markets 
its software, how it acquires software 
from independent vendors, what kinds of 
software it wants, royalty rates, contract 
details and who to contact. 

The Market is available for $45 from 
Kern Publications, 190 Duck Hill Road, 
PO Box 1029, Duxbury, MA 02332 (617- 
934-0445). 

Micro-Serve's fourth edition of the Soft- 
ware Vendor Directory includes 1001 
software vendors, 4195 products, and is 
indexed by 80 hardware and 200 soft- 
ware categories. It is geared toward mi- 
crocomputer owners, hardware and soft- 
ware vendors, computer stores, consul- 
tants, programming services and mar- 
keting consultants. 

The purpose of the Directory, says the 
press material, "is to reference applica- 
tions for a specific microcomputer, to 
find support software such as operating 
systems, programming languages, util- 
ites, etc., and to provide an overall view of 
the microcomputer marketplace." 

The Directory costs $57.95, or $100 
with two updates. A disk version is avail- 
able for $78. 

For more information, contact Micro- 
Serve at 250 Cedar Hill Ave., Nyack, NY 
10960(914-358-1340). 



Suit Yourself 

It seems like everyone wants to get into 
the act. 

Tandy Corporation has filed a suit in 
San Francisco against Personal Micro- 
computers, which markets the ZX-80 
microcomputer, charging conspiracy 



and infringement on the design of the 
TRS-80. 

According to Tandy, "at some time af- 
ter plaintiff introduced its TRS-80 micro- 
computer into the market, defendants 
collaborated to produce and market a mi- 
crocomputer similar to the TRS-80 and 
containing input-output programming 
copied from plaintiffs TRS-80. Defen- 
dants have marketed said microcomput- 
er under the name PCM-80, which is con- 
fusingly similar to Tandy's registered 
trademark TRS-80." 

Also named in the suit are Eaca Inter- 
national, Ltd., Eaca Electronics Corp. of 
America, Compumart, Consumer Com- 
puters Mailorder and Robialle & Sons En- 
terprises, Inc. 

Meanwhile, Tandy is one of several out- 
fits being sued by Coleco Industries for 
trademark infringement. Coleco was re- 
cently awarded the patents to several 
electronic games, and is now trying to 
"police its patent property against in- 
fringement." The other firms being sued 
include Mattel, Inc., Bambino, Inc., Bar- 
ney of Hong Kong Ltd., Calfax Inc., Conic 
International H. K. Ltd., Entex Industries 
Inc., Pro-Quality Electronic Co., Tiger 
Electronic Toys Inc. and Tudor Games, 
Inc. 

On another front, Atari, Inc. is pursu- 
ing a suit filed against Activision in May 
1980 for conspiracy and theft of trade se- 
crets. In a press release sent out this past 
Feb. 17, Atari said that it was amending 
its complaint against Activision and four 
programmers "on the basis of facts 
learned during discovery which Atari as- 
serts reveal a willful and malicious con- 
spiracy to steal trade secrets. The amend- 
ment explains that while the four pro- 
grammers were in the employ of Atari 
and entrusted with the confidential 
know-how to design and develop Atari 
game cartridges, they and others entered 
into a wrongful scheme to appropriate 
Atari's property; and to enter the market 
without incurring significant research 
and development costs." 

Atari is asking for $20 million in dam- 
ages. 



Tandy and Dow Jones 

The Dow Jones Information Services 
database is now available to owners of 
Radio Shack's TRS-80 micros and Video- 
tex equipment. 

The database includes current and 
past news stories from the Dow Jones 
News Service, the Wall Street Journal 
and Barron s Weekly, all Dow Jones pub- 
lications. 

The service also offers price quotations 
and such information as revenues, earn- 
ings, dividends and price-earnings ratios. 

The Videotex programming package is 
for the models I, II and III micros, the Col- 
or Computer and the Videotex terminal. 
Purchasers will receive a password and 
one hour of free usage. □ 



24 Microcomputing, May 1981 






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^342 



Microcomputing, May 1981 25 



AS THE WORD TURNS 



By Eric Maloney 



A Language 

Of Their Own 



Time to 

Reeducate 
Educators 



Computerists have committed many 
horrific crimes against the English lan- 
guage, some of which have been noted in 
this column. But a new subgroup is 
emerging, one which threatens to set 
new standards in obfuscation— the com- 
puterist-educators. 

Educators, of course, have a solid repu- 
tation for general incoherence. They like 
absurdly long and convoluted sentences, 
full of meaningless or overused words — 
innovative, creative, progressive, inter- 
active, utilization, implementation, cate- 
gorization, dialogue, facilitate, prioritize, 
actualize, finalize. 

Children are not inattentive— they're 
attention deficient. They don't have trou- 
ble with lessons — they experience diffi- 
culty. A teacher must not merely state 
the goals of a lesson plan — he must speci- 
fy instructional outlines in terms of be- 
havioral objectives. 

And now the educators are bringing 
their crusade against comprehension to 
the computer world. 

Here, for example, is the lead sentence 

of a manuscript this magazine recently 

received: 

Major educational issues of the eighties are 
likely to continue including accountability, cri- 
terion-referenced testing, behavioral objec- 
tives, competency-based instruction, individu- 
alized education, planning and management. 

Other educators may or may not un- 
derstand what the author is trying to say. 
But the average Microcomputing reader 
almost certainly will not. 

The sentence is a fine example of the 
educator's penchant for taking familiar 
words and making unfamiliar combina- 
tions out of them. We all know the words 
criterion, referenced and testing, but few 
of us will know what criterion-referenced 
testing is. 

To the educator, such terms sound eru- 
dite and professional. To the rest of us, 
it's garble. The author might just as well 
have referred to criterion-based objec- 
tives, competency-referenced instruc- 
tion and behavioral testing. 

The education field, of course, needs 
26 Microcomputing, May 1981 



new terms to define new ideas. Outsiders 

can't be expected to understand all of it, 

any more than a noncomputerist can be 

expected to know what handshaking is. 

But educators also seem to have trouble 

expressing thoughts that have nothing to 

do with their specialized knowledge. 

Take, for example, the follow-up sentence 

to the one cited above: 

But consistent and comprehensive utilization 
of these concepts has been considerably re- 
stricted mainly because of the problems associ- 
ated with the huge mass of data required in and 
generated by their implementation. 

Break this sentence down into plain 
English and it reads, "But we're buried 
by paperwork." 

Just so people don't think that this arti- 
cle is an exception, here are several other 
examples, all from a piece published in 
another microcomputer magazine: 

To cope with procedural difficulties, the curric- 
ulum was to incorporate general heuristics of 
problem solving and special techniques for spe- 
cific problem types. 



Clearly, an underlying assumption of this pro- 
gram is that the translation stage of problem 
solving is crucial and that it is dominantly ana- 
lytic. 



Research on problem solving difficulties was 
reviewed and assessed, and decisions were 
made to incorporate several special features in 
the curriculum: a redundant vocabulary, 
multi-level presentation to conform with what 
is known about structural difficulties, and an 
attempt to teach general heuristics of problem 
solving. 

How do educators manage to be so con- 
fused and inarticulate? They are, after 
all, the ones we entrust to teach our chil- 
dren, and are therefore supposed to have 
more advanced and refined skills. Why 
are they unable to communicate effec- 
tively with the rest of us? 

Much of it is learned in college, where 
students find that many instructors re- 
spond well to jargon and highfalutin lan- 
guage. If they throw around the proper 
terminology in their papers and exams, 
they can prove that they know the mate- 
rial—even if they don't. The jargon be- 



comes reinforced by their professors, 
their reading and their fellow students, 
and soon becomes the only language 
they know. Eventually, the ones who be- 
come researchers and college professors 
continue the cycle by inventing new jar- 
gon. 

But also— as appalling as it may seem 
—many educators simply do not know 
how to use the tools of the language. 
They don't know how to take an idea and 
translate it into words that everyone can 
understand. 

For example, educators are wonderful 
at fumbling around for the proper way to 
say something, and, not finding it, capri- 
ciously inventing a new term. One au- 
thor for a microcomputer magazine re- 
cently referred to "loss of creativity, orig- 
inality and strength of inner-directed- 
ness." The same magazine printed edu- 
cation articles that included the words 
systematicity, limitedly, exampled and 
trialability. 

The most striking example of insuffer- 
able educators' jargon to cross my desk is 
so mind-boggling that it deserves special 
attention. It's an article entitled "A Chal- 
lenge for the Language Arts C AI Develop- 
er," by John G. Allee and Robert L. Wil- 
liams, and starts on page 120 of the Sep- 
tember 1980 Creative Computing. I wish 
I could reprint the whole piece— nearly 
every sentence is a lesson in bad English. 

The article starts out with the following 
paragraph: 

Language Arts CAI— grammar and usage, for 
example — provides the CAI developer oppor- 
tunities to use the computer terminal dynami- 
cally in ways far superior to the traditional text- 
book, iflanguage and the terminal are assessed 
and employed carefully. 

This disturbingly awkward sentence is 
only a hint of things to come. Halfway 
through the next paragraph, the authors 
uncork this beauty: 

Although writing limitedly [!] affects the indi- 
vidual's life at first, its impact increases pro- 
gressively through the school years, as it is re- 
ceived by sight and reinforced by ear and some- 
times reproduced to be sent to a limited audi- 



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ence that is often impersonal, static, frequently 
almost noninteractive so the good faith correc- 
tions and recorrections available in oral lan- 
guage virtually disappear. 

Later, they crank out another, though 

lesser, gem: 

The student participating with the terminal, for 
instance, can indirectly help solve some of the 
problems that language instruction imposes: 
context — exampled by one problem noted ear- 
lier — can be made almost real by the student 
because the student can be asked, for example, 
to input characters — names of his classmates — 
which the terminal then can use in its presenta- 
tions. 

The writing is bad enough. The fact 
that the article is about teaching lan- 
guage skills turns it into a perverse paro- 
dy. But most disturbing, one of the au- 
thors—John Allee— is a university En- 
glish professor. 

Readers should be aware of a notable 
exception to the above complaints: the 
Classroom Computer News. This new 
magazine, published by Intentional Edu- 
cations in Boston, MA, is well-written, 
well-edited and well-presented. Comput- 
erists and educators will both find it a 
worthwhile model. 



News releases are often wonderful 
sources of amusement. Take, for exam- 
ple, this one from Osborne/McGraw-Hill. 
In describing a new book, the release 
claims that "5 devices are indepthly cov- 
ered." It took an ingenious mind to turn 
"in-depth" into an adverb. Not even 
Webster's, which has the gall to include 
the adverb ingrainedly, lists indepthly. 
What's next? Inhousely? Inflightly? Up- 

totheminutely? 

***** 

In the mail: From New Orleans, Ken 
Shacter proffers the theory that the word 
snivitz — defined by the Microcomputer 
Lexicon as "a small pulse of noise"— 
might come from snvt, ' 'a notation used 
by nuclear engineers familiar with boil- 
ing water reactors to denote the integrat- 
ed neutron flux that has impinged upon a 
control rod or in-core instrument." He 
cites several other words coined by Gen- 
eral Electric' s Nuclear Energy Division: 
mick purr (MCPR), mapull hugger 
(MAPLHGR), muffle supper (MFLCPR) 
and muffle pad (MFLPD). 

In case anyone is interested, s equals a 
factor of 10 21 , n is the neutron density 
(neutrons/cm 3 ), v is the neutron velocity 
(cm/second) and t is the irradiation time 
(in seconds). "Dimensional analysis of 
snvt results in units of time integrated 
neutron fluence, neuts/cm 2 ," he says, 
and I'm not about to argue. 

I don't readily see the connection be- 
tween the two, but considering the close 
relationship between the computer and 
nuclear industries, it's certainly possible. 

William Lindley of Bedford, MA, points 
out that buss is incorrect; the word has 
only one s. He further points out that 
buss means "kiss." "Certainly," he con- 
cludes, "Nobody means 'S-100 kiss!" 
Well, you never know . . . □ 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 






Judging Operating Systems 

Richard Fritzson's otherwise excellent 
tutorial on implementing file systems 
("Data on Disk," January 1981, p. Ill) 
was marred by his lack of experience 
with linked list systems. His main criteri- 
on for downgrading linked systems is 
false, and he avoids several criteria 
where linked systems excel over the 
CP/M systems he promotes. 

He claims that linked allocation can't 
support random access files. The Flex op- 
erating system by TSC is a widely used 
linked list system which does feature 
random files. When a random file is 
opened, Flex puts a sector map of the file 
at the start of the file. Using the sector 
map, Flex can access any sector in the 
file in truly random fashion. Disk space is 
conserved by only generating sector 
maps for random files. 

Considering the limited mass storage 
on small computers, the author should 
have mentioned how efficient linked lists 
are. CP/M allocates disk space eight sec- 
tors at a time; thus, the average file has 
four wasted sectors (512 bytes). Flex allo- 
cates one sector at a time and thus never 
wastes a sector (average waste is one-half 
sector, or 128 bytes). A linked list will not 
give a disk full message until every sector 
is utilized. 

As mentioned, linked lists will scatter a 
file around the disk. But, in all fairness, 
one must mention that this does not oc- 
cur until all sectors have been used once. 
Also, since deleted files are added to the 
chain of available sectors, the chain con- 
sists of "chunks" of adjacent sectors. 
One seldom has more than one or two dis- 
continuities in a file. You can reorder the 
sectors by copying the disk, which is 
equivalent but safer than the "squeeze" 
operation used on other systems. 

Another consideration is directory ca- 
pacity. Since the Flex directory is itself a 
linked list, you can have as many files as 
you can fit on the disk. Directory entries 
include creation date and are a fixed 
length (regardless of file size). Since 
small command files can be one sector 
long, it is not uncommon to have over 
lOO utilities on a system disk. 

When CP/M users encounter a disk that 
has just one defective sector, they usual- 
ly are forced to throw it out. Since the 
linked list allocates one sector at a time, 
the disk formatting programs will delete 
bad sectors when encountered, allowing 
me to use free disks being rejected by us- 
ers of other systems. 

One final criterion for judging operat- 
ing systems is ease of access from assem- 
bly language programs. CP/M is so com- 
plicated that most users are afraid to exit 



their high-level languages. Flex is so easy 
to call from assembly language that us- 
ers are encouraged to try what I consider 
the most challenging and rewarding fac- 
et of personal computing: system level 
programming. 

Leo Taylor 
West Haven, CT 



Response: 

My article wasn't intended to compare 
operating systems (or promote CP/M), 
but only examine methods of allocating 
disk space. Flex gets around the genuine 
problem of linked allocation and random 
access by adding sector mapping to its 
basic linked allocation scheme: this con- 
sumes some of the space it saves by allo- 
cating one sector at a time. 

CP/M's fixed directory size is a regret- 
table fault of CP/M in particular and not of 
the mapped allocation technique. There 
is no reason that CP/M's directory could 
not be an expandable file. 

The same goes for defective sector han- 
dling. CP/M users can buy a program 
(from Lifeboat Associates) which allo- 
cates defective blocks to an invisible file 
allowing continued use of a disk with de- 
fective sectors. CP/M can be faulted for 
not coming with such a utility, but it's 
not a defect of mapped allocation. 

Flex may well be easier to use than 
CP/M. If it is though, it is because the op- 
erating system as a whole is better de- 
signed and implemented and not be- 
cause it uses linked sector file allocation. 

Richard Fritzson 
Buffalo, NY 



More on Word Processing 

I was very interested in your com- 
ments ("Word Processor Woes," Novem- 
ber 1980, p. 7) relative to the problems 
you had with a word processor system. It 
appears you suffered the same problems 
that lots of people did who invested in a 
word processor system early in the game, 
i.e., a couple of years ago. At that point 
most of the vendors were going through 
the usual learning process, often at the 
customers' expense. But things have 
sorted out a good deal now and I think it is 
possible to get very useful systems for a 
modest investment. My system consists 
of an Intertec SUPERBRAIN computer 
and a Comprint 912 printer— total cost 
$3500. The software is the CP/M system 
that comes with the computer and the 
Mate text editor, from Michael Aronson 
Associates. 

Gerald R. Peterson 
Tucson, AZ 



28 Microcomputing, May 1981 



I have been joyfully editing and format- 
ting text ever since I bought my micro 
from Power's Computers in Richmond, 
CA, nearly a year ago. Since I am a doc- 
toral candidate in English literature with 
practically no technical background, 
learning how to select and use and main- 
tain software and equipment was chal- 
lenging, but well worth the effort. Hugh 
Power was helpful as well as knowledge- 
able in his sales approach. 

I currently use an Intertec Data Sys- 
tems Intertube and a reconditioned Se- 
lectronic terminal as peripherals to my 
double density, dual driven 32K Horizon 
with North Star DOS 5.0. The system is 
used for programming as well as word 
processing, and the North Star BASIC is a 
pleasure to use with its own line-editing 
and renumbering commands. The line- 
oriented Text Formatting System (TFS), 
which I acquired for a pittance, is not the 
most elegant of text editors, but buying it 
kept the cost of my entire system under 
$5000. That price may be a little steep for 
the average hobbyist, but I believe that 
most dedicated word processors cost 
three to four times as much. 

I have had virtually no hardware or 
software problems with my system de- 
spite the fact that the equipment is par- 
tially accessible to the public and mini- 
mally documented. Except for the ac 
voltage used to power the machinery, I 
have not yet had to spend a penny in 
maintenance or repair costs. 

Frankly, I love my word processing mi- 
crocomputer. 

Ann Hernandez 
University of California, Berkeley 

Berkeley, CA 

I have been successfully using a micro- 
computer with word processing software 
for about eight months. I have an Alpha 
Micro AM- 100 computer, dual Persci 277 
disk drives, a NEC 5525 Spinwriter and a 
Lear Siegler ADM-42 video terminal. 
With these I am using the word process- 
ing software package produced by Data- 
lab, Inc., of Ann Arbor, MI. 

The hardware has been quite reliable, 
and the software easy to use and effec- 
tive. My computer is my secretary. With 
it I write letters, legal briefs and other 
documents on a daily basis. Most of my 
work is individualized: affidavits, memo- 
randa of law and briefs that run from a 
couple to 50 pages or more. For these I 
write the text on the CRT terminal in- 
stead of using the traditional yellow pad 
or dictation. I can check and edit my 
work on the CRT, and I print drafts and fi- 
nal copy on the Spinwriter. For forms, 
bills and letters I have produced standard 
templates which contain standard lan- 
guage and formatting codes. All I have to 
do is read the standard file into the text 
file I am writing and fill in the blanks. 

The word processing software has been 
easy for me to learn to use. I learned just 
by reading the manual and practicing on 




the computer. Most commands are en- 
tered with mnemonic abbreviations 
which require little effort to remember. I 
use the programmable function keys on 
the ADM-42 to store frequently used for- 
matting codes so that, for example, I only 
have to push one button to shift from 
double-spaced text with my standard 
margins to single-spaced text indented 
on both sides. Pushing the same function 
key shifted restores the normal format. 

Of course, the system is not perfect. I 
have suggested improvements to Data- 
lab which I hope will be incorporated in 
future versions. However, as it now 
stands it is a good working tool which al- 
lows me to produce written documents 
far faster and more accurately than I 
could in a traditional office situation. 

Robert M. Cohen 

Attorney-at-law 
Troy, NY 

I would like to tell you about our high 
degree of satisfaction with the Radio 
Shack Scripsit word processor. We have 
used it for over six months for letters and 
manuscripts, as well as for editing BASIC 
programs, and find it to be very good. 

Our system is a TRS-80, Model I, with 
expansion interface and 48K RAM, with 
the Radio Shack lowercase modification 
installed. We have two Percom 40- track 
disk drives, and use their "Patchpak" to 
achieve the 40-track operation and cor- 
rect some TRS-DOS problems. We have 
also installed the Percom "data Separa- 
tor circuit" in the expansion interface, to 
eliminate disk read- write errors. Because 
of budget limitations, our printer is a 
used IBM 1980 Selectric terminal inter- 
faced to the TRS-80 by Micromatic Corp. 
(Indianapolis, IN). 

This system has been used extensively 
by several people in our group. For letters 
I have a short disk file which contains the 
print parameters and the heading; these 
are all loaded in one operation so that the 
system is immediately ready for typing 
the letter. Similarly, for manuscripts the 
print format instructions are loaded from 
a short disk file and changes needed from 



the standard print format can be then 
made simply in RAM. 

Combining material from more than 
one disk file is simple with the Scripsit 
load and chain command; the second file 
is appended to the first in RAM. The 
block designate and move techniques are 
simple and effective, and allow material 
from the appended file to be inserted into 
the main manuscript where desired. We 
find the search techniques very easy to 
use and convenient for locating the place 
for inserting the new material. The global 
search and replace or delete capabilities 
are at first quite shocking in their effec- 
tiveness. 

Any intelligent person can learn to use 
Scripsit easily and in a very short time 
using the manual and the abbreviated in- 
struction sheet. One surprising bonus of 
the system is its speed; a good typist can 
keyboard material on Scripsit much fast- 
er than with an electric typewriter. 

We print manuscripts out, double 
spaced, on fanfold paper. These rough 
drafts can be carried home for marking at 
leisure, and the corrections then entered 
rapidly before printing the final copy. 

One limitation is the lack of provision 
for underscoring copy, since there is no 
command for carriage return without 
line feed. There is also no provision for 
subscripts and superscripts. The auto- 
matic page numbering is OK, but the sys- 
tem for automatic addition of headers or 
footers to pages is tricky to learn (al- 
though it works OK, once mastered). 

The one main frustration of our system 
is the slow speed of our printer, but two 
kilobucks for a daisywheel printer would 
presumably cure that. 

John M. Stewart 

University of Colorado 

Health Sciences Center 

Denver, CO 



The response to the editorial "Word Pro- 
cessor Woes" (November 1 980, p. 7) was 
fantastic. These letters are indicative of 
the many we received citing successful 
applications with word processing sys- 
tems. We are pleased that so many of 
our readers found the time to tell us of 
their experiences. Unfortunately, space 
does not permit publication of every let- 
ter. — Editors. 



Argentine Update 

I am writing this letter in response to 
"The Argentine Connection" (February 
1981, p. 60). Your publication is, in my 
opinion, usually correct; however, I was 
quite surprised and disturbed by this par- 
ticular article (in which even the title has 
negative connotations). 

I would call to your attention that there 
are, in fact, many Radio Shack computer 
dealers in Argentina (several in Buenos 



(Continued on page 243) 



Microcomputing, May 1981 29 



ORDER ENTRY/ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SYSTEMS 






o 



o 



< 
o 



Q. 

Q. 

< 





Fyrnetics President, Larry Larsen, and 
Controller, Dennis Turek, considering some 
of the features of their new security system. 

generated such a high volume of sales 
orders and invoices that it became 
necessary to install a computer system in 
1977 in order to handle the multi-million 
dollar annual sales volume. 
"Fyrnetics initially installed a Wang 2200 
computer system, equipped with seven CRT 
terminals, four 10 megabyte hard disk 
drives, and two line printers at a monthly 
lease cost of over $4000.00. By late 1979, the 
company had invested nearly six man-years 
in our own software development", 
comments Fyrnetics president, Larry 
Larsen "As a part of a cost cutting pro- 
gram, we decided to replace the Wang 
equipment with a microcomputer system. 
We reviewed all available micro systems 
and concluded that the MSI hardware and 
software packages were best suited to our 
needs." 



THE COMPANY: 
FYRNETICS, INC. 
1021 DAVIS ROAD 
ELGIN, ILLINOIS 60120 
312-742-0282 

Fyrnetics, Inc. of Elgin, Illinois has grown 
from a private manufacturer of ionization 
smoke detectors for companies, such as 
Sears & Roebuck, to a full line manufacturer 
of wireless security products which are sold 
through a worldwide network of dealers and 
distributors. Since saturation of the 
residential security market is estimated to 
be less than 3% in the United States, their 
major marketing effort has been directed 
toward distribution through dealers who 
demonstrate and sell electronic products to 
the consumer. This marketing approach 





The modern production facility at Fyrnetics, 
Inc. where wireless home security products 
are designed and manufactured. The 
company also has production facilities in 
Hong Kong where larger quantities of their 
products are manufactured. 

"We were particularly pleased with the system-generation 
capability of the MSI business packages, which allowed us to 
utilize our existing continuous form sales orders, invoices, and 
packing lists. The requirements for our computer system were 
rather demanding since we had large customers such as 
Montgomery Wards and Wicks, each having up to 300 stores. 
Each store is treated as an individual customer during the 
order entry and shipping process. However, payment is made 
from a central accounting office with many stores on a single 
check. Our system had to allow us to properly credit the 
payment to many different store locations and invoices. This 
feature was a part of the MSI Accounts Receivable software 
package. Our accounts receivable system handles over 750 
regular customers with over 3000 open invoices and 10,000 
transactions per month for us." 

The LIFESA VER line of wireless home security products 
manufactured by Fyrnetics, Inc. Anyone desiring more 
information on this interesting product line should contact 
Fyrnetics, Inc. at the above address. 



30 Microcomputing, May 1981 




CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE SELECTION OF ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SYSTEMS 

The selection of business computer systems today involves the careful consideration of many 
different factors. Even though the cost of computer systems has dropped substantially we 
considered the selection process to be highly critical to us because of the tremendous need for a 
highly reliable computer system in our daily operations. Due to our high volume of sales 
transactions we were highly dependent upon the system for order processing and for 
information. We considered the following issues to be key to our selection of the MSI system: 

LARGE DATA BASE - The processing of over 700 orders per month, with 3000 open invoices and 
5000 active statement items required that we have easy and efficient on-line access to our large 
data base. The MSI system provides a large selection of data reports for open orders, 
backorders, invoices, credit memos, as well as customer statements and account status 
information. 

EFFICIENT PAPERWORK FLOW - The processing of our large volume of sales orders required 
an efficient system for printing sales orders, packing lists, invoices, and customer statements. 
The MSI system offers a convenient system generation program which allows the use of any 
desired format for pre-printed continuous forms. In addition, packing lists and customer 
invoices are generated automatically as sales orders are processed. 

GENERAL LEDGER TIE-IN - Due to the large volume of individual invoices and cash receipts, 
we required an automatic posting procedure for our general ledger programs in order to 
minimize the data entry process. The MSI system offers a complete general ledger program 
package which links automatically to the other business program modules. All invoices, as well 
as cash receipts, are automatically written to the general ledger posting files from which 
individual journals are created. This procedure insures the generation of balanced journals and 
greatly reduces the time requirement for generation of monthly income statement and balance 
sheets. 

SYSTEM INTEGRATION - The MSI system 
is fully integrated. The order entry system is 
linked to inventory for correct pricing, 
description of items on order. The inventory 
system is also linked to general ledger to 
allow different categories of products sold 
to be automatically posted to the correct 
sales accounts. The MSI inventory system 
provides complete cost accounting 
information for both labor and material. The 
MSI programs provide the big machine 
capability that we need and yet provide the 

flexibility that we desire. 

The MSI computer system drives two line 
printers at Fyrnetics, Inc. 

SUPPORT - The availability of source 
listings for all of the MSI business software 
was an added incentive to select the MSI 
system. This has allowed us to make some 
specialized enhancements to our programs 
easily. MSI really delivered for us allowing 
the replacement of an expensive WANG 
2200 system with a comparable MSI system 
at a fraction of the cost. 
If you would like to have more information 
on MSI business computer systems, call or 
write, Midwest Scientific Instruments, Inc., 
220 W. Cedar, Olathe, KS 66061, 800-255- 
6638, Telex 42525(MSI A OLAT). 





The MSI computer system at Fyrnetics, Inc. 
employs 10 megabyte hard disk drives to 
contain the large on-line data base. 







MSI Helping to make your business run better. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 31 






Processing 

Written 

Words 



By Dennis Bathory Kitsz 




5n 



Sl 



y 



— ^ 



Would automatic spelling correc- 
tion have improved the pream- 
ble to the Constitution? Would a vid- 
eo screen have served better than the 
back of an envelope for the Gettys- 
burg Address? 

For everything there is a season, 
but in a world where speed of com- 
pletion competes easily with quality 
of thought, the word processor is a 
comfortable native. And in a world 
where words have once again be- 
come a significant and accessible 
commodity, the microcomputer- 
based word processor has become es- 
sential. 

Word processing is the latest rung 
on the evolutionary ladder of the 
written word. The use of written 
words was once the privilege of a lei- 
sure class, but the introduction of the 
printing press permitted the entry of 
the multitudes. 

After enormous growth, the writ- 
ten word was assaulted by the elec- 
tronic substitutes of radio and televi- 
sion. Yet written words— once on the 
decline after the invasion of these 
electronic alternatives— have become 
more accessible once again. In fact, 
they are almost too accessible. 

Where photocopiers once prompted 
profligate duplication of words only 
after they had been painstakingly ar- 
ranged and prepared, word proces- 
sors permit— nay, encourage— draft 
after undistinguished draft in ad- 
vance of a final (probably still undis- 
tinguished) result. Individually typed 
form letters now seem to gain an in- 

32 Microcomputing, May 1981 



congruous air of human communica- 
tion when, in fact, they remain im- 
personal churnings of greater corpora. 

On the other hand, under the com- 
mand of skilled writers— many of 
whom prefer to differentiate their 
process by calling it "text editing" — 
verbal composition becomes surpris- 
ingly fluid and non sequiturs disap- 
pear, because the efficiency of elec- 
tronic cut-and-paste has replaced the 
hand-scrawled and dutifully typed 
drafts which made revisions a major 
and discouraging task. 

Automatic spelling correction is 
here, and electronic over-the-shoul- 
der checking of syntax and agree- 
ment is not far off. Where none were 
conceived a half dozen years ago, ser- 
viceable word processors are already 
available for a few dollars. And for a 
few hundred dollars comes superior, 
convenient text editing. 

How do word processors make 
writing easier, and what makes up a 
good word processing program for a 
microcomputer? 

Error-free entry of text— Ugly 
strikeovers and cross-outs give way 
to simple backspace correction, on 
screen. Missing letters can be insert- 
ed, transpositions reversed, and mi- 
nor mistakes removed with a few 
keystrokes. The fastest typists need 
never lose a letter. 

Powerful editing— Letters, words, 
paragraphs and large blocks of text 
can be inserted or deleted. Notations 
in the margins of handwritten drafts 
can be replaced by the immediate in- 



sertion of changes, or the incorpora- 
tion of several versions of an idea. 
Phrases and thoughts can be moved, 
reordered and duplicated. The real 
power of word processing comes 
from the extensiveness of these edit- 
ing options, and the fluidity of their 
use. 

Storage and retrieval— Drafts, 
changes, thoughts and alternative 
versions can be stored on disk or 
tape, to be recalled in any order. 
Charts and tables created by other 
means can be called up and incorpo- 
rated into the text, and the complete 
result saved. The paper draft is re- 
served as a last act of verbal commu- 
nion with colleagues. 

Drafts and final copy to any 
taste— Any format can be selected: 
single, double and multiple spacing; 
text justified to the left or right or 
both; boldface text and underscoring; 
centering, heading, page numbering, 
footnotes; subscripts and superscripts; 
even, depending on the printing de- 
vice, a change of typeface anywhere 
in the text. Alternate versions can be 
prepared for different audiences, 
each letter-perfect. 

Advanced features— Spelling cor- 
rection, automatic hyphenation (to 
prevent rivers of white running 
through technical text, for example), 
automatic preparation of mailing lists 
and labels, cross-checking with ex- 
tant data bases, etc.B 

Dennis Bathory Kitsz, Roxbury, VT 05669. 




% y.r PROGRAMMES 

A I WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE 

T FOR THE 

■$* APPLE II* 

v 

it 





Minutes are money. So, when it's possible to 
easily handle many times your workload, with better 
results, you're on to something. 

And, that something is Programma's versatile 
and powerful Word Processing System. Because it's 
designed from the user's viewpoint, it's easy to work 
with. You can start right out doing basic word pro- 
cessing. And, since each step logically leads to the 
next, you'll be handling even complex work problems 
in a very short time. 

Our WPS consists of two superior programs, 
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The commands let you enter or alter anything, any- 
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add, delete, move, or insert, by character, word, line 
or paragraph. And you know what's happening, as 
you see it right on the screen. PIE also allows use of 
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Microcomputing, May 1981 33 



With a little help from a friend, this writer now reaps the rewards of a computerized small business. 



In Search of 

The Processed Word 



By Craig Anderton 



The marriage of microcomputers 
and small business appears to be 
made in heaven. Effective computing 
power for small businesses is no 
longer financially prohibitive; the 
microcomputer revolution took care 
of that. 

Or has it? I thought it was about 
time to find out, because if any small 
business needed a good dose of com- 
puterized efficiency, mine did. 

I write. My work load includes 
three monthly magazine columns 
with an average length of four type- 
written pages, two additional bi- 
monthly columns, frequent one-time 
articles and feature articles for a 
variety of magazines and an average 
of one book per year. To complicate 
matters even further, I also write ad 
copy for CAVE Grafix, a West Coast 
ad agency. 

A word processor, I thought, would 
boost my efficiency and productivity. 

Many other authors are undoubt- 
edly considering the same route, and 
would like some guidelines. Unfortu- 
nately, while many articles have 
been written about word processing 

systems, most are by computer users 
who happen to do some writing. Few 
are by those whose living depends 
not on the printed circuit but on the 
printed word. 

The purpose of this article, then, is 
to show the steps involved in creating 
an industrial-strength word process- 
ing system from a working author's 

Craig Anderton, c/o Microcomputing. 






















Mi 







\ .Aii&sJr*** "■XL* 







^ftM* 



point of view. I'll then evaluate the 
usefulness of that system. 

This should not only show other 
writers what's involved in taking the 
word processing plunge, but should 
also help computer store owners and 
system assemblers who want to un- 
derstand the system requirements of 
a full-time author. 

The Writing Process 

The process of writing is much 
more complex than sitting down at a 
typewriter, creating a few pages of 
text, sending them to a magazine and 
waiting for the check to arrive. Most 



authors— and that certainly includes 
me— go through several steps to pre- 
pare a finished manuscript. 
First comes an outline, the road 

map of an article. Then comes the 
first draft, where you flesh out the 
outline with text. Since few people 
get things perfect on the first try, the 
next step involves editing the first 
draft to eliminate redundancy and er- 
rors and to make the text flow as 
smoothly as possible. 

At this point, the edited text is re- 
typed; if all is well, this then becomes 
the final draft, which is sent to the 
magazine. However, new ideas will 



34 Microcomputing, May 1981 



often surface a few hours or days 
later, which may necessitate yet an- 
other rewrite. 

Word processing can eliminate all 
that retyping. You simply enter the 
rough draft into the computer and do 
all your editing on the CRT monitor. 
After polishing the rough draft, you 
can save the text in memory and 
come back to it a few days later to 
make any final changes. When all the 
editing is finished, simply turn on the 
printer and you have a finished 
manuscript— without the tedium of 
typing all those different drafts. 

After realizing that this would 
probably save me time in the short 
run and money in the long run, I 
began my search. 

The Requirements 

I wasn't kidding about needing to 
become more efficient. My work 
load would tax the flexibility of any 
word processing system, since it 
must be able to accommodate book- 
length manuscripts, medium-length 
articles and many short pieces of text 
for ad copy. Oh yes, and sometimes I 
have to write form letters when send- 
ing out press releases to promote 
some new book or seminar. 

As my requirements might indi- 
cate, trying to bash out this many 
words on my faithful IBM Selectric 
was getting to be quite a chore. Since 
I was starting to feel as if I was an ex- 
tension of the typewriter keyboard, 
the only hope for salvation seemed to 
be a good, versatile and hopefully not 
too expensive word processing sys- 
tem. 

Commercial Systems 

This part of the search ended 
abruptly with the discovery that a 
commercial word processing system 
capable of doing what I wanted 
would set me back about $15,000! 

While I was prepared to spend a 
considerable sum on a word proces- 
sor, this willingness was predicated 
on the idea that computerization 
would increase my productivity to 
the point where the system would 
pay for itself in a short period of time. 
$ 15,000 seemed as if it might take for- 
ever to pay off. 

I also looked at compromise 
measures, such as the IBM and 
Olivetti intelligent typewriters. How- 
ever, these turned out to have limited 
abilities for managing and storing 
text. If your work consists of writing 
one- or two-page form letters or con- 
tracts and changing a few words here 



and there, they'll do just fine; but to 
handle books, ad copy, articles and 
press releases you need something 
more versatile. 

Fulfilling My Requirements 

Next, I looked at inexpensive 
microcomputer-based systems that 
cost $2000- $3000. For this I could get 
a TRS-80 or equivalent microcomput- 
er, a printer like a converted IBM 
Selectric and cassette storage. 

At first, the typical 15 characters 
per second of a converted Selectric 
seemed fast enough; after all, that's a 
lot faster than I can type. But then I 
borrowed a friend's IBM Composer, 
which also moves at about 15 cps. It 
seemed like it took forever to spit out 
a printed page of text. While this 
wouldn't present a problem for run- 



bout, who took virtually all of the 
technical burden off my shoulders. 
(Much of this is because he's a nice 
guy, but since I write copy for his ads, 
he probably also saw that my word 
processor would cut the time re- 
quired to generate the copy and 
therefore save him production costs.) 

If you're an author who is not into 
digital electronics, having an adviser 
is one of the most important parts of 
assembling a system. Many comput- 
er stores, by the way, have people 
who know enough about the field to 
serve this function and get you what 
you want. Your part of the deal is to 
be able to define your requirements 
clearly enough so that they can match 
your needs with their hardware. 

Well, the Diablo printer took care 
of hard-copy output. What about 



"If you Ye not into digital electronics, having an adviser is one of the 
most important parts of assembling a system." 



ning off short manuscripts, I pictured 
myself getting old and gray while 
waiting for the 100th page of a novel 
to shake itself loose from the printer. 
So the idea of a converted Selectric, 
or anything else in that speed range, 
was out. 

That left two printer choices: daisy- 
wheel or dot matrix. While I liked the 
speed of the dot-matrix type, my 
work requires much interaction with 
editors and publishers; I needed print 
quality close to that of a conventional 
electric typewriter. It's understand- 
able why these people don't neces- 
sarily like working with pages and 
pages of dot-matrix print; having to 
read too much of it does seem to 
strain the eyes a bit. [Hear, hear!— the 
Editors.] So I checked out a Diablo 
printer, liked the print quality, saw 
just how fast 45 characters per sec- 
ond really was, and decided that it 
was fast enough for me to live with. 

But I also had to come to grips with 
the fact that the printer alone re- 
quired several thousand bucks, 
which is what I had expected to 
spend on the system. And things 
were just getting started. 

By now, the search had become 
serious enough so that I needed some 
professional help in choosing the sys- 
tem hardware. I was fortunate to be 
able to pick the brains of Bill God- 



storing all this text that I would sup- 
posedly be generating? After check- 
ing out cassette systems, it seemed 
that disks were the only storage 
medium that was fast and easy to ac- 
cess. Considering that this system 
was supposed to help me make 
bucks, anything that could signifi- 
cantly increase the overall speed of 
operation was worth the extra cost. 
Bill suggested a Morrow Discus, in 
the single-sided, dual-drive configu- 
ration. Again, this cost me more than 
I had anticipated; but I needed mem- 
ory that could store a book, and disks 
were the answer. 

Choosing the Computer 

After looking over the field, all 
signs pointed to an S-100 system. 
Once considered an endangered 
species, S-100 systems have bounced 
back with remarkable vitality, due in 
large part to the proposed IEEE stan- 
dard. 

I realized early that any machine 
would necessitate trade-offs; it's just 
that the S-100 types made the trade- 
offs that I wanted. For example, 
when looking over possible software, 
Bill pointed out that software ap- 
proaching my required degree of 
sophistication needed a lot of system 
RAM, more than some computers 
were capable of addressing. That nar- 



Microcomputing, May 1981 35 




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modularity in a cost-effective package. 

Fast? Our new DMA Floppy Disk Controller drastically cuts the time of those 
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through time-consuming tasks such as rejustification or block moves. 

Accurate? Strict conformance to all IEEE 696/S-100 specifications ensures a precision, 
well-integrated system that's optimized for high throughput and reliability. 

And, the modular nature of S-100 systems doesn't lock you in to a specific machine 
that may or may not suit your needs; right now you can use our 16/8 bit CPU to 
handle today's 8 bit software and tomorrow, the same board will handle the coming 
generation of 16 bit super word processing software. For multi-user systems, add our high 
speed multiplexer and interfacing boards. For the future, expect more new ideas, and 
more new products carefully designed to maintain our position of leadership in S-100 
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(Photo by Vesta Copestakesf 



rowed down the choices right there. 

I also had to consider whether I 
could upgrade with ease and effi- 
ciently deal with downtime. The 
S-100 bus helped in both respects (as 
a matter of fact, in the short time that 
I've owned my system, the Com- 
puPro Z-80A CPU Board has already 
been upgraded to their new 8085 
single processor board, which will 
eventually turn into the 8088 dual 
processor version). 

After seeing the amount of time 
you save by running a 4 MHz word 
processing system as opposed to a 2 
MHz system, the ability to upgrade 
IEEE-compatible S-100 computers to 
10 MHz (and higher) system clocks 
also appealed to me. Remember, 
throughput is the key to justifying the 
cost of a system like this; any way to 
cut the time of memory saves, 
searches and the like meant money in 
my pocket. 

At this stage of the search, an im- 
portant difference between commer- 
cial word processors and do-it-your- 
self micro-based systems began to 
dawn on me. While the commercial 
word processors use computers, you 

generally can't play with the comput- 
er directly. On the other hand, by 

employing a general-purpose S-100 
machine and using it for word pro- 
cessing, I still had a computer to play 
with and learn about when I didn't 
feel like bashing the keyboard (my 
next contemplated purchase is the 
Sorcim Pascal/M software package to 
get involved in computer languages). 
If I needed to do accounting or tax 
work with the computer at some 
future date, a good general-purpose 



machine would handle it. 

The clincher on choosing an S-100 
system came when Bill gave me 
favorable prices on the various Com- 
puPro boards required to put to- 
gether the system, which helped 
keep the cost of the computer down 
to a manageable level. The boards I 
originally chose for the machine in- 
cluded an Econoram XA and 
Econoram XIIIA (later traded in for 
two of the new RAM XX series), In- 
terfacer II I/O board, Z-80A CPU 
board and a Morrow Disk Jockey 
2D/B board to handle the Discus. 
These were all housed in the God- 
bout computer enclosure with inte- 
gral power supply, which made for a 
compact and attractive package. 

The Final Steps 

With a decision made concerning 
the printer, disk drive and computer, 
only the terminal and software re- 
mained. 

I was lucky that Bill found out 
about a terminal called the Visual 
200. It has worked out well, and in- 
cludes one feature which no word 
processor should be without: a de- 
tachable keyboard. Having read 
numerous reports that people who 
spend hour upon hour at computer 
terminals suffer from various minor 
(and sometimes major) medical com- 
plaints, I was determined to get a ter- 
minal that was as painless to use as 
possible. At least for me, a detachable 
keyboard is a large part of the 
answer. I'd advise keeping the moni- 
tor considerably back from the key- 
board, so that the screen is around 
two to three feet away from your 



eyes; that way, the characters are still 
legible, and you don't have to twist 
your neck into a pretzel to get a good 
view of the text. 

Other recommendations include: 
tilt the screen slightly upwards in 
order to provide a head-on view of 
the characters; don't spend too long a 
time at the terminal without doing 
some other activity (I punctuate long 
writing sessions with an occasional 
walk); stare off into the distance peri- 
odically to keep your eyes from get- 
ting fixed to a single focus point; and 
maintain good posture as you type. 
Always remember to adjust the ter- 
minal and keyboard to suit your pos- 
ture, not the other way around. 

The Software 

The technical crew at Godbout's 
strongly recommended MicroPro's 
Wordstar. At the time, it was the 
most sophisticated word processing 
software available. Some people now 
say that Magic Wand is better, and 
I'll probably want to check it too 
sometime in the future. But in the 
meantime, I'm more than satisfied 
with Wordstar. 

Wordstar has several very useful 
features. For one thing, while writing 
ad copy, I can have a file for each 
product (in fact, there are usually sev- 
eral files on each product— long ver- 
sions, short versions, versions writ- 
ten for dealer publications and so on). 
I can then create an additional file for 
a specific ad, and call up the various 
product files needed to make up a 
complete ad. It's easy to insert 
changes (such as price fluctuations), 
and when the process is complete, I 
have a file on disk for each ad as well 
as the original files on the various 
products. 

There are also other advantages to 
word processing that I didn't see at 
first, but which have proven to be 
very useful. When typing articles on 
the typewriter, I couldn't use carbon 
copies (I'm not that great of a typist), 
so I'd end up having to make several 
photocopies of manuscripts— say, 
one for my records, one for the editor 
and perhaps a courtesy copy for 
someone else. With the word proces- 
sor, the printer simply prints out a 
few extra copies. 

When writing a book, one of the 
biggest problems is the index. Nor- 
mally, this involves searching 
through every page and making a 
note of where various words occur. 
With a word processor's search abili- 
ty, you can enter the word you want 

Microcomputing, May 1981 37 



to index, and the computer will show 
you where it occurs at each point in 
the text. This simplifies indexing so 
much that it's almost worth putting 
everything on disk just to allow easy 
indexing. 

Installation Day 

After several delays (first, the CPU 
board wasn't ready; then, the disk 
drives weren't ready), the hardware 
collection was complete. It was time 
to get the system up and running. 

To make sure that I didn't blow 
everything up, and lured with the 
promise of an exquisite dinner at the 
local French restaurant, Bill came out 
to do the installation himself. Being 
experienced in analog electronics, I 
patiently watched him set everything 
up and waited to see what would go 
wrong. To my amazement and de- 
light, the system worked almost per- 
fectly from the instant it was plugged 
in. (Later work would reveal a flaw in 
one of the memory chips; since I had 
gotten a prototype board hot off the 
test bench in order to get the system 
going as soon as possible, it had not 
been subjected to all of the Com- 



"Becoming comfortable with computerized word processing 
techniques shouldn't take longer than a few hours of concentrated 

practice." 



puPro quality control measures. The 
board was exchanged for a complete- 
ly tested one and all was well.) 

My next real big surprise was that 
it wasn't at all difficult to become ac- 
quainted with Wordstar's operation. 
The software is set up so that it de- 
faults to the most common margins, 
line spacings and so on. As a result, 
after mastering a few current com- 
mands and learning how to add and 
delete text, I was on my way. I had 
envisioned spending weeks studying 
the manual, running into problems 
and having strange and unex- 
plainable glitches occur from my lack 
of familiarity with the software; 
nothing could have been further from 
the truth! 

What's more, you can grow with 
the software. I'm still learning some 
of the more subtle commands and 



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print formatting instructions. It's like 
learning to play the piano: you can sit 
down, start hitting keys and get 
sounds, but proficiency requires a 
certain amount of practice. 

After a couple weeks of getting the 
basic commands under control, I 
started branching out into the hard 
stuff such as block moves, reading 
files into other files and the like. It's 
quite clear that a lot of work must 
have gone into developing software 
of this complexity, which makes me 
feel a little better about the Wordstar 
package's high price. 

I have one gripe about the soft- 
ware, though. In some cases, I didn't 
like the default settings chosen by 
MicroPro (for example, Wordstar 
assumes that you want justified text 
unless you tell it otherwise). As a re- 
sult, if you want to change these de- 
faults, you have to initialize a bunch 
of parameters before you get the sys- 
tem going. Unlike some other word 
processing software, these parame- 
ters are unfortunately not stored as 
part of the file; this can lead to exten- 
sive initialization. It's easy to change 
the Wordstar master back-up disk so 
that it defaults to parameters of your 
choosing, but MicroPro does not in- 
clude this information with their soft- 
ware package, and in fact charges 
you about $100 extra for a sheet that 
tells you how to change the defaults. 
To me, that seems like poor product 
support when you're paying half a 
kilobuck for software. 

It took no time at all to figure out 
the disk drive, and the printer only 
required a bit more practice to figure 
out how to make it work properly. 
All in all, unless you have a mental 
block about machines, becoming 
comfortable with computerized word 
processing techniques shouldn't take 
longer than a few hours of concen- 
trated practice. 

Does Word Processing 
Save Time? 

In a word, yes! 

In some respects, though, editing 
can be a little tedious. If you have to 
correct one bad letter in the middle of 
a word, it may require several key- 
strokes to do so (backspace, insert 



38 Microcomputing, May 1981 



new letter, delete old letter, change 
cursor to where you were before you 
did the correction). While corrections 
aren't always this complex, the point 
is that grabbing a pencil and making 
changes to a rough draft is generally 
easier. 

However, if you need to make ex- 
tensive changes such as deleting a 
line of text, moving several sentences 
around from one place in the manu- 
script to somewhere else, correcting 
the spelling of a word that is mis- 
spelled several times throughout the 
text or making repeated re-edits on a 
piece of 'problem" text, the word 
processor beats regular editing in 
ease of use and time saved. Overall, 
I'd have to say that my editing speed 
has increased. 

What saves the most time is not 
having to retype all those drafts. 
Thanks to this, manuscripts that used 
to take me four hours to prepare are 
now completed in under two hours. 
Time is money, of course, but time is 
also the luxury of relaxing, enjoying 
hobbies and socializing. In this 
respect, the word processor has had a 
liberating effect on my personal life, 



and that alone justifies its cost. 

One advantage I had not antici- 
pated was that having a word pro- 
cessor has improved the quality of 
my work. I've always considered 
myself a pretty good writer, but in 
many cases carrying a draft to the 
third or fourth generation didn't 
justify all the work involved. With 
the editing abilities of a good word 
processor, it's much easier to be a 
perfectionist: simply avoid printing 
anything until you're completely 
satisfied with the manuscript. 

Was It Worth the Cost? 

Whether or not a word processor 
with this degree of sophistication is 
necessary for your business will, of 
course, be dictated by your own situ- 
ation. If you run a legal office, public- 
ity service or real estate company 
where you're mostly dealing with 
form letters and contracts, a system 
like this is probably overkill. But 
after having this particular hard- 
ware/software combination in opera- 
tion for a while, I feel that I certainly 
couldn't have gotten by with any less. 
It has made the process of writing 



more enjoyable, which is an impor- 
tant fringe benefit; it has also saved a 
lot of time and significantly increased 
my overall productivity. 

If this kind of system sounds good 
to you, remember that you can't 
skimp on anything. Figure on about 
$3000 for the printer, $1400 for the 
terminal, $2000 for the disk drive, 
$2600 for the computer and about an- 
other $1000 for software, disks, 
paper and other supplies. Sound ex- 
pensive? Well, yes. But, you're get- 
ting performance that's pretty much 
equivalent to commercially available 
systems costing up to twice that 
much. You've also got a hefty tax de- 
duction, more free time, more output 
and the feeling of having graduated 
from Gutenberg's movable type to 
something a little more 20th century. 

Oh yes, this article took me a little 
over six hours to write and ed- 
it—about half the time it would have 
taken on an electric typewriter. I'll 
clean up shop while the printer prints 
out three copies (one for me, for the 
editor, and a courtesy copy for Bill), 
and then I think I'll take a nice, long 
walk.l 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 39 



Test-drive both the Cadillac and the Chevy of word processing systems, and decide for yourself if the 



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■■-.»: -<V-(tVjV.. : : ; 



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Hot Rod 

Word Processors 



WordStar 

& 
WP6502.* 



By Charles Piatt 












ir*-^; 



*»«;xs»s!2^ 



XV. 



The word processing choice keeps 
getting harder. It has become al- 
most impossible to keep track of the 
growing number of different pro- 
grams, with their bewildering variety 
of capabilities and compatibilities. 
The small-business owner and com- 
puter user who wants to do word pro- 
cessing is liable to be confronted with 
a perplexing range of text-shuffling 
techniques, keyboard routines and 
command codes, available at often 
intimidating prices. 

Two programs from opposite ends 
of the spectrum will illustrate how 
wide the choice has become, mea- 
sured in terms of differences in price 
and design philosophy. 

Wordstar is, in a sense, the Cadillac 
of word processing. It comes with a 
lot of options, it requires a lot of 
memory, and it costs a lot of money. 
(The last price I saw was $450, which 
buys nothing more than an eight-inch 
program disk and an instruction 
manual.) You can only use Wordstar 
if you have CP/M. You also have to 
have a serial video terminal, as op- 
posed to a video monitor. 

Wordstar will run on many small- 
business computers, and equipment 
such as TRS-80, Ohio Scientific C3, 
Exidy Sorcerer and Heathkit, provid- 
ed the above conditions have been 
satisfied. I regard Wordstar as a no- 
expense-spared "luxury program." 

By contrast, WP6502 could be 
called the Chevrolet of word process- 
ing. Marketed by the unlikely-sound- 
ing Dwo Quong Fok Lok Sow of New 
York City, WP6502 is simple to oper- 
ate, comes with a basic minimum of 
options, costs only $100 on disk (a 
tape version is available for $50) and 
requires very little memory. The pro- 
gram can be used by anyone who has 
any model of Ohio Scientific comput- 



er, with or without video terminal. 
Variants are forthcoming for Atari, y 
Apple and PET. 

Recently I had the chance to test- 
drive both Wordstar and WP6502. 
The results were instructive. 



S^,v:'.:.^fe^y...- 



j^MBWS. 



Wordstar 

Wordstar's enormous range of 
command options, for editing and re- 
formatting text, creates a formidable 
first impression. In fact, there are so 
many options that five separate 
menus are required to display them 
all. 

The first menu lists the keys which 
must be pressed to move the cursor 
and perform simple delete functions; 
this menu occupies the top one-third 
of the video screen and is constantly 
displayed (text scrolls beneath it). To 
display one of the other four menus, 
you type a command code to retrieve 
it from disk. There is a pause of a few 
seconds. Then the old menu is erased 
and the new one takes its place. You 
can then inspect it for further instruc- 
tions regarding global editing, reset- 
ting the margins, or whatever. 

The cursor is controlled via four 
typewriter keys in conjunction with 
the control key. Letter E moves the 
cursor up, D moves it to the right, S to 
the left and X downward. The visual 
placement of these keys on the key- 
board corresponds to the respective 
directions of movement which they 
control, but this fact is of little use to 
touch typists, who don't look at the 
keyboard while they work and may 
find the choice of letters arbitrary. To 
add to the possible confusion, there 
are additional code commands (using 
nearby keys, easily confused with the 
first set) to move the cursor across the 
screen in a series of jumps, pausing at 
the first letter of each word; or to 



move it in one leap from the begin- 
ning of a line to the end of that line; or 
to scroll the text up and down while 
the cursor remains stationary. 

Text appears on the screen as fast 
as you can type it, and the program 
senses when a line is full and auto- 
matically starts a new line for you, 
though there is a disconcerting flicker 
and jump of the image as this occurs. 
If you wish, Wordstar will add spaces 
between the words of each complet- 
ed line of text, filling it out to full col- 
umn width. This reformatting is 
quite quick and is controlled by com- 
mands specified on one of the other 
menus. If you try to specify a very 
narrow column, it may not accom- 
modate some of the longest words in 
the text. These words will have to be 
broken and hyphenated, and the pro- 
gram features a routine which allows 
you to do this. 

Whatever format you choose for 
the text on the screen, this is the same 
format you will get when the text is 
printed out. Wordstar thus lets you 
inspect and approve the appearance 
of your work, as you type it, before it 
ever reaches paper. 

The WP6502 

Let's go back to WP6502 for a mo- 
ment to see how some of the same 
functions are achieved in a simpler 
fashion. 

Whereas I used Wordstar on office 
equipment with 64K RAM, a good 
video terminal and dual eight-inch 
disk drives (total system cost about 

Address correspondence to Charles Piatt, PO Box 
556, New York, NY 10113. 



40 Microcomputing, May 1981 



$10,000), WP6502 was run on a Chal- 
lenger C4P MF with 24K RAM, one 
five-inch disk drive and a modest vid- 
eo monitor. The 24K RAM is suffi- 
cient for most simple applications; it 
lets you type about 2000 words be- 
fore having to stop and save the text 
on disk. Total system cost in this case 
was slightly under $2000. (You could 
assemble an even cheaper system, 
using a tape-driven CI Series 2, a cas- 
sette recorder and a domestic TV set. 
This would give you real word pro- 
cessing for under $600. But I'm as- 
suming that any serious user of word 
processing will want the flexibility 
and speed of a disk system.) 

Incidentally, none of the above 
prices includes a printer. 

When you use WP6502, its menu 
appears on the screen, listing just a 
few basic options such as Type, 
View, Line Edit, Global Edit and File. 
You select an option by pressing an 
appropriate key letter. For instance, 
if you want to type, you press T. If 
you want to do a global edit, you 
press G. This coding is obviously 
easy to learn and remember. 

When you select T and start typing, 
the text that you enter begins filling 
up the bottom of the screen and the 
menu moves up out of the way to 
make room. (The menu can be in- 
stantly retrieved and displayed at any 
time— from memory, not from disk- 
by pressing the Return key.) WP6502 
starts you on a new line automatical- 
ly, whenever you need one, and it 
performs this automatic line feed al- 
most instantaneously. The whole 
program is written in machine lan- 
guage, so all its operations are ex- 
tremely fast. 

WP6502 does not give you the abili- 
ty to fill out and justify lines of text on 
the screen or on paper, unless you are 
willing to spend an extra $50 for the 
justification package. Even then, 
WP6502 will not reformat the text 
while you are typing; you have to 
stop typing and go into the view 
mode in order to see the justification. 
This is a small inconvenience, how- 
ever, and the justification of the text 
when it is printed out on paper is just 
as professional as Wordstar's in ap- 
pearance. 

If you make a typing error while in 
the Type mode, you can wipe it out 
by backspacing over it and retyping. 
The rubout key on the Ohio Scientific 
keyboard is used for backspacing— 
it's located where a typewriter back- 
space key would normally be. 

Incidentally, WP6502 automatical- 



ly normalizes the Ohio Scientific shift 
key operation, so that the keyboard 
works like an ordinary typewriter, 
without any surprises. And the stan- 
dard Ohio Scientific upper and low- 
ercase text display is decently legible; 
you don't have to plug in any special 
video boards, as you must on some 
other brands of computers. 

If you want to correct an error on a 
previous line in the text that you're 
typing, you have to go into Line Edit 
mode. One keystroke accomplishes 
this. You can now scroll your text up 
and down by means of the line feed 
key and the control key, and you 
move the cursor right and left by 
pressing either the space bar or the 
rubout key. In the Line Edit mode the 
cursor is nondestructive— it passes 
over the text without altering it. 

When the cursor marks the part of 
your text that you want to alter, you 
press D, I or R to delete, insert or re- 
place text. Pressing D takes out one 
letter; if you then press W, this re- 
moves the rest of that word. If, in- 
stead, you press S, you take out the 
rest of that sequence. The text refor- 
mats to absorb these changes imme- 
diately. Insertions, also, are done 
quickly and easily. 

While you are in the Type or Line 
Edit mode, WP6502 displays your 
text in single-line spacing only, with- 
in fixed margins. It does not let you 
display paragraphing, tabs, double- 
spacing and so on. However, you can 
insert embedded commands which 
will produce layout effects when you 
subsequently go into the View mode 
or print out your text. An embedded 
command consists of a # followed by 
a code letter. For instance, to insert a 
paragraph you type #P. To indent the 
margin by ten spaces you type #M10. 
It's an inconvenience being unable to 
see the effects of these commands as 
you type them, but it's something 
you soon get used to, and you can eas- 
ily see the layout any time by press- 
ing return to get back to the menu, 
then V to go into View mode, where 
the text is instantly reformatted to ap- 
pear as it will when printed out. 

WP6502 has a couple of additional 
features which save a lot of labor. If 
there's something you want to alter 
buried in the middle of a large lump 
of text, you don't have to scroll 
through laboriously looking for the 
error. You select the Line Edit mode 
and then type in a word or words that 
identify the piece of text you want. 
The program then finds it almost in- 
stantly, and commences the Line Edit 



display at that point. 

This is a similar operation to Global 
Edit, where you specify a character 
string and then specify a second 
string that you want substituted for 
the first, anywhere that the first 
string appears. Both Wordstar and 
WP6502 offer this feature, and both 
let you inspect and approve or cancel 
each substitution of new text before it 
is irrevocable. 

A Comparison 

How do the two programs com- 
pare? There are some economies in 
WP6502. Its on-screen reformatting 
is limited compared to Wordstar. 
You can't fiddle around with the lay- 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 41 



out and margins as easily, you can't 
see the layout at the same time as you 
type your text, and you can't do hy- 
phenation. Also, Wordstar lets you 
print out one piece of text at the same 
time you are writing another piece of 
text; WP6502 doesn't. 

On the other hand, WP6502 is easy 
to learn, simple to use, very modest 
in its equipment requirements and it 
has some surprisingly sophisticated 
abilities. It has a very elegantly de- 
signed Block Text system, for in- 
stance, letting you set up as many as 
99 numbered text blocks which can 
be retrieved in any sequence, as 
many times as you like, and mixed 
with other text. The blocks are called 
in by typing their identifying num- 
bers as embedded commands (#B01, 
#B02, etc.) in the text. This lets you, 
for instance, assemble a new busi- 
ness letter from standardized para- 
graphs. The end result looks custom- 
designed for the recipient but takes 
only a few seconds to put together. 

WP6502 also offers a special com- 
mand that will interrupt printout and 
let you insert special text from the 
computer keyboard. So you can type 



in an individual name and address on 
a form letter, then let the program 
print out the rest of that letter. 

Which program is better— WP6502 
or Wordstar? The comparison is not 
necessarily meaningful, because the 
programs embody such different de- 
sign philosophies. Certainly Word- 
star has more options and is very ver- 
satile. But you pay for this luxury, in 
the higher price of the program itself 
and the expensive hardware needed 
to run it. Some people may also feel 
that the versatility of Wordstar has its 
disadvantages— there are perhaps too 
many command codes to learn, and 
too many menus to consult, until you 
eventually memorize the whole sys- 
tem. 

In the end I have to go back to my 
automobile analogy: Wordstar has 
the same appeal as a Cadillac. It of- 
fers you every option you can think 
of, and a couple you forgot, at a rela- 
tively high price. 

WP6502, like Chevrolet, performs 
many of the same functions more 
austerely and with less frills. 

But the analogy doesn't stop there. 
Just as Chevrolet has introduced their 



own special luxury models in the past 
few years, WP6502 has now started 
to offer more options, bringing it clos- 
er to the Wordstar capabilities, 
though still with the same modest 
equipment requirements and a price 
which, though higher, is still reason- 
able. 

Specifically, WP6502 now comes 
in two basic versions. Version 1.2 has 
been considered in this article; you 
can add to it the justification package, 
a disk-file management system 
(which is a great help in setting up 
and organizing files in which to save 
your work on disk) and a couple of 
other neat enhancements. 

Version 1.3, recently released, in- 
cludes all these options as standard, 
also includes a computer memory 
test and a disk-drive test for good 
measure and offers refinements of 
the Line Edit and View routines 
which make program operation even 
faster. The cost of Version 1.3 is $250. 
Both versions will continue to be 
available. 

As I said at the beginning, the word 
processing choice becomes more and 
more bewildering all the time.B 



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42 Microcomputing, May 1981 




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^78 



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44 Microcomputing, May 1981 



WordPro 4 Plus, Spellguard, Wordcraft-80, Scripsit, VEDIT. 



Word Processing Roundup 



By Reese C. Fowler 



w; 



'ordPro 4 Plus from Profes- 
sional Software, Inc., is a 
state-of-the-art word processor for 
the Commodore CBM 8032 com- 
puter. When used with a letter- 
quality printer, such as the 
NEC Spinwriter, it has just 
about every feature that even 
the most demanding user could 
ever want in a word processor. 

The WordPro 4 Plus package comes 
with a user's manual, a software disk 
and a ROM that must be installed into 
your computer. The software is divided 
into two parts, and the software on the 
disk will only work on the computer in 
which the special ROM is installed, so if 
you have two computers you will need 
two copies of WordPro 4 Plus. 

The manual that is included with the 
software is a complete tutorial on the 
use of the program and will teach any- 
one how to use it, even if they have 
never used a word processor. To help 
the first-time user, Professional Soft- 
ware, Inc., has included a sheet of stick- 
on labels for the keys on your keyboard 
that will help you identify the special 
function keys. 

Because the CBM 8032 does not have 
a true control key, the software for 
WordPro has to create one for you by 
changing the reverse video key, in the 
lower-left corner of the keyboard, to a 
control key. To use any of the special 
functions of WordPro, you must press 
this control key and the key for the func- 
tion desired. For example, pressing the 
<control> and <home> keys will move 
the cursor to the upper-left corner of the 
video screen. Pressing these keys a sec- 
ond time will move the cursor to the first 
character on the first line in the file. This 
control key is the most important key on 




the keyboard. 

The only feature that is missing in 
WordPro 4 Plus is true proportional 
spacing of your text. With WordPro 4 
Plus, you can print boldface or under- 
line your text for emphasis. You can 
even underline the boldface text if you 
want to. You can also print superscripts 
or subscripts in your text. 

You enter text exactly as you would 
on a standard typewriter, except you do 
not have to press the return key when 
you reach the end of a line. WordPro 4 
will automatically move the cursor to 
the beginning of the next line, and you 
can continue typing until you reach the 
end of the paragraph. 

Unlike some other word processing 
programs, WordPro 4 does not move in- 
complete words from one line to another 
in the entry mode, due to the limited 
memory of the CBM 8032. When you 
have entered your text, you can write 
the file to the disk for later use. Once the 
text is on a disk, it can be recalled at any 
time. 

Before you print your text, there are 
many options that you can select. You 
can go to the format part of the program 
and select a header or footer for every 
page. You can select how you want the 
margins set and how many lines you 
want on a page. After you set the format 
for your document, you can display the 



document on the video screen in the se- 
lected format. If you don't like what you 
see, you can change it and redisplay it on 
the screen until you get the format you 
desire. What you see on the screen is ex- 
actly what the printed output will look 
like, except that boldface, superscript 
and subscript won't be displayed. How- 
ever, underlined text will be displayed 
in reverse video. 

Once you have the format the way 
you want it, you should write the docu- 
ment to the disk. Now, anytime you 
want to, you can print this document ex- 
actly as you formatted it. And once the 
document is on your disk, you can direct 
it to the printer, while at the same time 
you can start preparing another docu- 
ment on the video screen. 

One of the most unusual features of 
WordPro 4 Plus is the numerical mode, 
which allows you to enter columns of 
numbers in your text and line them up 
by decimal point. The program will even 
add these columns of numbers and print 
the total at the bottom. If you prepare a 
large amount of numerical data, this fea- 
ture alone will pay for the program. This 
feature of WordPro 4 Plus is so conve- 
nient that several database programs for 
the CBM 8032 have been interfaced to it 
for complete reporting capabilities. 

The program does have a few short- 
comings. For example, you can only 
have about a five-page document in 
memory at any one time. This problem 
is caused by hardware limitations, not 
the program itself. However, the pro- 
gram will allow one document file to be 
linked to a second file, which can be 
linked to a third, and so on. In this way, 
the size of a document is limited only by 
the space on your disks. But to edit a 
long document, you have to load and ed- 
it each part separately. This problem is 
caused because the CBM 8032 has only 
32K of memory for both the program 
and your text, and the program uses 20K 
of this memory. If Commodore intro- 
duces the CBM 8096 computer with 96K 
of memory this problem will disappear. 

There is one other minor problem— 



Microcomputing, May 1981 45 




Word Pro 4. (Photo courtesy Professional Soft- 
ware, Inc.} 



every time that you load the program, 
you have to go through the configura- 
tion routine. Once you have configured 
the system, the program should default 
to this configuration on power-up with- 
out any input from the user. It could dis- 
play the current configuration and ask if 
you want to change anything. A no an- 
swer should allow the program to pro- 
ceed, and a yes answer should call the 
configuration routine. ■ 

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borough, NH 03458. 



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By Tony Dowden 



If you ever make spelling errors, 
then a new piece of software to 
hit the CP/M business environ- 
ment may be just for you. Spell- 
guard tests the spelling of a text 
file (up to 20,000 words) and 
flags any errors for correction. 
This easy-to-use, operator-ori- 
ented program has saved me 
countless hours of proofreading, 
and from the embarrassment of submit- 
ting a manuscript with typos. 

Unlike most spelling test programs, 
Spellguard is fast. It will completely and 
accurately test a 10, 000- word file (about 
20 printed pages) in less than one min- 
ute. With a hard-disk system, it's about 
three times as fast. 

Operating Procedure 

1 . Put the Spellguard disk in one drive 
and the file to be tested in the other (they 
can be on the same drive, but the dictio- 
nary is large). 

2. TypeSP. 

3. In response to a menu, which will 
then appear, type P (or p or 1 ) to bring up 
the proof mode. 

4. Tell Spellguard the name of the file 
to test. 

5. As it progresses, it will display the 
number of words read, the number of 
unique words in the file, the percentage 
of unique words, the number of mis- 
matched words, the percentage of mis- 
matched words and the percentage of 
proofing done. 

As an alternative, type "SP FILE- 
NAME.TYP, and Spellguard will skip 
steps 3 and 4. In either case, drive num- 
ber (X:) may precede the file name 
where required. 

After the test is run, you get a chance 
to look at each of the words and decide 
whether to add it to the dictionary, mark 
it in the file for correction or ignore it. 
Selections are done with a single key- 
stroke, either using A, M, I or 1, 2, 3. 

Spellguard then automatically incor- 
porates the "add" words to its dictio- 
nary, flags the "mark" words in the text 
file, and ignores the rest. Words in your 
text file are marked by changing the last 
letter of the word to an "@" symbol; 
however, this can be changed to the 
symbol of your choice. You then use the 
global search mode of your editor to find 
the "@" symbols, and change the word 
to its proper spelling. It also creates a 
back-up file, the original input file prior 




to the execution of the spelling test. 

Extensive procedures are provided to 
add to the contents of the dictionary, de- 
lete words from the dictionary and re- 
view the dictionary. You can also list the 
dictionary on the console or the printer, 
allowing you to review the contents and 
determine whether any changes are re- 
quired. It has provisions for several dic- 
tionaries—business, technical or person- 
al. 

Spellguard has been extensively tested 
with ED, Wordmaster, WordStar, Magic 
Wand, Electric Pencil, Spellbinder and 
other word processors, and has per- 
formed perfectly in all cases. In the 
event that it doesn't work with yours, 
Innovative Software Applications (Box 
2797, Menlo Park, CA 94025) will give 
you a money-back guarantee. In addi- 
tion, it can be easily updated to cover fu- 
ture software which will be introduced 
into the market. 

Applications 

The prime application of Spellguard is 
the testing of documents for people 
whose work consists of selling words on 
paper— the technical writer, fiction writ- 
er, legal offices, publications houses. In 
addition, you could create a dictionary 
with only programming terms like LXI, 
ADD, JNZ and NOP or LPRINT, GOTO, 
INPUT and DATA. This would be a real 
help to programmers whose first run of a 
program, especially larger ones, consists 
of finding errors in the source code. 

Documentation 

The Spellguard manual comes bound 
in a quality three-ring binder, and in- 
cludes a pocket in the back for the disk. I 
found the documentation to be com- 
plete, and very well organized. A very 
clean approach to examples is used 
which helps the newcomer. I sure 
would like to see more manuals written 
like this, with the user in mind, rather 
than reading like poorly documented 
software 



46 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Constraints 

The Spellguard program has very few 
limitations. It currently can be used only 
on a computer running the CP/M operat- 
ing system, although the people at Inno- 
vative Software Applications tell me that 
they are working on packages for other 
operating systems. In addition, the soft- 
ware requires 32K for operation. 



There is no limitation on the size of the 
file you are testing other than that there 
must be room on the disk containing the 
original file for a back up file. It does not 
generate a temporary file to clutter up 
disk space, so files over 100K on a single- 
density eight-inch disk are handled easi- 



By Reese C. Fowler 



Wordcraft-80 by Commodore/ 
MOS Technology is a word 
processor designed to run on the 
Commodore CBM family of 
computers with 32K of mem- 
ory. It is written entirely in 
machine language for efficien- 
cy and high speed. 

Wordcraft-80 differs from many mi- 
crocomputer-based word/text process- 
ing systems in that it is a completely vid- 
eo screen-based system. What you see 
on the screen is, in general, exactly what 
you will obtain on the printer. The print- 
ing abilities are built in, and use format- 
ting information embedded in the text 
with control characters. However, these 
control characters are not usually visible 
on the screen. 

Because the text formatting controls 
are embedded in the text, and are there- 
fore associated with that text, the format 
on the screen includes a mechanism for 
indicating where such controls are 
placed. This is by reversal (black on 
white) of the text character immediately 
following the formatting control. The ac- 
tual control used is usually obvious from 
the effect that it has on the screen dis- 
play. 




Wordcraft-80 provides the ability to 
deal with large page formats (up to 117 
characters wide and 98 lines long), with- 
out losing the screen-to-printer equiva- 
lence, by scrolling the text on the screen 
both vertically and laterally. If you are 
using the program on a CBM system 
with only a 40-character display, when 
you type the 41st character all the text 
on the screen will scroll to the left. Simi- 
larly, when you add the 20th line of text, 
the screen will scroll up to let you enter 
the 21st line. This action is in multiple 
character or line increments, so scrolling 
is in jumps rather than in single lines or 
columns. It's a little unnatural at first, 
but you quickly become used to it and 
find it useful. 

Also, when you reach the end of a line, 
the cursor will automatically drop to the 
next line and move any unfinished word 
down with it. The only time you must 



ly. The dictionary file is usually stored 
on the second drive, and is over 130K as 
supplied. In addition, you should be 
running a CRT-type terminal rather 
than a Teletype-like terminal, although 
it will work with either one.H 

Technical writer Tony Dovoden lives at 974 E. 
Evelyn Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 



press the return key is when you want to 
end a line before the right margin is 
reached or to end a paragraph. 

In a 32K Commodore CBM computer 
you will have about 12K of memory for 
text after the program is loaded. This 
will only let you have about a six-page 
document. To overcome this limitation, 
one document (or chapter, as it is called 
in Wordcraft-80) can be linked to a sec- 
ond document. The only limit is that all 
chapters must start on a new page of 
text. 

The number of chapters in a docu- 
ment is limited only by the space on 
your disks. For example, the 100-page 
users manual that comes with the pro- 
gram was prepared as a single document 
with many chapters. Also, to save space 
on your disk, the text is stored in a 
packed format, and not as it will finally 
appear. Thus, the 12K bytes of memory 
are used efficiently. 

Note that the text is stored in a coded 
form and not in true ASCII. This was 
done to speed up scrolling and page re- 
newal operations, and is no concern to 
the user. However, one side effect of this 
is that document files produced by 
Wordcraft-80 require special handling if 
they are to be accessed by other pro- 
grams. 

As to features, it is sufficient to say 
that Wordcraft-80 is a full-feature word 
processor. If you want it, it is in Word- 
craft-80. You can, with the proper print- 
er, print boldface, superscript, subscript 
and underline your text. Your para- 
graphs can have different margins and 
line spacing. You can have a header and 



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SNAPP II EXTENDED DASIC A family of en- 
hancements to the Model II DASIC interpreter. 
Part of the package originated with the best of 
APPARAT, INC.'s thoughts in implementing 
NEWDOS DASIC. The system is written entirely in 
machine language for SUPER FAST execution. 
The extensions ore fully integrated into Model II 
DASIC, and require NO user Memory, end NO 
user disk space. The package is made up of the 
following six modules, each of which may be 
purchased separately; 

XDASIC — Six single key stroke commands to list 
the first, last, previous, next, or current program 
line, or to edit the current line. Includes quick 
way to recover DASIC program following a NEW 
or system or occidental re-boot. Ten single 
character abbreviations for frequently used 
commands: AUTO, CLS, DELETE, EDIT, KILL, 
LIST, MERGE, NEW, LUST, and SYSTEM. $40.00 
XREF — A powerful cross-reference facility with 
output to display and/or printer. Trace a vari- 
able through the code. Determine easily if a 
variable is in use. $40.00 

XDUMP — Permits the programmer to display 
and/or print the value of any or all program 
variables. Identifies the variable type for oil 
variables. Each element of any array is listed 
separately. $40.00 

XRENUM — An enhanced program line renum- 
bering facility which allows specification of an 
upper limit of the block of lines to be renum- 
bered, supports relocation of renumbered 
blocks of code, ond supports duplication of 
blocks of code. $40.00 

XFIND — A cross reference facility for key words 
ond character strings, also includes global re- 
placement of keywords. $40.00 
XCOMPRESS — Compress your DASIC programs 
to on absolute minimum. Removes extraneous 
information; merge lines; even deletes state- 
ments which could not be executed. Typically 
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out REM statements! Also results in 7-10% im- 
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Now available for Model III 



footer on every page and right justifica- 
tion of the text. 

I can't think of any word processing 
feature that has been omitted from 
Wordcraft-80. If you want a word pro- 



cessor that is easy to learn and use, you 
could not do better than Wordcraft-80. ■ 

Address correspondence to Reese C. Fowler, 88 
Pheasant Glen, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



•-»j'*.V«1i»~> ^^^ mt ^^^ 

'..•:■ ■'"■''. ' WW 11 ' 



• '. • 



By Ken Knecht 



Scripsit 



$ 



£: 



In my never-ending search for 
the ultimate word processor, I 
bought Radio Shack's Scripsit for 
its TRS-80 Model I. 

This disk-based unit requires 
32K of memory and uses screen 
formatting a la the Electric 
Pencil. The commands, though 
there are many, are consistent 
and logical, and thus easy to memorize. 
A set of labels marks the 16 special con- 
trol keys used for deletion, insert and so 
on. 

Scripsit' s six lesson tapes come in a 
nice binder, and are quite good. The les- 
sons use existing files, and therefore re- 
quire little typing. 

Features 

The arrow keys move the cursor. You 
can make corrections by placing the cur- 
sor over the character and typing the 
new one. 

Inserting a line, word or paragraph re- 
quires only two additional key presses. 
Deleting is also simple, and you don't 
have to count characters. To exchange 
adjacent words or paragraphs, you press 
only two keys. 

You can easily preset tabs, either with 
the cursor or by typing in character posi- 
tions. 

Screen formatting is also easy, and 
you can change the format at any time 
with just a few commands. 

If you use 8 1/2x11 inch paper, the 
printing defaults will probably be ac- 
ceptable. You can adjust all four mar- 
gins, page length, paragraph spacing, 
line spacing, indent and so on. One op- 
tional feature pauses the printer after 
every page if you are using single sheets. 

The program comes in two versions, 
for uppercase or lowercase. It includes a 
printer driver routine, suitable if you 
have a serial printer and the RS-232C 
module in your interface. It works fine 
with my Diablo 1620. 

If you have Radio Shack's lowercase 
modification, you can lock the keyboard 
into uppercase by typing shift control. 
Radio Shack recommends their own 
lowercase modification; others might 
not work correctly with Scripsit. 









w* 



^^^m^m^^ 



<W8 



.'•'-v. , 



CSE**rafc 



^Mv^ 



w*< 



:*WHtt« 



Scripsit also includes global delete, re- 
place and find. Replace lets you quickly 
change up to 255 words in the text with 
another word. You have to watch out for 
case differences if you're using a lower- 
case machine. Changes can be done one 
at a time or for a specified number of 
times. Delete works like replace except 
that the designated string is deleted. 
Find locates one word at a time. The 
string you are searching for remains in 
memory, so you can make succeeding 
searches easily without retyping the 
string. An additional feature, the wild 
card search, lets you type in a ? for any 
character in the string you are searching 
for. 

You can save data as you enter the 
text. The first time, you type S followed 
by the file name. Succeeding saves re- 
quire only the S. 

Another feature lets you use a window 
to view the text. The cursor is stationary 
while you scroll. Normally you have to 
move the cursor to a CRT boundary be- 
fore scrolling. 

Scripsit includes block markers, 
which identify the page header and foot- 
er and let you insert titles and page num- 
bers. You can also use block markers to 
move blocks of text, delete a block of 
characters or exchange blocks within 
the text. 

Scripsit includes a hyphenation fea- 
ture that lets you close gaps between 
words in justified copy. The cursor 
moves to the first word of the line imme- 
diately following the one to be tight- 
ened. You insert the cursor between syl- 
lables and type a hyphen. You can hy- 
phenate all or part of the text. 

Problems 

One of Scripsit' s major failings is that 



48 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Are important letters and reports 
leaving your office with spelling errors? 




ELLGUARD 

can proofread 

1 0,000 words 

in one minute. 



SPELLGUARD is a revolutionary new computer program that finds 
spelling mistakes and typographical errors in documents prepared with 
CP/M 1 or CDOS 5 compatible word processors and text editors. 

In less than one minute, SPELLGUARD proofreads 20 pages of text 
(10,000 words) and identifies all misspelled or mis-typed words based on 
its 20,000-word dictionary. After proofreading, SPELLGUARD first 
provides an alphabetized list of the words identified as potential errors. 
The operator judges each word as correct or incorrect. Correct words may 
be added to the dictionary. SPELLGUARD automatically marks incor- 
rect words in the text with a special character. The operator can then use 
the word processor to easily find and correct them in the document. 

SPELLGUARD is Easy to Use 

• proofreading capabilities are mastered in a few minutes. 

• comprehensive user's manual contains step-by-step examples of all 
SPELLGUARD features. 

SPELLGUARD is Powerful 

• text files to 85 pages (CP/M 1.4), and 2,800 pages (CP/M 2.0). 
includes a 20,000-word, expandable dictionary. 

• contains powerful commands to construct customized dictionaries for 
special areas, e.g., medicine, real estate, law, insurance, engineering. 

SPELLGUARD is Reliable 

• thoroughly tested in actual use with free one-year maintenance service. 

• 30-day money-back limited warranty. 

• includes computer program for software updates and maintenance. 

Minimum System Requirements: 8080/85, Z80 CPU with 32K memory: CP/M 1 1.4 (dictionaries to 

256K bytes), CP/M 1 2.0 or later (dictionaries to 4 MB), or CDOS; word processor or text editor 

compatible with SPELLGUARD (currently several excellent new CP/M word processors, and 

WordStar 2 , WordMaster, Magic Wand'. Electric Pencil 4 , and ED). 

Trademarks: 'Digital Research (registered). -MicroPro Int'l Corp., 'Small Business Applications, 

'Michael Shrayer Software, 'Cromemco. 

*Time estimates based on 4Mhz 8085 with 48K memory, CP/M 2.1 double density 8" floppy drive, 

10,000- word text file. 



The price of SPELLGUARD includes 
rapid turnaround and delivery by UPS or 
airmail. Sales will be made only if the 
purchasers' word processor is compatible 
with SPELLGUARD. Software license 
agreement is required. 

□ Send me a free, detailed description and 
latest diskette format availability. 

□ Send me SPELLGUARD at $295.00. 
(Manual and diskette(s). Formats: 8" 
CP/M single density, 5 l A" Northstar, 
Superbrain, Micropolis Mod 2.) 

□ Send me copies of the 

SPELLGUARD manual at $20.00 each. 
(Airmail, credited toward purchase.) 

□ Send COD (add $10.00 handling). 

California residents add 6 c /c tax. 
Add $10.00 for foreign shipment. 

Check enclosed for $ . 

(Certified check, COD, and money order 
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See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 49 



you can't concatenate disk files to pro- 
duce a text larger than will fit in mem- 
ory. You can concatenate files in mem- 
ory, but you are limited to the text in 
memory when you print the text. You 
can print your files one at a time and ad- 
just the starting page number of the first 
page to succeed the last page in the last 
file. However, if a file ends early on a 
page, the next file will start on a new 
page. 

This is an unfortunate lapse in an oth- 
erwise good word processor. You should 
be able to continue another disk file on 



the same page while automatically con- 
tinuing page numbers. Ideally, the addi- 
tional files should be included in the file 
so that this would take place automati- 
cally. There may be a way to continue 
text on the same page but I haven't dis- 
covered it. Normally a new file printout 
is assumed to start on a new page. As I 
mentioned, you can do it by keeping the 
chapters short enough to fit into mem- 



By Gene Head 



The task of editing a source file 
with CP/M's ED is about as 
appealing to me as chiseling in 
stone. Some people can make that 
editor snap-to, but I'm not one of 
them. Recalling the all-CP/M is- 
sue of Doctor Dobb's Journal in 
January 1980, I remember the 
excitement of finding a way to 
convert my Pencil files to 
CP/M format for source file edit- 
ing of assembly language, CBASIC and 
FORTH files. Finally, I could use a 
screen editor to edit files and then sim- 
ply convert them to CP/M format before 
assembly. 

However, first converting the existing 
ASM file to PCL, then editing the file 
with Pencil, then converting back to 
ASM before running MAC to assemble 
the source code, then redoing the entire 
process for a simple error caused a nor- 




mally long edit and assemble and debug 
session to be just as long, if not longer, 
than when the CP/M editor was used. 
What the world of the hacker needed, I 
saw, was a Pencil-like editor with stan- 
dard ASCII files, to eliminate all the con- 
version. 

I read over the ads in the magazines 
for an editor to suit my needs, and found 
VEDIT, from CompuView Products, 
Inc. (1531 Jones Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 



ory and adjusting the page number of 
the next file to begin with the correct 
number, but this is very awkward. 

Also, you can't insert data from anoth- 
er file into the printout, such as a list of 
names and addresses to be included in 
successive form letters. You have to edit 
the file to change data. 

These are two important features for 
business. Perhaps Radio Shack will add 
them in a future version. ■ 



Send correspondence to Ken Knecht, 1340 W. 
3rd St., #130, Yuma, AZ 85364. 



48105). I called CompuView to explain 
my system— Imsai VIO and MIO, North 
Star Disk, Cromemco ZPU, home- 
brewed printer interface card, and so on 
—but they weren't very interested in my 
particular configuration. It later became 
obvious why— their software is config- 
ured by the end user. 

The Editor 

First, the nuts and bolts. My version of 
VEDIT costs $ 1 10. It can be user-config- 
ured to most CRTs, memory-mapped 
video displays and popular disk formats. 
It operates under CP/M and is available 
from the manufacturer or CP/M vendors 
such as Pickles and Trout. Prices vary, 
depending on special, nonstandard host 
hardware. 

The system is customized by first run- 
ning the configuration program supplied 
on the disk. This program runs through 
the standard CP/M I/O and will be exe- 
cutable by any CP/M system. After sign- 
ing on, the user answers plain English 
questions about the host system and re- 
sponds to directives like "press the es- 
cape key now." All command keys are 
also customized during this initializa- 



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underlining, indexing, automatic generation of a 
table of contents and much, much, more. 

(2) CPMCAT Finally you can organize all of those 
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The source code, which is highly structured and 
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50 Microcomputing, May 1981 






tion. Cursor movement, insert, tab, de- 
lete functions and all others are defined 
by the user. Hardware configuration is 
done by the same plain English prompts. 
I finished in about ten minutes with 
only a few references to the manual for 
clarification. It worked the first time 
out! 

As a software reviewer, I try to play 
dumb and assume nothing. I sometimes 
ask my 12-year-old to read an instruc- 
tion to check the clarity of the manual. 
Compu View's manual passed with fly- 
ing colors. 

After initialization, I had a file called 
EDIT.COM that was ready to run. 

The two modes of operation are visual 
and command. In visual, normal screen 
editing is done with such features as 
scrolling/paging, cursor control, insert/ 
delete and TAB. The command mode of- 
fers all the features found in the stan- 
dard command type editors like ED, and 
then some. Most noticeable to me was 
the extensive disk buffering and disk 
handling abilities. Files bigger than 
available memory are automatically buf- 
fered onto and off of disk(s). Multiple 
files are managed and can be merged on 
input and split on output. 

The keyboard is software-buffered to 
keep up with the fastest typist. My 
George Risk $29 special still strobes out 
bad data every so often, but the buffer- 
ing never loses track of anything. Wild- 
card characters are allowed in most 
commands and nested iteration macros 
are provided. Tabs can be set and reset 
during execution to make structured 
source files with needed indenting, such 
as might be written in Pascal or FORTH, 
easy to write, and thus easy to maintain 
and document. 

Implementing the command mode 
took some getting used to. While it is 
very powerful, I was often confused dur- 
ing early edit sessions. But like with any- 



thing new, it just takes time to adjust. 
Two special features that saved me more 
than once— the undo command will re- 
store all text if executed before a termi- 
nation of command, and a back-up file is 
always maintained as FILENAME. BAK. 
If worse comes to worse you can always 
start from where you first began. 

Obviously, the more powerful the 
package, the more time it takes to learn 
of all the subtle features. The difference 
between a cursor tab and a tab character 
has just recently come to light. It worked 
fine before, but even better now that I 
understand. I have yet to fully explore 
all of the extended commands of file 
merging and rewriting and file renaming 
—I haven't had the motivation or need. 
But what I've mastered has shown me 
what a fine piece of software this really 
is. As my needs expand I expect VEDIT 
will continue to meet them. 

Compu View offers software support 
for $45, not a bad price for continued 
support. The preface in the manual out- 
lines some specific upgrading objectives 
that, when completed, will certainly be 
worth the $45. 

If you write source code, I doubt if you 
could find a better value in the editor 
market. VEDIT is clean, easy to operate, 
CP/M-compatible, and has many fea- 
tures found only on higher-priced word 
processors. But best of all, you can 
throw away the convert programs you 
use to change your word-processor files 
to ASM files. ■ 

Gene Head, 2860 Skyline Drive, Corvallis, OR 
97330, is a broadcast and computer consultant 
to the television production and broadcast indus- 
try. After five years with the Engineering depart- 
ment at Metromedia Square in Hollywood, he 
now writes, does software development and re- 
view and offers free-lance engineering services. 
He and his wife run a group care facility for 
abused children. 



A 

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IO-CA-6A $125 ACIA Serial Printer Port 

IO-CA-90 $175 Diablo Parallel Printer Port 

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IO Level 3 $425 4K Memory. 4 RS 232 Multi-terminal Ports. 1 

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YOU NEED ULTRA PPD 

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look for in printer drivers. Add Ultra 
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Microcomputing, May 1981 51 



Super -Text... In A Class ffy Itself. 



SUPERTOCTII 

WORD PROCESSOR 



(T 88 ^ 



'MUSE. 



Ease of use and a combination of powerful advanced features put Super-Text in a class 
by itself. The basics of text editing are easily learned within minutes. Yet the advanced 
features will meet your expanding word processing requirements far into the future. 

Super-Text is unequalled byword processing systems costing many thousands of dollars 
more. Add the Form Letter Module and Address Book Mailing List for the ultimate in pro- 
fessional word processing. 

Ask for a demonstration at your local computer store or write for specifications and the 
name of your nearest Muse retailer. Now that you're ready for word processing, think 
Super-Text. 



available at your local computer store 



Runs on the Apple II or II plus 
Apple II and II plus are trademarks 
ot the Apple Computer Corporation 



MUSE 



SOFTWARE™ ^381 



330 N.CHARLES STREET 
BALTIMORE, MD 21201 
(301)659-7212 

Dealer inquiries welcomed 



52 Microcomputing, May 1981 



This full-time author found his guiding genius in the Super-Text II word processor. 



Inspiration 
From the Muse 



By David C. Goodfellow 




Super-Text II, by Muse Software 
(330 N. Charles St., Baltimore, 
MD 21201), is an improved version of 
an already impressive word-process- 
ing program for the Apple II and Ap- 
ple II Plus, requiring 48K RAM and at 
least one disk drive. This article dis- 
cusses features common to Super- 
Text and Super-Text II, followed by 
improvements made in the new re- 
lease. Users of the earlier version and 
those who have never used Super- 
Text will find this discussion benefi- 
cial. The article concludes with a dis- 
cussion of shortcomings and a judge- 
ment of the program's overall value. 

Super-Text 

First, the program is easy to use. Its 
documentation is superb. The new 
user can become an expert with one 
or two evenings' practice. 

Second, it is versatile. You can con- 
figure it to your most common print- 
ing format and let it default to that 
format, and you can change the for- 
mat in text, with embedded com- 
mands. This gives you the best of 
both worlds. 

Third, it is fast. It writes text to disk 
in binary format, resulting in faster 
recording and retrieval than is possi- 
ble with a text file. Binary format also 
allows more text to be stored on one 

disk. 

Specific features include: 
• Autolink, the capability of auto- 
matically chaining files, so that a 
whole disk (more, if you have multi- 
ple drives) can be searched or print- 



ed, file by file, in one operation. 

• An automatic "the" key, which al- 
lows one-stroke insertion of this com- 
mon word while typing. This re- 
quires some getting used to, but is 
well worth the effort. 

• A math mode, which lets the com- 
puter do your mathematics in text. No 
need to stop and figure totals. This 
feature also formats your numbers, 
so they look presentable on the page. 
•An extremely fast Search feature. 
•An equally fast Find and Replace. 
Once you have to change "widget" to 
"gismo" 47 times in 30 pages, you'll 
know how valuable this feature can 
be. Find and Replace lets you change 
all occurrences of the offending word 
automatically, or make that decision 
for each one. Used in conjunction 
with Autolink, it can make the 
change throughout all files, on as 
many disk drives as you have on line. 
•A query function that tells you how 
much space you have left in memory, 
among other things. When you have 
less than 500 bytes, it's time to close 
that file and start another. This func- 
tion also tells you whether Autolink 
is on or off, whether the "the" key is 
on or off, and whether the system is 
in math or print mode. 

• Block operations allow you to mark 
a block of text and then manipulate it 
in several ways. You can copy the 
block in another area of the file, or 
even in another file; you can delete it; 
you can save it as a separate file; you 
can move it; or you can unmark it. 

• Split screen. This function allows 



you to look at one part of a file while 
working on another. I find it useful 
for keeping format reminders and 
other notes on screen. When split 
screen is first selected, the top and 
bottom portions are of the same size. 
This can be adjusted to allow more or 
less lines in either portion. 

• Automatic page numbering. Super- 
Text will place a page number wher- 
ever you want it on the page— chap- 
ter-relative, if you wish ("3-3" for the 
third page of chapter 3). 

Super-Text II 

Improvements made in Super-Text 
are indeed dramatic enough to justify 
the "II" tacked onto the name. In 
fact, they correct most of the minor 
complaints I had against the earlier 
version. New features are: 

• Preview. This feature allows you to 
look at the text on screen, formatted 
according to your commands. With 
this feature you can see your format- 
ting errors before you commit them 
to paper. The most important benefit 
is that you can see where the end of 
the page will be, and change that if 
need be, without a lot of hard-copy 
experimentation. Preview is accessed 
through the query function, with the 
"P" key toggling between preview 
and print. 

•Temporary left margin. When 
printing numbered paragraphs, it's 
convenient for succeeding lines of 

David C. Goodfellow, PO Box 66834, Seattle, WA 
98146. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 53 



text to be indented the same as the 
first line. The earlier version of Su- 
per-Text tabbed over on the first line 
of such a paragraph, but succeeding 
lines began at the "true" margin, un- 
der the paragraph number. This fea- 
ture is a welcome addition. 

• Provision for shift-key capitaliza- 
tion. Muse gives instructions for a 
simple hardware change allowing 
use of the shift key for caps, and sup- 
ports that change in the program. 
You must decide for yourself wheth- 
er or not to implement it. 

The change, though making typing 
easier, has two disadvantages. First, 
it voids the Apple warranty (as Muse 
warns). 

More importantly, it curtails use of 
the "at" sign and the caret, which are 
alternate characters on the p and n 
keys, respectively. Since these are 
important to me, I will probably go 
back to using ESC for capitals. Note 
that the program does have some us- 
er-defined function keys that could 
be used to restore these characters, if 
you wish to use them for that instead 
of defining some exotic printer func- 
tions. 

• Super-Text II has two additional 



modules available as separate pur- 
chases. The Form Letter Module 
($100) and Address Book mailing list 
($50) can be used in conjunction with 
Super-Text II to provide a powerful 
system for generating personalized 
form letters— a great tool for market- 
ing by mail and sending out those 
Christmas letters. The Form Letter 
Module merges text from Super-Text 
II and names, addresses and com- 
ments from Address Book. An imagi- 
native writer can make a form letter 
look as if it were written especially 
for the recipient. 

Deficiencies 

I do not like the fact that you can't 
copy the disk. With software pirates 
skulking about, the concept of pro- 
tected disks is not likely to change. 
Although Super-Text II does have a 
copy feature, the copy is a slave 
which cannot be booted directly. To 
use it, you must first load the master 
disk. This is a pain at best. At worst, if 
you happen to roll your chair over the 
master disk, you're in a world of 
hurt. 

Muse does include a spare master 
disk in its sales package and will re- 



place a damaged disk for $10 and 
proof of purchase, but this does not 
provide the "safe" feeling of a half- 
dozen backup copies. To the casual 
user, this is probably not a problem; 
but I make my living with the Apple 
and word processing, and so get 
somewhat paranoid on the subject. 

Super-Text II does not support an 
80-column display as yet. Its new 
preview feature is a giant step toward 
showing you formatted text on screen, 
but it's not enough. 

Super-Text II does not support pro- 
portional spacing. This is a surpise as 
well as a disappointment, for its in- 
struction example for tailoring the 
program for the printer uses the 
Diablo, which has proportional spac- 
ing for those whose software sup- 
ports it. 

Conclusion 

In general, I found Super-Text to be 
the answer to a free-lance writer's 
dream. It has greatly increased my 
production, and therefore increased 
my earning ability. Although easy 
enough for the occasional user, it is 
more than powerful enough to sup- 
port the professional. Price is $150.B 



DIABLO 1620 $1895 



• Letter quality daisywheel printer 
•Upper and lower case 

• Forms tractor, print wheel, ribbon included 

• ASCII serial interface with RS-232 cable 

• Bidirectional printing 

• Completely refurbished by national terminal 
distributor with 30 day warranty 





PRINTERS 


VIDEO MONITORS 


NEC 5510 


$2495 


9" Sanyo B&W 


$169 


NEC 5530 


2495 


12" Sanyo B&W 


289 


Diablo 630 


2425 


12" Sanyo w/green screen 


299 


Centronics 


730 675 


13" Sanyo Color 


495 


Centronics 


737 799 


9" Panasonic B&W 


169 






9" RCA B&W 


169 


m 


Verbatim DISKETTES 3M 


H 


5"SS,DD 


10/2.40 50/2.35 


5"SS,SD 10/2.80 50/2.70 




5"DS,DD 


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8"SS,SD 10/2.90 50/2.80 




5"SS,QD 


10/2.90 50/2.85 


8"SS,DD 10/3.50 50/3.40 




8" SS, SD 


10/3.05 50/3.00 


8" DS, SD 10/4.50 50/4.40 




8" SS, DD 


10/3.35 50/3.30 


8" DS, DD 10/4.50 50/4.40 




8" DS, DD 


10/4.15 50/4.10 


Disk Flip N File Case 5" 22.95 


8" 27.95 


Diskette Storage Pages 10/4.25 


Disk Library Case 5" 2.05, 8" 2.80 


3M HEAD CLEANING KIT 


PAPER & LABELS 


• Eliminate downtime B*-*""'"""^! 


■ Greenbar 14'/„x11 




• Eliminate service calls I ■fc.w. 


one part 3000 sheets 


39.95 


• Increase life of read- 


two part 1300 sheets 


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write heads T^**^ 


White 9^x11 




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• one part 3500 sheets 


29.95 


• Removes 


dust. dirt. AnflPHV 


two part 1400 sheets 


33.95 


magnetic 


oxides 


Labels 3'Ax'Vm 






-ore- $19.50 


one across box of 5000 


17.30 


5V4 


two across box of 10,000 


34.60 


PRINT WHEELS 


RIBBONS 




Mfr. 


ea. 6- 


Mfr. ea. 


Doz. 


Diablo 


825 750 


Diablo 6.50 


7200 


Qume 


825 750 


Qume 4.00 


43.50 


NEC 


17.00 15.50 


NEC 7.00 


71.50 



Call for quantity prices— Dealer inquiries invited 



s i, DAVIS SYSTEMS INC. 

-dsi— 2184 Meadowcliff Drive N.E.. Atlanta, GA 30345 
/,V ^63 (404) 634-2300 



' OFFICE 
SYSTEMS 



COMPUTER INTERFACES 
& PERIPHERALS 



• POS 100 NRZ1 TAPE DRIVE CONTROLLER/FORMATTER Now your 
micro can read and write IBM/ANSI compatible NRZ1 format 9-track magnetic 

tapes. The POS-1 00 consists of S-1 00 bus card, 6' ribbon cable, tape drive controller 
card, cable to Pertec-Standard NRZ1 Tape drive, plus documentation and Z-80 or 
8080 software (specifiy). Power is derived from tape drive and S-100 bus. Ship Wt.-. 
10 lbs. Suggested Retail Price $995.00 

• POS 103/202 "MIX or MATCH" MODEM Unique POS control design permits 
use in one housing of both Bell-compatible 103 (0-300 baud) and 202 (0-1200 

baud) modem modules originally made by VADIC Corp. for a telephone company 
subsidiary. FEATURES: RS-232 serial Interface, auto-answer, auto-dial, LED 
display, telephone line interface via acoustic coupler, manual DAA, or auto-answer 
DAA (sold separately). FULLY ADJUSTED; no special tools required. 3,000 mile 
range over standard dial-up telephone lines. Ship wt.: 15 lbs. 

PRICES POS 103 Modem $199.95; POS 202 Modem $299.95; 

POS 202 Modem w/Auto-Answer $349.95; POS 103/202 Modem $499.95; 
FCC-Approved Auto-Answer DAA $ 1 25.00; Acoustic Coupler $29.95. 

• POS DAISYWHEEL PRINTER INTERFACE for TRS-80 Will drive Diablo 
HyType I, HyType II, and Qume Q and Sprint 3 printers. Includes IK user- 
available memory for custom print routines (such as graphics, bidirectional print- 
ing, etcj Programmed to respond to print commands from BASIC FLECTRIC 
PENCIL™, and SCRIPSIT™ software. Draws its power from printer. Ship wt.: 

5 lbs. Price $250.00 

Cables, each (Specify HyType I, HyType II, or Qume) $ 25.00 

• POS ASCII INTERFACE for IBM I/O SELECTRIC This Centronics-style 
parallel printer interface will drive an IBM Model 731 or 735 I/O typewriter 

(FBCD and Correspondence codes). No software needed. Features onboard EPROM 
which holds up to 8 ASCII-to-IBM code tables for different type spheres. Closed- 
loop operation runs at maximum printer speed; stops and starts on a single character 
without loss of data. Requires +12VDC and + 5VDC power source. Ship wt.: 

5 lbs. Price $249 95 

Power Supply ( + 5VDC, +12VDC, +24VDC tor Solenoids on Printer) ..'..% 49^95 

• CONVERT OFFICE SELECTRIC TO I/O TYPEWRITER Kit includes 
assembled solenoids, switches, wire harness, magnet driver PCB plus instructions 

for installation and mCPU interface. Price $150.00 

• "FORMALINER" Variable Width Forms Tractor for 15" Selectrics . . . $95.00 

• GTE Model 560 ASCII SELECTRIC I/O Terminal With RS-232 Serial Interface 
and digital cassette deck for use as memory typewriter. Ship wt.: 100 lbs. 

Price, tested and adjusted $1,195.00 

• POS ASCII IBM SELECTRIC PRINTER 15 Selectric from GTE terminal 
cleaned and adjusted with POS Centronics-style ASCII printer interface. UC/LC, 

carbon and fabric ribbons. Compatible with FRS-8Q, Apple, SOL and other CPU 
parallel printer ports. Ship wt.: 75 lbs. Price . $895.00 

PACIFIC OFFICE SYSTEMS ^153 
2265 Old Middlefield Way Mountain View, Calif 94043 (415)493 7455 



54 Microcomputing, May 1981 



I 



the finest word processor for 



UTTT 




******************************************** 



Now Version 1.3 

WP6502 is accepted as being the best 
word processor for OSI computers. That 
was version 1.2. Now there's Version 1.3! 
V1.3 is the ultra simple, professional and 
powerful version of WP6502. In addition to 
the exclusive features that made V1.2 the 
leader, V1.3 has built-in memory and disk 
tests, headers, true proportional justify, 
print from anywhere, super-simple editing, 
and on and on. 

Justification features even allow total 
control over both character and line pitch. 
This ad was prepared with V1.3 using a 10 
pitch wheel set at 12 pitch and 8 lines per 
inch. Headings are 6 pitch. How many 
other word processors can do that! (How 
many other word processing software houses 
would dare to use their word processor to 
produce their own ads?) 



$250, $100 or $50 

V1.3 costs $250 and is available for all 
OSI machines except the CI, for either 65D 
or 65U, single or multi-user. VI. 2 is 
still available for all OSI machines at 
$100 for disk systems or $50 for cassette. 
Send for our WP6502 brochure to see all the 
details and to see the total range of Dwo's 
word processing software. 



More Software Too! 

As the most reputable name for OSI 
software, Dwo has been constantly asked to 
produce non-word processing software. 
Finally we have! Games, utilities and 
business applications that are the best (we 
guarantee it). Send for our software 
brochure too. 

******************************************** 



^87 



Dwo Quong Fok Lok Sow 
23 E. 20th Street 
New York, NY 10003 
(212) 673-6310 




SPECIAL DELIVERY 



WORDPROCESSING 

■ POWER - 

for the TRS-80® 

"...If you're presently looking for a mailing list proc- 
essor, this represents the current state of the art." 

80 MICROCOMPUTING - 80 REVIEWS - JULY 1980 

MAILFORM is data entry at its best, just fill in 

the form! FAST, EASY to use functions include: 

search, sort, extract, page forward and back. 

Transparent cursor', insert/delete characters, 

and MORE! 

MAILRITE prints 'personalized' form letters 

by inserting information from MAILFORM into 

Electric Pencil®, Scripsit®, or BASIC text files. 

Print letters, labels, even envelopes! Boldface, 

underscore, change margins, pause, print 

'unprintable' characters, and MORE! 

XTRA! includes: MAILFORM; MAILRITE - 

with capability of printing variable text from 

a 'key' file; MAIL ABEL - 1, 2, 3, or 4 across 

label printer; and MAILSORT - sort a full 

40 track double density data diskette in 

only 48K! 

ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE 

means unsurpased 

SPEED, RELIABILITY & EASE OF USE 
For VISA, Master Card & COD orders only 

Call NOW - TOLLFREE 

(800) 824-7888 

ASK FOR OPERATOR 203 

California (800) 852-7777 
Hawaii & Alaska (800) 824-7919 

For more information call (214) 233-3998 
(Requires min 32K single disk drive) 

FOR THE MODEL I & III 

SPECIAL DELIVERY $125 

XTRA SPECIAL DELIVERY ..$199 

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(Raquiraa Mod II DOS vanion 2.0) 

TKS 80 is d registered trademark nt, Tandy Corp. 



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software concepts 

13534 Preston Rd. Suite 142 
Dallas, Texas 75240 

Dealer Inquiries invited 



^See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 55 



Now discover what's available in text processing software for the 6800 and 6809. 



wc*w*v.. 



i;.»»\(Vi-. . 



6800's 

Best'Kept Secrets 



*& 



Screditor II 
S 



r# 



TSC 



* 






vKAlCla;{«5jiB. 



By Peter A. Stark 



l*i;v.; 



^%«SW22E; 



^25*^$ 



^■•'.■■■v.^^..-,-.. .— 



i^aaata;; 



Computer magazines have been 
full of stories on Electric Pencil, 
Wordstar, Scripsit and a variety of 
other text processing software for 
8080 systems. As a result, few read- 
ers know that there are some mighty 
fine text editors and text processors 
for 68xx systems. 

There are essentially four different 
packages from four different ven- 
dors: 

The TSC Text Editor and Text Pro- 
cessor programs from Technical Sys- 
tems Consultants (Box 2570, West 
Lafayette, IN 47906). The programs 
are available for both 6800 and 6809 
systems, and the total price for both 
is about $100, depending on version. 

The All-in-One editor/processor 
from AAA Chicago Computer Center 
(120 Chestnut Lane, Wheeling, IL 
60090). Available in both 6800 and 
6809 versions, it costs $35; source 
listing is also available. 

The Screditor II editor/processor 
from Alford and Associates (PO Box 
6743, Richmond, VA 23230). It is cur- 
rently available only for 6800 sys- 
tems, and costs about $80. Printed 
source listing or code on disk are 
available at extra charge. 

The Stylograph editor/processor 
from Sonex Systems (Box 238, Wil- 
liamsville, NY 14221). Currently on- 
ly available for 6809 systems at $ 135- 
195, depending on version. 

Of course, several other text editors 



Address correspondence to Peter A. Stark, POBox 
209, Mt. Kisco, NY 10549. 



56 Microcomputing, May 1981 



are suitable for preparing either text 
or program material, but without text 
processing ability. 

Editors vs Processors 

There is a fairly clear-cut differ- 
ence between an editor and a text 
processor. 

An editor is generally used to enter 
either text material or programs into 
the computer from a keyboard. The 
result is then a file on either tape or 
disk. To be most useful, an editor 
should allow the user to correct mis- 
takes, move text around, copy select- 
ed lines to produce duplicate ones 
and, in general, edit the text. Once 
the file is prepared, the editor should 
let the user read it back into the com- 
puter, do some more editing and pre- 
pare a new file. In other words, an 
editor is primarily an input program. 

A processor, on the other hand, is 
an output program. It takes a (sup- 
posedly error-free) file either from 
memory, tape or disk, and outputs it 
to the printer. While doing this, the 
processor may process the text in 
some way— separate it into lines of 
equal length, indent paragraphs, 
break up the text into pages, center 
headings, provide page headings and 
page numbers and so forth. In other 
words, the purpose of the processor 
is to take the text in the file and ar- 
range it so that the printed output 
looks neat. 

Thus, editors can be used to input 
text, programs or even data files to be 
used by other programs. Processors, 
on the other hand, work with text. 
For example, this article was first ed- 



ited by a text editor, and then printed 
out by a processor. 

The editor and the processor can be 
separate programs (as in the TSC 
package), or combined into one large 
program (as in the other three). Both 
approaches have good and bad points, 
as we shall see. 

Text editors are generally either 
line- or character-oriented, though in 
some cases the distinction is some- 
what blurred. 

In general, a text editor holds much 
more text in memory than can be dis- 
played on the terminal at any given 
time. If the text in memory is divided 
into lines (usually with lines separat- 
ed by carriage return characters, hex 
0D or octal 015), then the editor is 
line-oriented. If, on the other hand, 
the text is stored as one long string of 
characters without returns, then it is 
character-oriented. This is related to 
the way that text is entered from the 
keyboard— if the editor requires that 
a CR be typed at the end of each line, 
then it is line-oriented; if input can be 
typed in continuously without CR 
characters, then it is character-orient- 
ed. 

A line-oriented editor generally ed- 
its one line at a time. Regardless of 
whether a CRT terminal or a hard- 
copy terminal is used, it usually 
(though not always) displays one line 
at a time, which is called the current 
line. Editing is done within that one 
line, and when a change is made, that 
line is displayed. Since only one line 
need be output at a time, such an edi- 
tor is ideal for use with a hard-copy 
terminal such as a teletypewriter. For 



that reason, all of the early editors 
were of this type. (There are, though, 
some line-oriented editors which use 
a fast CRT display, and often display 
the current line in the middle of the 
screen, with adjacent lines above and 
below.) 

Character-oriented editors are 
somewhat different. They nearly al- 
ways require a fast CRT display with 
an addressable cursor. Rather than 
having a current line, they have a 
current character, which is identified 
by the current cursor position. The 
cursor can be moved up and down or 
sideways by using the keyboard (or 
sometimes a joystick). Editing 
changes then occur at the cursor posi- 
tion. 

The difference can most easily be 
seen when making changes. Suppose 
you want to change the word "neces- 
cary" to "necessary." With a charac- 
ter-oriented editor, the cursor is 
moved under the second c, and an s 
typed on the keyboard changes the 
current character to an s. The editor 
knows which character to change by 
the position of the cursor. 

With a line-oriented editor, on the 
other hand, pointing to the line is not 
enough— it is also necessary to tell the 
editor which c to change to s since 
there are two c's in 'necescary' and 
there might be even more in the line. 
This is done either by counting, or by 
specifying the context. 

Using counting, the command 
might be "change the second occur- 
rence of c to an s." If you count 
wrong, the wrong c will be changed. 
With context, the command might be 
"change 'scary' to 'ssary.' " Enough 
of a string would be specified so that, 
hopefully, there would not be anoth- 
er similar one on the line to change. 
This often means that the user has to 
type in not only the new text, but also 
the old text so that the editor can fig- 
ure out what to replace. This is quite 
time-consuming. 

The difference between a line-ori- 
ented editor and a character-oriented 
editor can also be seen in how text is 
moved from one place to another. In 
a line-based editor, the editing com- 
mand goes something like "take lines 
135 through 145, and put them after 
line 10." In other words, entire lines 
must be moved. A character-based 
editor can move just sentences, 
words or even characters from one 
place to another. Though this is more 
versatile, the command to do the job 
is more complex since it is necessary 
to specify exactly what string is 

^See List of Advertisers on page 242 



moved from where to where. For ex- 
ample, in Stylograph, the string being 
moved must first be enclosed by a 
double bracket. Then it is removed, 
and the cursor is positioned to its new 
location so the editor can place it 
there. 

The TSC Text Editor 

Historically, the TSC Text Editor 
was the first 6800 editor (actually, a 
small TSC editor preceded this one, 
but was never very popular). It is 
now also available for the 6809. 

The original TSC version was for 
cassette systems, and required just 
slightly over 5K of RAM for the pro- 
gram; in a 32K system that left almost 
27K of memory for text files (though, 
of course, few of us had that much 
RAM back then) . 

When disk systems became com- 
mon, the cassette editor was adapted 
to run with them. Thus SWTP sup- 
plied the editor with the MiniFlex 
DOS and its five-inch disk systems; 
Smoke Signal offered it for their SSB 
disk systems; Percom offered a patch 
to make it work on their disk system 
as well. All of these editors were 
based on the original cassette ver- 
sion, with just some patches added to 
tie it into the disk system. 

Eventually, TSC reassembled it to 
work with Flex 2.0, and once again to 
work with Flex 9 on the 6809. 

In line with its origins back in the 
mechanical teleprinter days, the TSC 
editor is line oriented. It has a variety 
of commands which allow 

• inserting or deleting lines 

• moving and copying lines 

• searching for specified strings 

• replacing a specified string by an- 
other 

• adding text to a line 

It is an extremely versatile editor, but 
like other line-oriented editors is 
slightly awkward when editing on 
the character level. In some cases, 
adding additional functions to the 
TSC Editor is possible. For example, 
Percom' s patch to the editor provides 
a new EDIT command which to some 
extent simplifies editing within a 
line. When CRT terminals are used, 
then the patch presented in next 
month's installment of this series can 
provide character-by-character edit- 
ing like the more typical character- 
oriented editors. 

The most important aspect of the 
TSC Editor lies in its use of tape or 
disk files. 

The original cassette editor used 
tape files via a Kansas City interface 



on the control port. Although the tape 
format was fixed, and not compatible 
with that of any other software (in- 
cluding TSC's own processor), tape 
commands were quite versatile. The 
entire file could be written, or else 
just a part of the text could be output; 
new text being read in could be ap- 
pended to that already in memory. 
Hence it was possible to combine 
files, or to break up long texts into 
several files in any sequence. 

When the editor was adapted to 
MiniFlex and Flex, the situation was 
reversed. Disk format was now com- 
patible with other software, so that 
the editor could prepare or edit as- 
sembly language or BASIC programs, 
and even data files used by BASIC. 
On the other hand, it could no longer 
be used to combine files. 

When Flex and SSB DOS versions 
of the editor are called, input and/or 
output file names are specified, as 
part of the DOS command. If the file 
does not exist, a new file is created; if 
it does exist, then it is loaded and the 
old file is automatically made into a 
backup file. Hence backup files are 
created automatically to guard against 
data loss. 



If you have (or want) 

a MODEM, you may 

need an OLCTD. 



The OLCTD (On-Line Computer Telephone Directory) is 
the source of information about, and news of, Online 
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The OLCTD 
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Regular features include communications hardware and 
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The On-Line Computer 
Telephone Directory 

To subscribe to this quarterly publication, send $9.95 for 
one year (or $15.95 for two years) to: 

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Microcomputing, May 1981 57 



CqmpuCquer 




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Full Apple II 12 96 

Apple II Keyboard 7 95 

Apple II Disk 3 95 

Apple II Dlak (stacked- two dlak) 7 95 

APPLE III available soon 

TPS-aO MODEL I 

Keyboard t 7 95 

Cassette 4 95 

Video Display 9 95* 

Package Offer 18 95* 
•NOTE Add $3 00 for Expansion Interlace 

TRS-80 5". Dlak $ 4 95 

Two Dlak Cover (aide by aidel 7 95 
TRS-OO MODEL II 

Entire Unit $22 95 

Keyboard Only 7 95 

Three Dlak Unit 18" Drives) 18 96 

TRS-80 MODEL III $14 95 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 9 95 

Line Printer I $16 95 

Line Printer II 9 95 

Line Printer III 15 95 

Line Printer IV 9 95 

Line Printer VI 14 95 

Daisy Wheel Printer II 18 95 

Quick Printer I 9 95 

Quick Printer II 5 96 
PET COMPUTERS 

Pet 2001 $12 96 

Pet 8032 12.96 

Pet 2040 Dlak 12 95 

Pet 2022 Printer 9 95 

Pet 2023 Printer 7 96 

ATARI 800 $10 95 

Atari 400 9 96 

Atari 810 Disk 5 95 

CROMEMCO System Three $19 96 

Cromemco 3100 CRT 16 95 

Cromemco 3779 Printer 16.96 

Cromemco 3703 Printer 18 98 

SUPERBRAIN $19 96 

Emulator 1995 

Intertube 1996 

Superstar 19 95 
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H-19 H-89 CRT $18 96 

H-17 Disk 9 95 

H-27 Disk 12 95 

H-77 Disk 9 95 

H-8. H-11 Computers 12 95 

H-14 Printer 9 95 

H-34 Printor 15 95 

H-36 Printer 18 95 
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS 

Data System Terminal $19 95 

Oecscope Terminal 19 95 

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VT-100 Terminal 16 95 

Decprinter I 15 96 

Decwnter II 18 95 

Decwriter III 18 95 

Decwnter IV 15 96 
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C1P Computer with Keyboard $14 95 

C4P Computer with Keyboard 14 95 

C2D Computer 19 95 

COD Computer 19 95 

C2 OEM Computer 19 95 

C3 OEM Computer 19 95 

C3-S1 Computer (single) 16 95 

C3-S1 Computer {stacked! 22 95 
WANG COMPUTERS 

Terminal with diak $20 96 



Terminal without disk 18 95 

2221 Printer 19 96 

2221 W Printer 22 95 

2231 Printer 19 95 

2261 Printer 19 95 

CPT 8000 Computer $22 95 

CPT Rotary IV Printer 12 95 

CPT Rotary V Printer 15 96 

Compucolor II Entire Unit $16 96 

Compucoior ll Keyboard 5 95 

Vector Graphic MZ Computer $14 96 
Vector Graphic Mindless Terminal 18 95 

North Star Horizon $14 96 

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Sorcerer 9 95 

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Intercolor 3621 18 95 
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PolyMorphic Keyboard 7 95 
CRT's 

Televideo TV1 91 2 or 920 $14 95 

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Adds Terminals 25 100. 980. etc 19 95 

ADM -3 14 95 

Leedei Video 100 9 95 

Leede» Video 100-80 12 95 
PRINTERS 

NEC Spmwnter with Keyboard $15 95 
NEC Sptnwnter without Keyboard 15 96 

Diablo with Keyboard 15 96 

Diablo without Keyboard 15 96 

Xerox with Keyboard 1595 

Xerox without Keyboard 15 95 

Qume Sprint III 14 95 

Qume Sprint V with Keyboard 15 95 
Qume Sprint V without Keyboard 15 95 

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Trendcom 100 or 200 9 95 

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700 701 702. 703. 704 753 18 96 

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Centronics PI 730 737 9 95 

Comprint 912 12 95 

Anadei DP8000 12 95 

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C* i data 22 15 95 

Okidata SL12S 15 96 

Ok. data SL250 15 95 
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Micropolis 1041 1042. 1043. 1063 $ 9 95 

Vista Double Disk 9 96 

Vista 5' 4 Disk 6 95 

Matchless 5' «" Disk 6 96 

Lobo Double 8 Disk 9 96 

Lobo 5'« Disk 6 96 

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Percom 5'« Disk 4 95 
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IBM 3610 Printer $12 95 

IBM 3604 Keyboard 9 96 

IBM 3610 and 3604 Ensemble 15 96 

IBM 5120 Computer 22 95 

IBM 5103 Printer 19 95 

IBM 3276 22 95 

IBM 3278 22 95 

IBM 5251 icn & keyboard) 22 95 

IBM 5251 Keyboard 9 95 
DATA GENERAL 

Dasher IP2 $15 96 

Dasher TP1 15 95 

Dasher TP2 15 96 

Dasher D100 19 95 

Dasher D200 19 95 

6052 CRT and Keyboard 19 95 

6053 CRT and Keyboard 19 95 
Honeywell VIP 7200 I en » key board I $22 95 



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Include $1.50 for postage and handling. 
Overseas orders include $4. OX) postage. 

DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



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P.O. Box 324 (Dept. A) 
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Phone (904) 243-5793 



■^90 



This idiot-proof feature is designed 
to protect against mistakes, but it also 
creates some problems, since there 
must always be enough room for 
both the original file as well as the 
new file. This can be especially 
troublesome for single-drive disk us- 
ers, for it limits file size to somewhat 
less than half a disk (since the editor 
must also be disk resident). 

The Percom version (which is actu- 
ally a patch to the cassette TSC Edi- 
tor) is quite different. File names are 
specified as the editor is running, and 
are specified as disk sector addresses 
rather than file names. At any point it 
is possible just to read or write part of 
a file and then switch to a different 
file. For the more adventurous, it is 
possible even to overlay the new file 
over the old file. Thus it is possible to 
combine small files into a large file, 
or split a large file into several small- 
er files. 

By changing disks between disk 
calls, a full-disk file can be read from 
one disk and written onto another 
disk, even in a single drive. The use 
of sector addresses rather than names 
makes the process a bit more danger- 
ous if you don't keep careful records, 
but the versatility to my mind far out- 
weighs the disadvantages. (This arti- 
cle, for example, is being prepared on 
a 6800 system with the Percom-modi- 
fied editor on a Percom disk system. 
Before starting this last session, I 
loaded the text file beginning at sec- 
tor 007 on a disk, and when finished, 
will put it right back in the same 
place on the disk.) 

All of these editors allow editing of 
files larger than will fit into memory 
at one time. Flex editors read in as 
much of the file as will fit; when edit- 
ing on this portion is done, a NEW 
command is given to write all or part 
of the memory-resident text back on 
the disk, and read in more text from 
the input file. The Percom version 
has a ROLL command which does 
the same thing, but also allows selec- 
tive reading and writing of text. 

There isn't much else to be said 
about the TSC Editor — it is very capa- 
ble and well debugged. It works nice- 
ly and reliably, exactly as advertised. 

The TSC Text Processor 

This is a gem! Though it is the old- 
est of all, this processor is still prob- 
ably the best. It will run circles 
around the competition, be it for the 
6800, 8080, Z-80, or whatever. 

Basically, the text processor pro- 
cesses files prepared by a text editor; 



it has no editing capability of its own. 
The cassette version has a major 
problem. Though nominally a cas- 
sette version, it only comes on cas- 
sette—it has no cassette read com- 
mands as such. It assumes that the 
text is already somehow in memory, 
and has no way to read the nonstan- 
dard cassette format used by the text 
editor. A long time ago I came up 
with a solution, and will include it in 
a future installment if there is any in- 
terest. 

The disk versions simply read the 
text from the disk, one sector at a 
time, and process it. Since most disk 
motors stay on for quite a while after 
an access, this means that the motor 
may run continuously for as long as it 
takes to print the file, a minor incon- 
venience. 

Processor commands are inserted 
into the text during editing— any line 
beginning with a period in column 1 
is assumed to be a processor com- 
mand. Easily remembered mnemon- 
ics are used. For example, the text 

.SP3 
.CE l 

Processor Commands 
.SP 1 

This is a sample of a short text which is going 
to be processed by the processor. 

tells the processor to space three 
lines, center the following one line, 
space one line, and continue with the 
text. 

Frequently-used series of com- 
mands can be defined at the begin- 
ning as a macro, and then called just 
by the macro name. Moreover, on 
Flex disk systems, the macros can be 
put into a separate macro file on the 
disk, and automatically read b^ \k-e 
processor before processing. Thus, 
they need not be separately included 
in every text file being processed. 

Of more interest is what the proces- 
sor can do to text. Here is a short list: 

Text can be left or right justified, 
centered on a line, or left with a rag- 
ged right margin. When unjustified, 
it can be repeated exactly as typed in 
the source file, or else lines can be 
stretched or compressed to be all ap- 
proximately the same length. When 
justified, lines are stretched so they 
are all the same length. This is done 
by inserting extra spaces between 
words, with alternate lines being 
stretched on the left and right so that 
the extra spacing is not as obvious. 

Lines can be indented. 

Headings and footings can be auto- 
matically placed on every page as re- 
quired. This can include titles, which 



58 Microcomputing, May 1981 




SOFTWARE FOR OSI 





A JOURNAL FOR OSI USERS!! 

The Aardvark Journal is a bimonthly tutorial for OSI 
users. It features programs customized for OSI and 
has run articles like these: 

1) Using String Variables. 

2) High Speed Basic On An OSI. 
Z) Hooking a Cheap Printer To An OSI. 
4) An OSI Disk Primer. 



5) A Word Processor For Disk Or Tape Machines 

6) Moving The Disk Directory Off Track 12. 

First year issues already available! 
$9.00 per year (6 issues) 



ADVENTURES 

Adventures are interactive fantasies where you give the 
computer plain English commands (i.e. take the sword, 
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playing time is 30 to 40 hours in several sessions. 
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VAMPIRE CASTLE - A day in old Drac's 
castle. But it's getting dark outside. 
DEATH SHIP - It's a cruise ship - but it ain't 
the Love Boat and survival is far from certain. 
TREK ADVENTURE - Takes place on a 
familiar starship. Almost as 
good as being there. 



NEW SUPPORT ROMS FOR BASIC 
IN ROM MACHINES 



P.C. BOARDS 



and they 



C1S - for the C1P only, this ROM adds full 
screen edit functions (insert, delete, change 
characters in a basic line). Softwave selectable 
scroll windows, two instant screen clears (scroll 
window only and full screen), software chose of 
OSI or standard keyboard format. Bell support, 
600 Baud cassette support, and a few other 
features. It plugs in in place of the OSI ROM. 
NOTE : this ROM also supports video conversions 
for 24, 32, 48 or 64 characters per line. Replaces 
video swap tape on C1P model 2. All that and it 
sells for a measly $39.95. 

C1E/C2E for C1/C2/C4/C8 Basic in ROM ma- 
chines. This ROM adds full screen editing, soft- 
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tion (software selectable), and contains an ex- 
tended machine code monitor. It has breakpoint 
utilities, machine code load and save, block 
memory move and hex dump utilities. A must for 
the machine code programmer replaces OSI sup- 
port ROM. Requires installation of additional 
chip when installed inaC2orC4.C1 installation 
requires only a jumper move. Specify system 
$59.95. 



DISK UTILITIES 

SUPER COPY - Single Disk Copier 
This copy program makes multiple copies, 
copies track zero, and copies all the tracks 
that your memory can hold at one time — 
up to 12 tracks at a pass. It's almost as fast 
as dual disk copying. - $15.95 
MAXIPROSS (WORD PROCESSOR) - 65D 
polled keyboard only - has global and line edit, 
right and left margin justification, imbedded 
margin commands, choice of single, double or 
triple spacing, file access capabilities and all the 
features of a major word processor — and it's 
only $39.95. 



MEMORY BOARDS!! - for the C1P 

contain parallel ports! 

Aardvarks new memory board supports 8K 
of 2114's and has provision for a PIA to give a 
parallel ports! It sells as a bare board for $29.95. 
When assembled, the board plugs into the expan- 
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PROM BURNER FOR THE C1P - Burns single 
supply 2716's. Bare board - $24.95. 
MOTHER BOARD — Expand your expansion 
connector from one to five connectors or use it 
to adapt our C1P boards to your C4/8P. - $14.95. 

ARCADE AND VIDEO GAMES 

GALAXIA one of the fastest and finest arcade 
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TIME TREK (8K) - real time Startrek action. 
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INTERCEPTOR C1P ONLY! An all machine 
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MINOS - A game with amazing 3D graphics. 
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enough to cause claustrophobia. — $12.95 



SINGLE STEPPER /MONITOR 

This is probably the finest debugging tool for 
machine code ever offered for OSI systems. Its' 
trace function allows you to single step through 
a machine code program while it continuously 
displays the A, X, Y and status registers and the 
program and stack pointers. You can change any 
of the registers or pointers or any memory loca- 
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under 1k and can be relocated anywhere in free 
memory. It is a fine tool for all systems — and 
the best news of all is the extremely low price we 
put on it. - Tape $19.95 - Disk $24.95 

FOR DISK SYSTEMS - (65D, polled key- 
board and standard video only.) 
SUPERDISK. Contains a basic text editor with 
functions similar to the above programs and also 
contains a renumberer, variable table maker, 
search and new BEX EC* programs. The BEXEC* 
provides a directory, create, delete, and change 
utilities on one track and is worth having by 
itself. - $24.95 on 5" disk - $26.95 on 8". 

AARDVARK IS NOW AN OSI DEALER! 

Now you can buy from people who can support 
your machine. 

- THIS MONTH'S SPECIALS - 

Superboard II $279 

C1P Model II 429 

C4P 749 

8K 610 board for C1P 269 

Epson MX-80 printer with RS232 installed 595 

. . . and we'll include a free Text Editor Tape 
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True 32X32 Video Mod Plans for C1P 

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$7.95 



V^l 




This is only a partial listing of what we have to offer. We now offer over 100 programs, data sheets, ROMS, and boards 
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See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 59 



can be centered, flush left, or flush 
right, as well as page numbers in 
either Arabic or Roman numerals. 
Page numbers are automatically kept 
track of by the processor. If desired, 
headings and footings can be differ- 
ent on even and odd pages; for exam- 
ple, the page number could be on the 
lower left corner of even pages, and 
the lower right corner of odd pages; 
for a text to be printed on both sides 
of the paper, this would place the 
page numbers on the lower outside 
corners. 

In addition to the automatic page 
numbering, the processor maintains 
a number of internal registers which 
can be manipulated by the text and 
included in the processed output. For 
example, it can automatically insert 
dates as required, or keep track of fig- 
ure or table numbers. 

But there are various other features 
as well. Suppose that the text is to in- 
clude a table which must be together 
all on one page. The .NL command 
can specify that a certain number of 
lines is needed at any point; if the 
processor does not have that many 
lines available on the page, it will 



space to the next page and continue 
there. This will guarantee that 
enough room exists for the figure or 
table. 

The processor also handles foot- 
notes. In the source text, the footnote 
is included directly after the word it 
applies to. When the processor is out- 
putting text, it will place the footnote 
at the bottom of the page. If there is 
not enough room, it will be continued 
at the bottom of the next page. 

The processor can print out in a 
continuous stream for printers using 
roll or fan-fold paper, or can pause at 
the end of each page to permit a new 
sheet of paper to be inserted. It can 
drive the standard terminal, or an op- 
tional printer driver can be included 
for output on a separate printer. 

When a printer is used, the proces- 
sor can print messages on the termi- 
nal and accept additional text from 
there to include in the text stream. 
Thus, it could be used to customize 
form letters. 

There is more than can be reason- 
ably written up here. There are some 
disadvantages, of course. There is so 
much to the processor that very few 



users would ever learn all of it. I have 
developed a usable subset of its com- 
mands that I commonly use, and the 
rest just lies forgotten. I shudder at 
the thought of a secretary trying to 
learn it all. Fortunately, both editor 
and processor commands use mne- 
monics for the corresponding opera- 
tions, which makes them easier to re- 
member. 

Unfortunately, current versions of 
the processor do not support the new 
daisywheel printers that offer pro- 
portional spacing, underlining, sub- 
scripts and superscripts. But TSC is 
rumored to be working on a newer 
version which would work with 
them. 

The All-in-One Editor/Processor 

Of all the 68xx editors and proces- 
sors, the All-in-One at $35 must be 
the cheapest. I have not actually had 
the chance to try it out, so my com- 
ments will be based on documenta- 
tion and discussions with its vendor. 

This editor/processor contains both 
editing and processing functions in 
one program. It is line-oriented, and 
can be used on ordinary CRT termi- 



Model EP-2A-88 

EPROM Programmer 




Fast as Jackrabbits . . . Well, almost! 

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EP-2A-88 checks if EPROMS are erased, programs and verifies. 
It also checks for defective EPROMS. 

Two basic models are available, The EP-2A-88-1 will accept Copy 
(CM) modules for the 2758, and 2716 EPROMS. The EP-2A-88-2 
will accept copy modules for the 2716, 2732 and TMS 2532 
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Part No. Description Price 

EP 2A 88 1 EPROM Programmer $490 oo 

EP 2A-88 2 EPROM Programmer 490 oo 

CM 50 Copy Module for 2716. TMS 2516 EPROMS 25 00 

CM 70 Copy Module for 2758 EPROMS 25 00 

CM 20 Copy Module for 2732 EPROMS 25 00 

CM 40 Copy Module for TMS 2532 EPROMS 25^00 

Non Standard Voltage Option (220 v, 240 v, 100 v) 15.00 

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60 Microcomputing, May 1981 



nals as well as hard-copy terminals. 

Its editing is straightforward, and 
text can be inserted, deleted or 
changed. It can be moved from place 
to place, or copied. Lines can be cen- 
tered or justified, and output can be 
separated into pages and pages num- 
bered. 

Output can be to the standard port 
1 terminal, or to a separate printer. 
The editor/processor can issue spe- 
cial printer control characters to 
printers to produce special functions 
such as bold print or underlining. 
Either serial or parallel interfaces can 
be used. 

The All-in-One editor processor has 
versatile file-handling capabilities. It 
can merge smaller files together, or 
separate a long file into several small- 
er files. It can also edit very long files 
by bringing them into memory a piece 
at a time, as much as fits into avail- 
able memory. (It is available in 6800 
or 6809 Flex or SSB DOS versions). 

This particular editor/processor is 
unique among the 68xx programs in 
that it easily handles mailing lists and 
label printing. It is possible to bring in 
a main text file, and intermix it with 



text from a second disk file. For ex- 
ample, the text for a letter can be in 
the main file, while a second disk file 
can have a list of names and ad- 
dresses. The editor/processor will 
then read the name/address file and 
insert it into the body of the letter. 
Thus, it can print customized form 
letters which can also contain cus- 
tomized salutations and even custom- 
ized text. 

If the main file is empty, then just 
the names and addresses can be 
printed. This is useful for printing la- 
bels only. Labels can be printed one 
across a line, or several across. Inter- 
estingly enough, the same function 
that allows for printing two or more 
labels across a line can also be used to 
print text in two columns across a 
page. That is a fairly unique capabili- 
ty among processors. 

The Screditor II Editor/Processor 

As the name implies, the Screditor 
II is a screen editor. It is available for 
video-board-based systems, and does 
its editing directly on the screen. It is 
available for several 6800 disk oper- 
ating systems, including Flex and SSB 



DOS, as well as several different vid- 
eo boards, including the F&D, Gimix, 
Percom and Thomas boards. (It is not 
currently available for 6809 systems, 
but may well appear in that form la- 
ter.) 

In a strict sense, Screditor II is an 
editor, not a processor. But it is in- 
cluded here because it does have 
some processor commands, and can 
therefore be used for limited process- 
ing as well as editing. 

Screditor II is character-oriented. 
The keyboard controls the cursor, 
which can be moved anywhere on 
the screen. In addition, the text can 
be scrolled up or down on the screen 
as well. Once the cursor is properly 
positioned, the editor can insert, de- 
lete or change text. As this is done, 
the revised text appears directly on 
the screen. 

The editor has two operating 
modes— line and text. In line mode, 
entry of each line is ended by a car- 
riage return, and the cursor stops at 
the end of the line when it runs out of 
room. This mode is used for entering 
programs. 

In text mode, text is entered with- 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 61 



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out typing carriage returns. When the 
cursor reaches the right margin 
(whose location is specified by the us- 
er), it automatically goes to the next 
line. Moreover, the word being typed 
at that point is moved to the next line 
as well, so that words are not split up 
across line boundaries. In this way it 
is not necessary to watch the screen 
and hit the return at the end of each 
line, as is necessary with the TSC text 
editor to avoid running off the end of 
the line. 

Since moving words around the 
screen and memory takes time, 
Screditor II (like most screen editors) 
can accept keyboard input via inter- 
rupts. In this way keyboard charac- 
ters being typed while the editor is 
busy rearranging characters in mem- 
ory or on the screen aren't lost— they 
are put into a queue and processed in 
turn as soon as the editor gets to 
them, seldom more than a fraction of 
a second later. 

To simplify text entry even more, it 
is possible to pre-define words, 
phrases, or commands as macros, 
and then refer to them by a single 
character. (This would have been es- 
pecially useful in preparing this arti- 
cle, since phrases like 'Screditor II' 
wouldn't have to be typed over and 
over.) Tabs can be set to ease text or 
program entry. 

Once the text has been entered, it 
can be manipulated. Left and right 
margins can be redefined, and text 
rearranged to fit them. Lines can be 
centered, made flush right, shortened 
or lengthened. All this happens on 
the screen, and it would be interest- 
ing to watch words move around— if 
it didn't happen so fast. It is also pos- 
sible to justify lines, although the 
command sequence is a bit awkward 
—after all, this is an editor, not a full 
processor. 

File manipulation is extremely ver- 
satile. It is possible to edit extremely 
large text, larger than available mem- 
ory, since Screditor II will read large 
files into memory in segments. It is 
also possible to merge disk files, or to 
split a large file into smaller ones. 
One interesting application is to put 
individual phrases or sentences on 
the disk as separate files, and then 
write form letters by picking the ap- 
propriate ones as needed. 

When editing an old file from disk, 
Screditor II automatically assigns se- 
quential extensions (such as .X01, 
.X02, etc.) to succeeding generations 
of text so that it is easy to keep track 
of which came last. 



Screditor II has facilities for printer 
routines; this, combined with its on- 
screen editing, makes it possible to 
format a text on the screen exactly as 
desired, and then print a final docu- 
ment. 

As compared with the TSC editor/ 
processor combination, Screditor II 
does have disadvantages— its pro- 
cessing is limited, for example, and 
there are no provisions for page num- 
bering or page titles. There are many 
possible editing commands, and 
many of them are very hard to re- 
member. For example, control-E 
means insert, control-I means tab, 
control-T means lowercase, control-L 
means go down and so on. (Part of the 
problem, of course, is that there are 
quite a few commands in a combina- 
tion editor and processor, and not all 
of them can be identified by unique 
mnemonics. Stylograph, for exam- 
ple, has exactly the same problem.) 

Moving text around is also some- 
what awkward. Essentially, to move 
a block of text from one place to an- 
other, Screditor II writes it out to disk 
as a temporary work file, and then 
reads it back into its new place. This 
is not nearly as fast or convenient as 
the MOVE or COPY commands of 
TSC's editor. 

On the other hand, the ability to see 
on the screen exactly what the final 
document will look like is very use- 
ful. 

Customization to various systems 
is especially well-handled. To make 
adaptation easier, Alford and Associ- 
ates supply a second program called 
SYSGEN in the package. SYSGEN 
should be run first, even before try- 
ing Screditor II. 

SYSGEN asks questions about the 
system configuration— such as what 
kind of video board is used, what 
kind of keyboard, system addresses 
for the video memory and keyboard, 
margin and page size and so on. Then 
it generates assembly language 
source code for a patch which must 
be assembled and overlaid over 
Screditor to adapt it to the specific 
system configuration. 

This is an exceptionally good ar- 
rangement, since the resulting code 
prepared by SYSGEN is itself very 
well commented. Thus, even if SYS- 
GEN doesn't quite cover the exact 
system configuration, it is a simple 
matter to edit the resulting source file 
before assembly. Moreover, the 
source program, along with the infor- 
mation in the manual, makes it easy 
to reconfigure Screditor II if the sys- 



62 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 63 



tern is changed in the future. (The 
manual does not contain a complete 
source listing for Screditor II, but it is 
available separately at extra cost. I 
originally thought I would need it to 
try out the editor on my very non- 
standard system, but it turned out 
that the normal documentation along 
with SYSGEN was quite sufficient.) 

Stylograph Editor/Processor 

The newest of the four editor/pro- 
cessors described here is Stylograph. 
It combines a full-fledged, screen-ori- 
ented, character-oriented text editor 
with a text processor. 

Stylograph is available only in a 
6809 version to run either under Flex 
or under Microware's OS-9 (it is the 
only OS-9 editor/processor currently 
available). It requires either a Gimix 
24x80 video board, or a CRT termi- 
nal running preferably at 9600 baud, 
and supports either a plain TTY-style 
printer, or one of the daisywheel 
printers (but not the older Diablo Hy- 
type I). When using daisywheel 
printers, Stylograph can provide un- 
derlining, bold face and even sub- 
scripts and superscripts. In some 
cases, the print driver may also do 



forward-backward printing. Unfor- 
tunately, as Sonex does not supply 
any program listings or customiza- 
tion information, it must be ordered 
for the specific hardware configura- 
tion to be used. 

As with Screditor II, editing is done 
by moving the cursor to the location 
to be edited, and then typing away. 
As a change is made, Stylograph im- 
mediately makes the change on the 
screen. If necessary, a word extend- 
ing past the end of the line is moved 
to the next line, and the rest of the 
paragraph is rearranged. Since this 
may take some time, Stylograph also 
uses interrupt-driven keyboard in- 
put, so that characters typed in while 
Stylograph is busy are saved in a 
queue and processed when ready. 

Text processing commands similar 
to those used by the TSC processor 
can be embedded in the text to justify 
text, center lines, skip spaces, pro- 
vide for page headings or footings, 
number pages and so on. (In fact, 
there is a striking similarity between 
TSC commands and Stylograph com- 
mands—for example, the TSC com- 
mand to center one line is .CE 1 
whereas the command is ,ce 1 in 



Stylograph.) Most of the TSC proces- 
sor functions are implemented here, 
though some are not— for example, 
Stylograph cannot automatically 
number figures, insert dates, or prop- 
erly position footnotes. 

Take as an example this article. In 
manuscript form it takes up just un- 
der 33K characters. In a standard 
6800 system having 32K of continu- 
ous memory from $0000 through 
$7FFF (and assuming that the DOS is 
located elsewhere), subtracting about 
7K for an editor such as TSC's leaves 
about 25K of memory. Thus this arti- 
cle does not fit, and must be edited in 
two pieces. 

The TSC editor, as well as Screditor 
II, can edit it as one big file, however, 
although it does so only one part at a 
time. The TSC processor can process 
the entire file in one piece, since it on- 
ly reads in part of the file at a time. 
(My own nonstandard system, which 
has I/O moved to address $F800, has 
40K of continuous memory, and thus 
I can edit and process the entire 33K 
article in one piece.) Thus it is quite 
feasible to edit and process this arti- 
cle on the 6800. (The same is true of a 
6809 with the TSC editor and proces- 



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^See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 65 



sor.) 

But take the same 48K system with 
a 6809 and Stylograph. Subtract 8K 
for a DOS and about 17K for Stylo- 
graph, and less than 23K is left for 
text. Since the text cannot be seg- 
mented, this article cannot be edited 
or processed. Even a 56K system, as 
large as one can get without going in- 
to memory mapping and extended 
addressing, is just a bit too small. 

On the other hand, Stylograph does 
offer a few functions which the other 
editors do not. For instance, a "ghost 
hyphen" can be inserted into a long 
word. If the word appears in the mid- 
dle of a line, then the hyphen disap- 
pears. But if the word appears at the 
end of a line, then the hyphen may be 
used to split up the word if necessary. 
All of this is, of course, automatic. 

The major difference is that the 
TSC editor/processor is a two-step 
process. You insert the processing 
commands into the text with the edi- 
tor, and then execute the processor to 
see whether they worked. Since it is 
easy to forget a command or use the 
wrong one, it is often necessary to go 
back between the editor and proces- 
sor several times before the output 
text looks just right. In Stylograph 
(and Screditor II as well) the effect of 
processing commands appears di- 
rectly on the screen, so you immedi- 
ately see the text as it will appear in 
the final printout. 

Stylograph is capable of merging 
smaller files into one file memory, or 
writing out parts of the text in mem- 
ory to different output files. But it has 
one serious limitation— if a text file is 
too big to fit into memory at one time, 
it cannot segment it and process one 



part at a time. Thus the maximum file 
size is limited by memory size. The 
situation is compounded by the fact 
that Stylograph is big (since it com- 
bines both an editor and a processor 
in one, it takes about 17K of memory). 

Although a long text could be split 
into two smaller files, this creates 
problems for a text processor since 
the first file might end in the middle 
of a page, and there is no way to con- 
tinue printing the second file so that it 
exactly continues in the same place 
where the first file left off. 

A second disadvantage of Stylo- 
graph is the fact that a specific ver- 
sion must be purchased for each 
hardware configuration. While it is 
unlikely that a user would change the 
entire system, it is quite possible that 
he might change to a different video 
board or different terminal. In that 
case, he would have to get a new ver- 
sion of Stylograph, since its output 
drivers are specifically tailored to the 
display hardware. 

Stylograph can be used with either 
a video board or terminal versatile 
enough to move the cursor around 
and clear the screen. On a screen-ori- 
ented editor, being able to locate the 
cursor quickly is a definite asset, and 
both Stylograph as well as Screditor II 
make it easier by flashing the cursor 
at certain times. 

There is an interesting contrast 
here between Stylograph and Scredi- 
tor II. Stylograph is only available for 
one video board (the Gimix 24x80 
board), and Sonex prefers to use so- 
phisticated terminals (such as Hazel- 
tine, Heath, and others) which pro- 
vide cursor control and screen scroll- 
ing on command. Screditor II, on the 



other hand, supports a variety of vid- 
eo boards but not sophisticated termi- 
nals. 

In those cases where an intelligent 
terminal is used, the two programs 
can run roughly at equivalent speeds. 
But when a dumb terminal is used, or 
where the terminal simply does not 
support hardware scrolling so that an 
entire screen must be rewritten to 
scroll up or down one line, then 
Stylograph is hampered by the baud 
rate limitations of the serial line to the 
terminal. 

Which Is Best? 

There is really no definite answer 
to this question, as each editor/pro- 
cessor does things the others can't. To 
a large extent it depends on the hard- 
ware you have available, and the use 
to which you will put the system. I 
suppose it breaks down like this: 

For 6800 cassette systems: no 
choice. Only TSC supports cassette. 

For Percom disk systems: TSC 
(Screditor II or All-in-One if running 
Flexor SSB DOS). 

For extensive and complicated pro- 
cessing: TSC. 

For labels and form letters: All-in- 
One. 

For video-board systems not using 
Gimix board: Screditor II. 

For SSB disk systems: Screditor II, 
All-in-One, or TSC (from SSB). 

For OS-9: Stylograph. 

For intelligent video terminals: 
Stylograph. 

For very long files: TSC, All-in- 
One, or Screditor II. 

For 6809 cassette systems— sorry, 
no choice. None of them will do.H 



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ware such as the Stylograph Screen-Oriented Word Processor 
available now, and in the future will be announcing other 
languages and utilities that run under 0S9. And coming soon 
from MICROWARE will be 0S9 Level 2 that lets you address 
up to 1 megabyte of memory. 

GIMIX & GHOST are trademarks of GIMIX Inc.. Basic 09. 0S9 and 
Microware are trademarks of Motorola and Microware Inc. 



For further info on the best in 6809 Hardware, contact 



Gimix 



(v) uimi^s 

^^^ I The Company that delivers 

^^^ \ Quality Electronic products since 1975. 

1337 WEST 37th PLACE, CHICAGO, IL 60609 
(312)927-5510 • TWX 910-221-4055 

For further info on the best in 6809 Software, contact 




MICROWAR€ 

Microware Systems Corp. 

5K15 (.irand Avenue. I k» Moines. Iowa 5<M>4 

(515) 279-H844 • TWIX 910-520-2535 

See us at NCC booth 971-2 



66 Microcomputing, May 1981 



FOR APPLE II AND APPLE II PLUS COMPUTERS 

DoubleVision" 




80 x 24 Video Display with Upper and Lower Case 

COLUMNS UNES 

• is a hardware board that may be plugged into any slot in Apple II or Apple II Plus 32K or 48K Disks • full 128 ASCII character set, including 
control characters • fully programmable cursor • built in light pen capability • inverse video • full cursor control • works with 
50760Hz • has 2k of its own screen memory • has its own video output jack that must be connected to a monitor (or a high band width black 
& white TV thru a good RF modulator). Color TVs produce a poor display and are not recommended. • permits you to connect another 
monitor (or a T.V. set thru RFmod) to the Apple video output jack • displays 24 lines of 80 column text — programmable for different 
values • permits you to have graphics on Apple video output • video output and Apple video output may be connected to one monitor thru 
optional video switch • is active only when addressed for reading from or writing to • accepts lower case input from keyboard by use of 
escape key. (no modification required) or direct use of shift key (1-wire connection from shift key pad to DoubleVision required). • is compati- 
ble with the latest version of various word processing software packages. Presently these include Apple-pie 2.0— Programma International, 
Easywtter Professional system— Informational Unlimited, Text Editor/Formatter— Peripheral's Unltd. (when ordering from these companies, 
please ask for versions compatible with DoubleVision). All software available from Computer Stop when released. • Peripheral's Unltd. 
B.t.T.S. and P.I.T.S. and Southeastern Software's "DATA CAPTURE" with Micromodem and communication card. These packages give ability 
to upload, transfer and download files from remote computers, and all at 80 columns! • Programma Int. latest assembler LISA V:20 will sup- 
port full 80 column display • is transparent for use with Basic and Pascal • software on disk for easy modification and adaptation for dif- 
ferent applications • completely commented source listing of software and hardware schematics available • PASCAL 
(optional) • becomes the console when installed in Pascal • Permits 80 column text processing with full upper/lower case while using 
Pascal's editor • must be plugged into slot 3 when operating with Pascal 



Available now at your 



local computer store %p^%70-UU 



Call Computer Stop for Store nearest you 
Shipping, Insurance, Handling, extra 



Dealer inquiries invited. 
Contact: 

COMPUTER STOP CORP 
2545 West 237th St. 
Suite L 
Torrance, CA 90505 

539-7671 



Calif. Residents add 6% Sales Tax 
'Apple is a Registered TM of Apple Computers, Inc. 



The Computer Stop 

16919 Hawthorne Blvd. 
Lawndale, CA 90260 ^» 

(213)371-4010 



MON. - SAT 
10-6 



^See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 67 



Word Processing Directory 



Bare Bones Word Processor- 
Text Editor 

Computer model: OSI with 8K 
Printer model: OSI-compatible 
Mass storage: Cassette 
Price: $9.95 

Vendor: Elcomp Publishing, Inc., 3873L 
Schaefer Ave., Chino, CA 91710 
Highlights: Minimal system with up to 80 
lines of text that can be formatted at a time. 
Can add, insert, change and delete. Has a 
warning arrow for right margin. 



CAPDOC 

Computer model: 8080, 8085 or Z-80 with 
48K minimum 

Operating system requirements: CP/M 
or MP/M with CBASIC 
Mass storage: Disk 

Price: $295 for CP/M version, $345 for 
MP/M version 

Vendor: Monoson Microsystems, Inc., 51 
Main Street, Watertown, MA 02172 
Highlights: Company individually config- 
ures each system to the user's hardware. In- 
cludes screen editing, word processing, 
data forms creation, data entry and data file 
capture. Allows block move, block copy, 
merging and high speed search. Has full 
screen editor with forward and backward 
scrolling. Allows variable paragraph indent- 
ing, variable line spacing, automatic head- 
ers and footings (including odd-even) and 
automatic page numbering. Literal mode al- 
lows graphics characters. 



Electric Pencil 3.0 

Computer model: TRS-80 Model II 
Printer model: All serial, parallel printers 
Operating system requirements: TRS- 
DOS 2.0 or CP/M 
Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $325 ($149, Model I) 
Vendor: IJG Computer Services, 1260 
West Foot Hill Blvd., Upland, CA 91786 
Highlights: User-selectable multiple print 
drivers, dynamic print formatting, multi- 
column printing, page-at-a-time scrolling, 
bidirectional multi-speed scrolling, subsys- 
tem with print value scoreboard, automatic 
word and record number tally, global 
search/ replace, full margin control, end-of- 
page control, nonprinting text comments, 
line and paragraph indentation, centering, 
underlining, boldface, proportional spacing 
with justification. 



Star* Typist 

Computer model: 8080, Z-80 with North 
Star (or equivalent) disk hardware 
Mass storage: Diskette 
Price: $500 

Vendor: Micro Complex, 25651 Minos St., 
Mission Viejo, CA 92691 
Highlights: For memory-mapped video 
board. Uses full screen display. Text can be 
typed continuously. Horizontal tabbing. 
Discretionary hyphenation. Dynamic print 
parameters. Complete set of utilities. Merge 
disk program. 



Screditor II 

Computer model: 6809 
Printer model: NEC, Diablo, Qume, TTY- 
type 

Operating system requirements: Flex 
Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $150, $135 (TTY-type) 
Vendor: Sonex Systems, Box 238, Wil- 
liamsville, NY 14221 

Highlights: Screen oriented, cursor con- 
trolled, boldfacing, subscripting, underlin- 
ing, no specialty keys required. 



Memorite III 

Computer model: Vector Graphic 
Printer model: NEC, Diablo, Qume 
Mass storage: Disk (5-1/4- and 8-inch flop- 
py and hard disk) 
Price: $450 

Vendor: Vector Graphics, 31364 Via Col- 
inas, Westlake Village, CA 91361 
Highlights: Built-in quick reference man- 
ual, built-in 17-page memory capacity, us- 
er-programmable software, spelling correc- 
tion, merge capability, program protection, 
document directory alphabetized, full pro- 
portional spacing, footnotes. 



Super Editor 

Computer model: Versions for TRS-80 III, 
1802s 

Printer model: Most 
Mass storage: Cassette 
Price: TRS-80, $100; 1802, $50 
Vendor: Donald R. Shroyer, 209 Brinker 
St., Latrobe, PA 15650 
Highlights: Line-oriented program permits 
user to create, edit, format, store, retrieve, 
print out text of any kind. Commands oper- 
ate on lines of text chosen by user. 



Word Processing Program 

Computer model: PET 
Printer model: NEC Spinwriter or PET- 
compatible 

Mass storage: Cassette 
Price: $29.50 (8K), $39.50 (16/32K) 
Vendor: Connecticut Microcomputer, 
Inc., 34 Del Mar Drive, Brookfield, CT 
06804 

Highlights: Incorporates print directives, 
including line length, line spacing, left mar- 
gin, centering and skip. Edit commands al- 
low you to insert lines, delete lines, move 
lines and paragraphs, change strings, save 
files onto cassettes, load files from cassette, 
move up, move down, print and type. 



Magic Wand (1.1) 

Computer model: Any CP/M- or OASIS- 
based unit 

Printer model: Any character printer, or 
dot-matrix printer with special mode 
Operating system requirements: CP/M 
or OASIS 

Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $395 

Vendor: Small Business Applications, 3220 
Louisiana St., Houston, TX 77006 
Highlights: Proportional spacing, easy to 
use, good documentation, underlining, 
boldface, subscripts, superscripts, over- 
printing (up to nine offset images), unique 
"cut and paste" insertion ability. Built-in 
micro language similar to BASIC that al- 
lows you to handle form letters, boilerplat- 
ing and contracts. Ability to take data out of 
one file or multiple files and insert into let- 
ter text. 



Text Editor/Text Processor 

Computer model: 6800, 6809, 8080 (Z-80) 
Printer model: CP/M- or Flex-compatible 
Operating system requirements: 6800 
Flex, 6809 Flex, Uniflex, CP/M (8080) 
Mass storage: Cassette (6800) and disk 
Price: $50 (Text Editor), $75 (Text Proces- 
sor), $100 for Uniflex Text Processor (Text 
Editor included) . 

Vendor: Technical Systems Consultants, 
Box 2570, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Highlights: User-defined printer output; 
over 50 commands for multiple spacing, in- 
denting, saving contiguous text, right/left 
justification, centering, page numbering, ti- 
tling; ability to define macros for special ef- 
fects. 



68 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Super Text II 

Computer model: Apple II, Apple II Plus, 
48K, single disk drive 
Printer model: Apple-compatible 
Operating system requirements: DOS 

3.2 or 3.3 

Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $150 

Vendor: Muse Software, 330 N. Charles 
St., Baltimore, MD 21201 
Highlights: Optional software (Form Let- 
ter Module, $100, and Address Book, $50) 
lets you automatically print personalized 
letters and create a mailing list of letter re- 
cipients. Preview mode to view a file as it 
prints, shiftkey compatibility, menu option 
to directly transfer printer driver from disk, 
math capabilities. You can create your own 
user prompts. 



SUBSCRIPT/SUBEDIT 

Computer model: TRS-80 Model I or III 
with 32 or 48K 

Printer model: Radio Shack Line Printer, 
Centronics 737 (all six fonts), Epson MX-80, 
Diablo 1620 and standard serial printers/ 
terminals through user's interfaces. 
Operating system requirements: TRS- 
DOS 2.3, NEWDOS 2.1 or NEWDOS/80 
Mass storage: One disk drive for Model I, 
two drives for Model III 
Price: $79.95 

Vendor: ProSoft, Box 839, North Holly- 
wood, CA 91603 

Highlights: Allows autosave after every N 
lines, page or line scrolling and searching 
for a string over any range of lines and/or 
columns. It can move or copy text blocks 
within a file, has chained, or appended, 
files, automatic page numbering, automatic 
headers and footings and allows multiple 

] fonts, proportional spacing and right/left- 

/ justified or centered format. 



Maxi-Pros 

Computer model: All OSI disk systems 
Printers: OSI-compatible 
Operating system requirements: Com- 
patible with all OSI disk-operating systems 
Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $39.95 

Vendor: Aardvark Technical Services, 
1690 Bolton, Walled Lake, MI 48088 
Highlights: User can make changes to the 
BASIC program to customize his system: 
for example, changing a few lines results in 
a blinking color cursor for users with color 
video. Line-oriented system makes it easy 
to use. Allows text editing, left/right justifi- 
cation, automatic page numbering, adjust- 
able vertical spacing and chaining data. Can 
be made to stop during printing for the op- 
erator to add text. The format can be 
changed with embedded code or by direct 
command. 



Stylograph 

Computer model: 6809 
Printer model: NEC, Diablo, Qume, TTY- 
type 

Operating system requirements: OS-9 
or FLEX 

Mass storage: Disk 

Price: $ 1 50 for NEC, Diablo or Qume print- 
ers; $135 for TTY-type. Versions available 
for a variety of terminals. 
Vendor: Sonex Systems, Box 238, Wil- 
liamsville, NY 50304 (for FLEX version); 
Microware, Box 4865, Des Moines, IA 
50304 (for OS-9 version) 
Highlights: Cursor oriented with text on 
the screen formatted the way it will appear 
when printed. Display is continually updat- 
ed. Allows scrolling and block move, copy 
or delete. Automatic headers and footings 
per operator instructions. Discretionary hy- 
phens can be added to allow hyphenation if 
word falls at the end of the line. Allows text 
to be centered or justified. Offers a variety 
of special printing options dependent upon 
the printer used. 



WP6502 Versions 1.2, 1.3 

Computer model: Ohio Scientific 
Printer model: All ASCII RS-232, Cen- 
tronics Parallel, NEC Parallel (5500 and 
5530), NEC Serial (5510 and 5515) and the 
Qume, Xerox and Diablo equivalents to 
NEC 

Operating system requirements: OSI 
OS65D and OS56U 

Mass storage: Diskette, cassette (1.2 only) 
Price: $100 diskette, $250 (1.3), $50 cas- 
sette (1.2). 

Vendor: Dwo Quong Fok Lok Sow, 23 East 
20th St., New York, NY 10003 
Highlights: Automatic pagination, true 
proportional spacing and justification, on- 
line entry, merging with other files, page 
headers and numbers, underlining, bold- 
face, superbold, centering, discretionary 
control characters. User may set up files of 
up to 100 text blocks. Version 1.3 allows 
you to view a screen full of text, edit that 
screen and then view the revised text. 



Tex 2.0 

Computer model: Z-80, 8080, 8085 sys- 
tems 

Operating system requirements: CP/M 
Mass storage: Diskette 
Price: $100 

Vendor: Digital Research, PO Box 579, 801 
Lighthouse Ave., Pacific Grove, CA 93950 
Highlights: Generate an index and table of 
contents, produce superscripts and sub- 
scripts, accept insertions from the user con- 
sole of a second source file and chain source 
files. Also offers proportional spacing, shad- 
ow print, bold overprint and auto-underline 
for Diablo 1640/1650 printers. 



Docuwriter Text Processor 

Computer model: Apple II, Apple II Plus 
Printer model: Letter-quality printer 
Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $149.95 

Vendor: Charles Mann & Associates, 7594 
San Remo Trail, Yucca Valley, CA 92284 
Highlights: Allows you to link documents 
too long for system memory and link mail- 
ing list and letter files into form letters. 
Global search/replace, width reformatting, 
line editing, character insertion/deletion, 
line insertion/deletion, block movement, 
subscripts, superscripts, footnotes, scientif- 
ic notation. 



Vedit 

Computer model: North Star, Heath H8 & 
H89, Superbrain, Cromemco, TRS-80 I & II, 
Sorcerer, S-100 

Operating system requirements: CP/M 
Mass storage: Diskette 
Price: $110, $100 for TRS-80 
Vendor: CompuView Products, Inc., 618 
Louise, Ann Arbor, MI 48103 
Highlights: Full screen editor, full array of 
cursor movements, screen scrolls forward 
or backward automatically, function keys 
for character delete, line delete and allow- 
ing line splitting and concatenating. 



VTS/80 

Computer model: 8080, 8085, Z-80 
Operating system requirements: CP/M 
Mass storage: Diskette 
Price: $549 

Vendor: National Microsoftware Produc- 
ers, Inc., 3169 Fillmore St., San Francisco, 
CA 94123 

Highlights: Designed for secretaries or 
temporary personnel with no experience 
with word processing. Includes replace- 
ment set of keytops for CRT. Keytops oper- 
ate with over 90 percent of commercially 
available CRTs. Dutch, French, German, 
Spanish versions available. 



Secretary 

Computer model: North Star or CP/M 
Operating system requirements: CP/M 
Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $99 

Vendor: G. Young, Inc., PO Box 3218, 
North Hollywood, CA 91609 
Highlights: You can customize the pro- 
gram to your system. Carriage returns un- 
necessary, as lines wrap around. Files can 
be chained for large documents. Program is 
line-number-oriented for ease in locating 
lines and manipulating data. Will line-fill, 
justify, center and tab. Allows titles, page 
numbering, multiple copies and multiple 
printers. 



J 



Microcomputing, May 1981 69 



Wordcraft-80 

Computer model: CBM with 32K 
Printer model: NEC, Diablo, Qume, Star- 
writer, Centronics, Commodore 
Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $395 

Vendor: Commodore/MOS Technology, 
950 Rittenhouse Road, Norristown, PA 
19401 

Highlights: Video screen shows how text 
will look when printed. For large page for- 
mats the screen scrolls vertically and later- 
ally. Allows chaining of data for large docu- 
ments, and packs the stored text so memory 
is used efficiently. Lines wrap around so the 
return key is only used at the end of a para- 
graph. 



Sword 

Computer model: Exidy Sorcerer 
Printer model: Paper Tiger 460 
Mass storage: Cassette 
Price: $34.95 

Vendor: Northamerican Software, PO Box 
1173, Station B, Downsview, Ontario, Can- 
ada M3H 5V6 

Highlights: Full cursor editing, scrolling, 
character insert and delete, right justifica- 
tion, text centering, margin indent, auto 
page numbering, move display window 20 
lines forward, transfer blocks of text, pre- 
view text before printing. 



WORD IV 

Computer model: TRS-80 
Operating system requirements: TRS- 
DOS 

Mass storage: Diskette 
Price: $49 

Vendor: Micro Architect, 96 Dothan St., 
Arlington, MA 02174 

Highlights: Automatic line filling, vertical 
spacing control, right margin justification, 
title and page numbering, centering con- 
trol, upper-lowercase capability without 
keyboard modification. 



Magic Window 

Computer model: Apple 

Printer model: Any printer 

Operating system requirements: DOS 

3.2 or 3.3 

Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $99.95 

Vendor: Artsci, Inc., 10432 Burbank Blvd., 
North Hollywood, CA 91601 
Highlights: Operator-oriented, draws a 
page on screen to view placement of text as 
you type it, line counter, page counter, col- 
umn counter, proportional spacing elimi- 
nates need for hyphenation, master menu 
displayed on screen, file storage. Accom- 
modates any features added to the Apple. 



Letter Writer 

Computer model: TRS-80 I, III 
Printer model: TRS-80-compatible 
Mass storage: Cassette, disk 
Price: $23.96 (tape), $37.97 (disk) 
Vendor: Astro- Star Enterprises, 5905 Stone 
Hill Drive, Rocklin, CA 95677 
Highlights: Full cursor control; insert, 
change, move and delete characters, words 
and lines; line per page count; line center- 
ing. 



WordPro 4-Plus 

Computer model: Commodore CBM 
8032 

Printer model: Any ASCII printer 
Mass storage: Diskette 
Price: $450 

Vendor: Professional Software, Inc., 166 
Crescent Road, Needham, MA 02194 
Highlights: Math functions, superscripts, 
subscripts, bold overstrike, exit to BASIC, 
variable lines per inch, additional pitch set- 
tings, audible feedback, pause command 
and simultaneous input/output. Begin 
printing from any page. 



Lettergo 

Computer model: North Star 
Printer model: Diablo 16XX, NEC 55XX, 
TTY 

Operating system requirements: North 
Star DOS 

Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $495 

Vendor: Datek Systems, Inc., 4786 Lee 
Highway, Arlington, VA 22207 
Highlights: Full-screen editing, bidirec- 
tional scrolling, global search/replace, auto- 
matic end of page, auto-centering, page 
numbering, titles/footers, justification, su- 
perscript, subscript on letter-quality print- 
ers. Available in French, German, Spanish, 
Scandinavian. 



Write-On I, Write-On II 

Computer model: Apple II, Apple II Plus 
Printer model: Apple Il-compatible 
Operating system requirements: DOS 

3.2 (3.3 compatible) 
Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $99.50 (I), $150 (II) 
Vendor: Rainbow Computing, 9719 
Reseda Blvd., Northridge, CA 91324 
Highlights: Move, copy, delete and insert 
large blocks of text lines with a single com- 
mand; edit and merge any text disk file and 
spool text to disk for later printing or edit- 
ing; margins; tabs; titling; indenting. With 
the Data File Writer for the Write-on II, you 
can write a personalized form letter or mail- 
ing label for persons on a mailing list. 



PIE (editor), FORMAT 

Computer model: Apple II, Apple II Plus 
Printer model: Can be configured for vir- 
tually any printer 
Operating system requirements: DOS 

3.2 (3.3 compatible) 
Mass storage: Disk 

Price: $129.95 (40- or 80-column versions) 
Vendor: Programma International, 2908 
North Naomi St., Burbank, CA 91504. 
Highlights: Move blocks of text, global 
search/replace, handle form letters, 99 
copies of same document, GET line feature, 
centering, underlining, vertical spacing, 
add titles, indenting, word/line count. 



HESEDIT 

Computer model: PET 
Mass storage: Cassette, diskette 
Price: $12.95 cassette, $15.95 diskette 
Vendor: Human Engineered Software, 
3748 Inglewood Blvd., Room 11, Los 
Angeles, CA 90066 

Highlights: Repeating keys, scrolling com- 
mands to page forward and backward by 
any amount, merging of many files into 
one, tab keys. Special "window" feature 
presents 22 lines of data to be manipulated 
at a time. You can insert, delete, duplicate 
and change as many of these lines as you 
wish. 



WP 730.4 

Computer model: TRS-80 
Printer model: Line Printer II, Centronics 
730 series, other TRS-80-compatible com- 
puters 

Mass storage: Cassette 
Price: $35 

Vendor: GB Associates, PO Box 3322, 
Granada Hills, CA 91344 
Highlights: No limit to typing speed. Up- 
per/lowercase printout. Change line length 
from one to 80 characters. Adjustable mar- 
gins, right-justify, expanded printout, cen- 
tered lines, indented lines. 



WordStar 

Computer model: CP/M and derivative 

models 

Printer model: Daisywheel and TTY-type 

printers 

Operating system requirements: CP/M 

Mass storage: Disk 

Price: $495 

Vendor: Micro Pro International, 1299 

Fourth St., San Rafael, CA 94901 

Highlights: Mailmerge option to insert I 

data from a file anywhere into the letter 

text, prepare form letters and print multiple 

copies. Hyphenation help, print spooling, 

help messages, word wrap, decimal tab. 



70 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Word/Magic II 

Computer model: TRS-80 Model II with 
64K 

Printer model: Preferably those with par- 
allel interfaces 

Operating system requirements: TRS- 
DOS 1.2 (preferably) 
Mass storage: Disk 
Price: $195 

Vendor: Data Strategies, Inc. (formerly 
CalData Systems), PO Box 28726, San 
Diego, C A 92128 

Highlights: BASIC program can be modi- 
fied by the user. Can produce personalized 
form letters by merging the text file with a 
mailing list file. Has table of contents gener- 
ator, and allows automatic headers and 
footers (three line), automatic page number- 
ing, justification and wrap around lines. It 
has a full screen editor. Special printing 
functions such as subscripts and super- 
scripts are available depending upon the 
capabilities of the printer. 



The preceding word processing software di- 
rectory makes no claim to be a comprehen- 
sive list of all available programs. It repre- 
sents a sampling of software for selected 
systems. 



#Tum your Micro into an 
electronic and security 
controller with our new. 



^ 



TRS-80 INTERFACE 




$5995 



To Order: 

Send $59 95 

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add 6% tax) 

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COMPUTER CONTROLLED - REMOTE CONTROL 

Now an inexpensive and direct carrier current interlace between the 
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COMPUTER CONTROLLED - SECURITY 

Add a new dimension to your security system Place your home undei 
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Total control ol all X 10 modules Utilize all 256 house and unit code 
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- INTERFACE TECHNOLOGY " "3 

PO Box 383. Des Plaines. II 60017 
V Phone (312) 297-2265 




All About 

OHIO SCIENTIFIC 

BASIC in ROM 

Second Edition 



The first edition went through 4 print- 
ings. Now revised and 50' < new text add- 
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$00,01,02. Addresses: $A000 -BFFF. 
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ITOR in $FF.FF. 



From your dealer or direct from me: 

U.S. $9.95 postpaid in US 

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3872 Raleigh Dr. 
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...being ye compleat 

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A LOW COST REAL-TIME CLOCK SYSTEM FOR THE APPLE II. 



FEATURES: 



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► Month, day. year 

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SPC-0001 

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Microcomputing, May 1981 71 



This attorney successfully pleads the merits of this word processing system. 



The Verdict Is In 
On Spellbinder 



In the March 1980 issue of Kilobaud 
Microcomputing ("Do the Job for 
Less/ p. 110), I described an Exidy 
Sorcerer word-processing system that 
my law office uses for letters and doc- 
uments. I'm back, to describe Spell- 
binder, a disk-based software pack- 
age. 

While my original article was about 
the Exidy ROM PAK, Spellbinder 
runs under either CP/M or Oasis on a 
wide variety of computers, terminals 
and disk formats. Its manufacturer, 
Lexisoft, advises that it will run on 
standard CP/M with the ADM-3A, 
Hazeltine 1500, Intertube II, Heath 
19, Soroc 120, TVI 920, Zantec 
Zephyr, Cromemco 3102 and Visual 
200 terminals. They also say that it 
will run on special configurations of 
CP/M with the Exidy, Vector Graph- 
ics, Cromemco, TRS-80 II (Pickles & 
Trout), Superbrain and the Heath 
WH-89 computers. 

Our computer has 48K of memory. 
A hardware modification lets us run 
with 56K of RAM. The extra memory 
is located in an Integrand Data S-100. 

We're using one Micropolis Mod II 
drive. We expect to add a second 
soon, although one of Spellbinder's 
fine features is its ability to operate 
with only one drive. 



INDENT 


CURSOR 
MODE 


cursor! 

UP | 


MODE 
DELETE 


EXPAND 

CLOSE 

TEXT 


^— _ 


REWRITE 




CURSOR 
LEFT 


CURSOR 

RIGHT 


SCAN 
CURSOR 


MODE 
BKWRD 


CURSOR 1 
DOWN f 


MODE 
FWARD 


EDIT 
COMMAND 


SOFT 
NYPNEN 


CLEAR 
DELETE 


DELETE 
TEXT 



Fig. 1. Editing commands on the touchpad. 
72 Microcomputing, May 1981 



By Steven Guralnick 

Our system also includes a Diablo 
1620 printer with a keyboard. We're 
using the CP/M furnished by Exidy. 

Editing Functions 

I refer you to my original article for 
a description of the basic editing 
functions. (A back issue is available 
from Microcomputing for $3.) 

When Spellbinder is booted, you 
are given some options about help 
messages. These provide you with a 
list of commands that might be used 
at a particular time; they are useful 
for a short period until you learn the 
program. Subsequently, they can be 
discarded, and the entire screen, less 
the top message line, can be used for 
displaying text. 

The basic editing is similar to the 
Word Processor Pac and has been 
modified by the addition of a cursor 
mode feature. By pressing a key on 
the touchpad (see Fig. 1), or a control 
key combination if you are using a 
control key version, you change the 
cursor mode to PARA (for 
paragraph), CHAR (for character), 
SENT (for sentence) or WORD. Once 
that mode is set, three additional keys 
called MODE DELETE, MODE 
BACKWARD and MODE FOR- 
WARD operate the function consis- 
tent with the cursor mode setting. 

For example, if the cursor mode is 
in PARA, MODE DELETE will re- 
move a paragraph, MODE FOR- 
WARD will jump the cursor forward 
a paragraph and so forth. The ability 
to delete individual characters re- 
mains. 

Another new function called RE- 
WRITE makes the line the cursor is 
on the top line on the screen. Other- 
wise, no significant changes have 
been made to the basic editing I de- 
scribed in my earlier article. 

Incidentally, Arkay Engravers 



(2073 Newbridge Road, Bellmore, 
NY 11710) still furnishes specially 
engraved keys for a number of termi- 
nals, and has added the new keys for 
Spellbinder. 

The basic gross commands, such as 
search and replace, delete, paragraph 
transfer and so forth, are essentially 
as I originally described them. 

It is after we get past basic editing 
that our office makes use of the pow- 
er of this program. 

Disk Routines 

The disk routines are easy to un- 
derstand and very versatile. There 
are two levels of disk commands: a 
global set, which is simple to use and 
manages an entire file; and a more 
molecular set, with which you have 
complete control over all disk opera- 
tions and can process any amount of 
text. 

The global set is what we use most 
of the time to write letters and other 
documents. It is used when we create 
a document and want to put it on disk 
or when we take an old document, 
make some changes, and then put it 
back on disk. It is almost impossible 
to make a mistake when using this 
set; all you have to be aware of is that 
you use the command G when you 
want to get text and GD when you 
are done with either entering the text 
or with editing. 

In the molecular set, each opera- 
tion can be independently specified. 
It is the set that you must use in per- 
forming fancier operations. You 
could, for example, easily create a 
new file that contains parts of several 
old files. The GD command in the 
global set can be implemented molec- 
ularly by opening a write file, writing 

Attorney Steven Guralnick's address is 15 South- 
gate Ave., Suite 246, Daly City, CA 94015. 



the text from the top to the end of the 
file into the open write file, closing 
the write file and deleting text from 
work space. 

Disks can be changed at any time. 
If a new disk is inserted, it is read on- 
ly and cannot be written to. How- 
ever, the Q command displays the di- 
rectory and, in addition, puts the new 
disk into a read/write status. The text 
remains in the work space during this 
process and can then be written to 
the new disk. Because of this feature, 
you can use one drive, substantially 
lowering your initial investment. 

If a file is written with a filename 
which is already on the disk being 
written to, Spellbinder will automati- 
cally rename the earlier version with 
the same file name but with an ex- 
tender of .BAK. Having that backup 
file available to us has, on several oc- 
casions, saved us from some real di- 
sasters from user error. 

Get text— You may want to edit a 
file that is bigger than work space. All 
you need to do is enter the command 
G. The program will then request the 
read filename and drive designator. 
When that has been entered, the pro- 
gram will ask for the write filename 
of the new file and the drive designa- 
tor (which can be the same drive). 
When that information has been en- 
tered, Spellbinder will automatically 
get text from the read file into the 
work space to an equivalent of about 
one-half the work space and then re- 
turn control to the user. 

When editing is finished on that 
section, typing G for the second time 
sends the text in the work space onto 
the write file and then brings in the 
next block of text for editing. This 
continues for as long as you wish. 
When you're done editing, you enter 
GD ( "get done' ' ) and the program au- 
tomatically reads from disk and 
writes to disk until the last of the read 
file has been completely written to 
disk. Then the write file is automati- 
cally closed. You can also add addi- 
tional read files to the chain before 
executing GD. 

Global searching— With the addi- 
tion of the letter G to a search com- 
mand, the searches or searches and 
replacements with a big file are trivi- 
al. For example, one of the functions 
we use often with large files is SG/ 
STRING, where STRING is a specific 
string of characters you are trying to 
locate. If all you want to do is find the 
string, you need only open up a read 
file before entering the SG command. 
Then, Spellbinder will start to read in 



the file from the disk. 

If it cannot find the string, it will 
empty the work space and bring in 
more text, continuing this process au- 
tomatically until it finds the string, at 
which point it stops, positions the 
editing cursor at the beginning of the 
string and returns control of the sys- 
tem back to you. Then, you can work 
with the text, continue the search or 
just close the read file. 

If the point is to make a change in 
the text, then first a read and write 
file are opened (which can be the 
same names), and you can enter a 
global search and replace command. 
Depending on the command, the pro- 
gram will either automatically go 
through the file and make the re- 
placements, writing the changed file 
to disk, or it will stop on each re- 
quested string and give you a chance 
to decide on whether the change is to 
be made. When the decision is made, 
the program continues to read, 
search and write until the entire file 
has been worked on or until you indi- 
cate that the process is over. 

Global printing— To print a file 
larger than the work space, you open 
up the read file to be printed and then 
enter PG. The program brings in a 
block of text, prints it, empties the 
work space, brings in another block, 
prints it and so forth. During the rou- 
tine, all line counts and other printing 
counters continue uninterrupted. If 
desired, a write file can be opened 



and the file, after printed, can be 
written to the disk. This is very help- 
ful if you anticipate changes during 
the printing process. 

Global verification— If you wish to 
verify a file before printing (to check 
for hyphenation errors, line length 
errors, etc.), then you enter the com- 
mand VG. The text is then scrolled on 
the screen. This is not really the cor- 
rect terminology since the text is ac- 
tually printed, but at the last step, the 
printing is directed towards the 
screen instead of the printer. This lets 
you see the effect of any embedded 
format commands, page breaks, etc. 

If there are errors in the text, the 
scrolling stops, and Spellbinder 
points out the error. If you have used 
the G command prior to VG, the text 
moves from the read file to work 
space, where any corrections are 
made, to the write file, which is now 
ready to print. If the G commands are 
not used first, no files are opened and 
just the text in the work space is veri- 
fied. 

Verification is not necessary prior 
to printing, but it is nice to see the re- 
sults before committing them to pa- 
per and to get the bugs out of your 
document before turning the printer 
on. We use this feature often be- 
cause, among other things, it tells us 
how many pages will be printed, nec- 
essary for certain documents which 
refer to the total number of pages in 
the document itself (e.g., a title which 




THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF SHADOW PRINTING 

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF UNDERLINING 

mt n m tuMtt fit tuw fintmmw 

<FH£6 £6 AN EXAMPLE 0F BASH GVERSTRiKiNG 

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF BOLDFACING 

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE fit tf£j££0 6PE65AL CHARACTERS 

Fig. 2. Sample special-characters feature. 



reads "Page 6 of seventeen pages"). 

Printing Functions 

Describing the printing routines of 
Spellbinder is a little overwhelming 
because there are so many of them 
and the choices are so extensive. I 
will describe them in the context of 
how we use them with our Diablo 
printer. 

To my knowledge, our Diablo is ca- 
pable of no function that cannot be 
ordered from the software by direct 
commands— even a change of ribbon 
color. The software authors claim 
that this is also true for such printers 
as the Qume, the NEC Spinwriter 
and the Sanders. 

For the user who wants only basic 
printing, the basic menu provides all 
of the tools. Line counting includes 
spacing between the lines, so a 
change in a document from single 
spacing to double spacing causes no 
problems. Other features include the 
selection of either the number of 
characters per line or the width of the 
line in tenths of an inch, the number 
of line feeds at the end of the page (to 
set up spacing between the pages), 
and so forth, all the features one 
would expect with a sophisticated 
word processor. Even if the user has 
a nonprecision printer, Spellbinder 
will help set up a good-looking print- 
out. 

Titling is versatile and sophisticat- 
ed. From a menu accessed by the 
command YT, the user can title (up to 
80 columns wide) at the top and/or 
bottom of a page. The starting page 
number is user-selected and can be 
located anywhere across the page, 
and the location can be changed de- 
pending on whether the page number 
is odd or even, for certain kinds of 
manuscripts requiring this feature. 
The user controls the spacing be- 
tween the text and the title. The com- 
mand .YT in text will set the title 
menu directly from text. 

74 Microcomputing, May 1981 



We have used this program to 
create beautiful documents— docu- 
ments we are genuinely proud of— 
by using its ability to precision-print, 
including justified text, and to pro- 
duce such features as bold-facing and 
shadow printing. 

The precision printing of a docu- 
ment (which, incidentally, is done bi- 
directionally on our Diablo) is con- 
trolled by the printing menu, accessed 
by the command Y. I want to empha- 
size at this point that any command 
which can be entered manually in the 
menu can also be embedded in text; 
therefore, formats, or any factor in 
the format, can be changed as the text 
is being printed. Also, because the 
format instructions can be embedded 
in the text, the text can be set up ini- 
tially with format instructions and 
then run repeatedly without the ne- 
cessity of rekeying the instructions. 

The first half or so of the Y menu is 
used with any kind of printer and 
covers settings for line feeds between 
the lines, line length, left-hand in- 
denting and so forth. It is the second 
half which is used primarily for pre- 
cision printing. Of course, a precision 
printer is required. 

The lower half of the Y menu looks 
like this: 

RIGHT JUSTIFY 

LF SIZE-48/IN 

CHARSIZE-120 

SPECIAL CHAR 

PROPORTIONAL 

MAXIMUM SPACE 

MINIMUM SPACE 



To the right of each entry, a default 
number appears when the program is 
booted. You can custom-set these de- 
fdult numbers so the table will come 
up the way you want it when you 
boot up Spellbinder. Incidentally, 
there are two of these Y tables; they 
can be switched between with the 
command YS and can be switched 
between in text. In our operation, we 
use default values in one table for 



tractor-fed drafts of documents and 
the other for letterheads. The user 
can also set the tab tables, a charac- 
ter-spacing table and the title table as 
part of the personalization process. 

The first item is right-justification 
of text. A setting of 1 turns on that 
feature; a setting of turns it off. I 
will describe right justification later. 

The next item is the size of the line 
feed in 48ths of an inch. Normally, 
we set this at 8, which produces a line 
spacing of 1/6 of an inch or six lines to 
the inch. We sometimes change it to 7 
when a letter is a little too long to fit 
on one page. It's amazing: the reader 
never notices, but our secretary ap- 
preciates it! 

The next entry is character size; 
i.e., spacing between the characters, 
in 120ths of an inch. Our usual set- 
ting is 12, which produces a one- 
tenth of an inch spacing or ten char- 
acters to the inch. We change this 
when working with elite type. 

The next entry is the so-called spe- 
cial character setting. It is one of the 
truly fine features of this program. 
The way it works is this: the user 
enhances the text to be specially 
treated. (The enhancement is done on 
our system by either reversing the 
video or by beginning and ending the 
text to be enhanced with a tilde [~J.) 
When the program encounters en- 
hanced text, it immediately queries 
the special character setting extant in 
the Y table at that moment, and then, 
depending on what the setting is, will 
print the enhanced text in shadow 
printing, bold facing, with slash over- 
strike, with dash overstrikes or un- 
derlined. It will also insert spaces 
where the enhanced text is, send 
nulls or disregard the enhancement. 

The special character setting can be 
changed at any time by embedding in 
the text an !, followed by a number 
from 1 to 7. Thus, it is possible to un- 
derline a word and shadow-print an- 
other word in the same sentence and 
do it as the printing takes place, with- 
out user intervention. 

An example of some of the differ- 
ent types of enhanced printing is 
shown in Fig. 2. 

The next entry is proportional 
print, which is turned on and off by 
the same method used for justified 
printing. I will describe it later. 

The last two items in the menu set 
the minimum and maximum spacing 
between the words and must be set 
properly when text is to be printed 
with right-edge justification. The user 
sets X for maximum and Y for mini- 



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SPELL MENU™- $95 

Turns Spellbinder and Spellguard 
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Microcomputing, May 1981 75 



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KYRIAKIS & GURALNICK 
Attorneys at Law 
15 Southgate Ave., Suite 246 
Daly City, California 94015 

Telephone: (415) 992-9200 

Attorneys for Executor 



IN THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

COUNTY OF SAN MATEO 



In the Matter of the Estate of 



ROGER J. ARMSTRONG 



Deceased . 



No. 98765 

ORDER OF PRELIMINARY 
DISTRIBUTION 



WILLIAM R. McROGERS as Executor of the Will of ROGER J. 
ARMSTRONG, having filed his petition for preliminary distribution 
and the said petition having come on regularly for hearing this 
date, the Court finds: 

Due notice of the hearing upon said petition has been given 
regularly for the period and in the manner prescribed by law. 
There have been two requests for special notice and the laws 
pertaining thereto have been complied with. 

All allegations of the petition are true. The Court further 
finds as follows: 

I 

ROGER J. ARMSTRONG died testate on February 10, 1980, at 
Burlingame, State of California, being then a resident of the 

Page 1 



mum, where X and Y are the user's 
choices of parameters. These settings 
then tell the computer to tell the 
printer that in a given line there are to 
be no more than X/120 of an inch 
total spacing between the words and 
no less than Y/120, You can see that 
varying these settings will produce a 
much different-looking document. 

It may be completely impossible to 
print the line as you have specified 
without hyphenation. If so, Spell- 
binder will then find the word that 
must be hyphenated to correct the 
problem. This completely eliminates 
the problem of excessively large gaps 
between words that you sometimes 
see with justified text. 

There are now a series of dot com- 
mands. By entering a decimal point at 
column zero, followed immediately 



by a letter, various essential func- 
tions are carried out. For example, .C 
automatically centers the text which 
follows on that line; .H makes that 
line a title; .S stops the printer; .E 
sends a form feed to the printer when 
encountered. There are several more 
which do negative line feeds, nega- 
tive page feed and so forth. 

Justification of documents is a fea- 
ture we use in our operation very 
often. It produces elegant results, 
especially in court pleadings, which 
have a black vertical rule on both 
sides of the text. It is not necessary to 
use proportional printing to obtain 
justification, but the use of the preci- 
sion routine gives you the proportion- 
al spacing between the words. 

Incidentally, the use of proportion- 
al spacing produces a document 



which is essentially tamper-proof. 
You cannot put that document into 
an ordinary typewriter later and 
change words; the spacing doesn't 
come out right. You would have to 
use the same precision printer and 
know precisely the maximum and 
minimum settings originally used. 
For that reason, we use this feature in 
any document where the integrity of 
the instrument is essential; wills, for 
example. 

For proportional printing you 
should have a wheel or thimble with 
proportional characters. We do not at 
the moment because our printer only 
handles plastic wheels, and there are 
no plastic proportional wheels suit- 
able for our operation. But we expect 
to have the capability soon. I can say 
that I have seen Spellbinder produce 
proportional print, and the results are 
as good as anything you could do in a 
printer's shop. 

Titling can also use the precision 
routines. When a title turns up in the 
document (prefaced by a .H state- 
ment), the program loads the title into 
a special buffer and sets up the title 
on the basis of the Y menu settings 
extant at that moment. A change of 
format for the text can then follow. 
Therefore, it is possible to have en- 
tirely different character spacing or 
length for the title than for the text 
that follows. 

After a document has been set up 
for precision printing, the user can 
then enter V and the program will 
scroll the document on the screen, as 
I have described above under the 
global verify section. 

To summarize, the printing rou- 
tines that can be used with Spellbind- 
er are extensive and useful, and give 
a genuinely professional look to 
every document which leaves our of- 
fice. 

Macroprograms and 
Macroprogramming 

Every user has some special needs 
for features that are too unique to be 
included in a general-purpose pro- 
gram. Spellbinder provides a means 
to handle these needs. This is done 
with a command that executes any 
sequence of commands. The se- 
quence can be entered from the key- 
board or, if the series is long, it can 
"load and go" directly from disk. 

To take a simple case, suppose you 
have a customer file in which each 
record consists of eight lines, and you 
want to scroll from record to record. 



76 Microcomputing, May 1981 



The normal way is to issue the com- 
mand F8, followed by a carriage re- 
turn. That takes the cursor forward 
eight lines in text. But, if 100 records 
need to be monitored, that would be 
300 keystrokes. 

The alternative is the command 
1000 F8/1. (The I command halts exe- 
cution and waits for the user to tap 
the space bar before executing again.) 
The command sequence says execute 
the following command 1000 times 
or until the end of the file is reached: 
go forward eight lines and wait until 
the user intervenes. Then, all that is 
necessary to go from record to record 
is a tap of the space bar. 

The command sequence, or macros 
as they are called, can be much more 
complex. One problem in any law of- 
fice is keeing track of time spent on a 
particular client. I set up a basic time- 
keeping operation with the ROM 
PAK and worked with it for about a 
year. It took me only about an hour. 
However, with Spellbinder, a col- 
league of mine and I are reworking 
the macro extensively. It will prompt 
on the screen, keep the client records 
in alphabetic order, automatically 
sum up without my having to resort 



to a four-banger, and give me a report 
at the end of the month. If I were a 
programmer, I could have done this 
in BASIC or assembly language, but I 
would not have because I would have 
had to learn the language. Also, I 
have the advantages of the Spellbind- 
er editor. 

The Spellbinder package comes 
equipped with several macropro- 
grams ready to go, including a set 
which automates a "mail room" 
function. They include a mail merge 
program, which lets you merge a 
standard letter automatically with a 
list of names and addresses; a sort 
program, which will sort names, ad- 
dresses and zip codes; and a 
"cuesort" program, which lets you 
set up target lines on your files and 
then sort them out on a preselected 
basis. 

This is a particularly powerful pro- 
gram and lets you set up customer 
lists, and then extract selected infor- 
mation. We use this program regular- 
ly with our master client list. We can 
rapidly sort out all the will cases, all 
clients to receive Christmas cards, 
the date when a client first came to 
see us and so forth. We can then mix 



the extraction process, and the pro- 
gram will tell us every will case 
which came to our office in June 
1978. Should we desire, we could 
send letters to everyone on this list 
with the mail merge macro. This is an 
important ability for operations do- 
ing a lot of mailings from standard 
lists. 

The sorting program Alpha will 
sort on any aspect of a customer rec- 
ord. It will sort a mailing list in 
alphabetic order by last name, as- 
cending order of zip codes, by states 
or even by their street addresses. 

Another macro, the forms handler, 
lets you generate a form, save it on 
disk and subsequently fill in the form 
repeatedly. 

In addition, other macros let you 
set up boilerplate documents from a 
master file, which is useful for let- 
ters, legal documents, or, perhaps, an 
instructor setting up examinations 
from a master question file. 

A batchprint macro lets you list any 
number of files to be printed while 
you go out to lunch. There is a two- 
column printing macro which prints 
a line in the first column and then 
jumps to column 2 to print the corre- 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 77 



sponding line far down in the docu- 
ment. I understand that the Spell- 
binder manual was printed with this 
macro; it is very close to typeset 
quality and has a great deal of format- 
ting. 

Spellbinder is now being billed as a 
word processor and office manage- 
ment system. The printshop quality 
and mailroom functions would ap- 
pear to justify that. 

Assembly Language 

For those of you who write assem- 
bly-language programs for CP/M as- 



sembly, Spellbinder lets you write 
the program, using all editing fea- 
tures. Then, the file is written to disk 
with an additional number after the 
write file name, and the file can be 
read immediately by the CP/M as- 
sembler. 

Conclusion 

As I pointed out in my original arti- 
cle, our office pours out tons of pa- 
per, and the entire operation is cen- 
tered around our microcomputer, 
now equipped with Spellbinder. If it 
has drawbacks, I have not found 



them. You only need to pay attention 
to the documentation, which now in- 
cludes an excellent tutorial. 

We have trained two secretaries on 
this system, neither of whom had 
ever worked with a microcomputer 
before, and both of whom were then 
able to produce strictly professional 
material. We cannot speak highly 
enough of this software and com- 
mend it to anyone desiring to set up a 
fine word-processing system. 

More information can be obtained 
about the software from Lexisoft, 
Inc., Box 267, Davis, CA 95616.B 



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NEW! TPM* for TRS-80 Model II 
NEW! System/6 Package 

Computer Design Labs 



Z80 Disk software 



We have acquired the rights to all TDL software (& hardware). TDL software has long 
industry. Computer Design Labs will continue to maintain, evolve and add to this superior 



Software with Manual/Manual Alone 

All of the software below is available on any of the 
following media for operation with a Z80 CPU using 
the CP/M* or similar type disk operating system 
(such as our own TPM*). 

for TRS-80* CP/M (Model I or II) 
for 8" CP/M (soft sectored single density) 
for 5 1 /4" CP/M (soft sectored single density) 
for S 1 /*" North Star CP/M (single density) 
lot W Horth Star CP/M (double density) 

BASIC I 

A powerful and fast Z80 Basic interpreter with EDIT, 
RENUMBER, TRACE, PRINT USING, assembly language 
subroutine CALL, LOADGO for "chaining"* COPY to 
move text, EXCHANGE, KILL, LINE INPUT, error inter- 
cept, sequential file handling in both ASCII and binary 
formats, and much, much more. It runs in a little over 1 2 
K. An excellent choice for games since the precision 
was limited to 7 digits in order to make it one of the 
fastest around. $49.95/$15. 

Basic I but with 1 2 digit precision to make its power 
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BUSINESS BASIC 

The most powerful Basic for business applications. It 
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access to multiple disk files, PRIVACY command to 
prohibit user access to source code, global editing, 
added math functions, and disk file maintenance capa- 
bility without leaving Basic (list, rename, or delete). 
$179.95/$25. 

ZEDIT 

A character oriented text editor with 26 commands 
and"macro"capabilityforstringingmultiplecommands 
together. Included are a complete array of character 
move, add, delete, and display function. $49.95./$ 15. 



had the reputation of being the best in the 
line of quality software. 
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Z80 Text Editing Language - Not just a text editor. 
Actually a language which allows you to edit text and 
also write, save, and recall programs which manipulate 
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registers. Be creative! Manipulate text with commands 
you write using Ztel. $79.95/$25. 

TOP 

A Z80 Text Output Processor which will do text 
formatting for manuals, documents, and other word 
processing jobs. Works with any text editor. Does 
justification, page numbering and headings, spacing, 
centering, and much more! $79.95/$25. 

MACRO I 

A macro assembler which will generate relocateable 
or absolute code for the 8080 or Z80 using standard 
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include 14 conditionals, 1 6 listing controls, 54 pseudo- 
ops, 1 1 arithmetic/logical operations, local and global 
symbols, chaining files, linking capability with optional 
linker, and recursive/ reiterative macros. This assembler 
is so powerful you'll think it is doing all the work for you. It 
actually makes assembly language programming much 
less of an effort and more creative. $79.95/$20. 

MACRO II 

Expands upon Macro I's linking capability (which is 
useful but somewhat limited) thereby being able to take 
full advantage of the optional Linker. Also a time and 
date function has been added and the listing capability 
improved. $99.95/$25. 

LINKER 

How many times have you written the same subroutine 
in each new program? Top notch professional pro- 
grammers compile a library of these subroutines and 
use a Linker to tie them together at assembly time. 
Development time is thus drastically reduced and 
becomes comparable to writing in a high level language 
but with all the speed of assembly language. So, get the 
new CDL Linker and start writing programs in a fraction 
of the time it took before. Linker is compatible with 
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DEBUG I 

Many programmers give up on writing in assembly 
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DEBUG II 

This is an expanded debugger which has all of the 
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A Z80 executive and debug monitor. Capable of 
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on disk 

APPLE 

8080 version of Zapple 

NEW! TPM now available for TRS-80 Model 

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A NEW Z80 disk operation system! This is not CP/M*. 
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ROM FOR SMB II 

2KX8 masked ROM of Zapple monitor. Includes source 
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PAYROLL (source code only) 

The Osborne package. Requires C Basic 2. 
5" disks $124.95 (manual not included) 
8" disks $ 99.95 (manual not included) 
Manual $20.00 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE/RECEIVABLE 
(source code only) 

By Osborne, Requires C Basic 2 
5" disks $124.95 (manual not included) 
8" $99.95 (manual not included) 
Manual $20.00 

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By Osborne. Requires C Basic 2 
5" disks $99.95 (manual not included) 
8" disks $99.95 (manual not included) 
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C BASIC 2 

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SYSTEM/6 

TPM with utilities, Basic I interpreter, Basic E compiler, 
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I 



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ORDERING INFORMATION 

Visa, Master Charge and C.O.D. O.K. To order call or 
write with the following information. 

1. Name of Product (e.g. Macro I) 

2. Media (e.g. 8" CP/M) 

3. Price and method of payment (e.g C.O.D.) include 
credit card info, if applicable. 

4. Name, Address and Phone number. 

5. For TPM orders only: I ndicate if for TRS 80, Tarbell, 
Xitan DDDC, SD Sales (5V4*' or 8"). ICOM (5V4" or 
8"), North Star (single or double density) or Digital 
(Micro) Systems. 

6. N.J. residents add 5% sales tax. 



Manual cost applicable against price of subsequent 
software purchase in any item except for the Osborne 
software. 

For information and tech queries call 

609-599-2146 

For phone orders ONLY call toll free 

1 -800-327-9191 
Ext. 676 

(Except Florida) 

OEMS 

Many CDL products are available for licensing to 
OEMs. Write to Carl Galletti with your requirements. 

* Z80 is a trademark of Zilog 

* TRS-80 is a trademark for Radio Shack 

* TPM is a trademark of Computer Design Labs. It is not 
CP/M* 

* CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 

Prices and specifications subject to change without 
notice. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 




COMPUTER 

DESIGN 

LABS 



^18 



342 Columbus Avenue 
Trenton, N.J. 08629 



^See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 79 



The author shows you how to get started with text composition on your Apple II. 



A Simple Text Processor 



By Henry Simpson 



If you have an Apple II with disk 
drive and a printer, you can do 
simple text processing with this pro- 
gram. The program permits you to 
compose text, review and edit, store 
on disk, recall from memory and 
print on command. A certain amount 
of text formatting is possible, too. The 
program is easy to use, and has a 
number of safeguards built in. How- 
ever, you will have to stay awake 
while using it because certain types 
of errors can have far-reaching con- 
sequences (i.e., they can be disas- 
trous). 

With minor modifications, the pro- 
gram will work on other computers. 
They must have a GET command 
that permits retrieval of a character 
from the keyboard without a return. 
In some BASICs, this command is 
called INKEY$. It must also permit 
use of string arrays. NonApple users 
will note some peculiar commands in 
this program— Apple-specific com- 
mands are described briefly at the 
end of the article. 

Program Design 

Program design is straightforward. 
The program permits you to compose 
text at the keyboard. As you com- 
pose, keyboard inputs are assigned to 
the elements of a character string ar- 
ray. Array A$ has 500 elements, each 
240 characters in length. Once text is 
"in" A$, it can be manipulated, 
stored, retrieved or printed out at 
will. 

Menu Options 

Perhaps the simplest way to de- 
scribe program operation is by cover- 
ing each of the menu options in turn. 
Later on we will cover how the pro- 
gram works. 

When the program is first run, the 



menu appears on the screen. The 
menu has six options: WRITE, RE- 
VIEW/EDIT, READ FROM DISK, 
WRITE TO DISK, MAKE HARD 
COPY and QUIT. Array A$ is "emp- 
ty' ' when the program starts. You can 
write into the array by selecting op- 
tion 1 (WRITE). Or, if you have previ- 
ously written to the array and saved it 
on disk, you can select option 3 
(READ FROM DISK) to load the ar- 
ray and pick up where you last left 
off. 

Let us assume that you start with 
option 3. This calls up a subroutine 
which loads A$ from a sequential file 
on the disk. 

WRITE Display 

Once the array is loaded, you select 
menu option 1 (WRITE). The pro- 
gram reads through the array to find 
the first empty element so that you 
can continue writing from where you 
last left off. The screen then goes 
blank and the number of the first 
empty element appears in reverse 
video at the upper left-hand corner. 
Having brilliant recollection, you 
know exactly what you last typed in, 
and you type merrily away until you 
use up 240 characters. At this point, 
the program inserts the number of 
the next empty array element in your 
prose string in reverse video, and you 
automatically continue writing into 
the next element of the array. You 
can continue typing along this way 
until you use up all memory. 

For reasons that will be described 
later, you cannot use cursor keys and 
must use a CTRL-B command to back 
up to correct data entry errors. Each 
CTRL-B command backs up the cur- 
sor one space, letting you write over 
the incorrect entries. 

By pressing the return key, you 



move from one array element to the 
next. By pressing the return key 
twice, you return to the menu. 

Formatting is possible by putting a 
control character in the first charac- 
ter position in the array element. To 
start a new paragraph, for example, 
press return once to move to the next 
array element, enter a CTRL-P com- 
mand, and then begin typing. When 
the first element is later scanned for 
printing, the CTRL-P ASCII code will 
be recognized and the array element 
will be indented five character spaces 
from the left margin. 

CTRL-S causes a line skip and 
printing to begin at left margin. 

CTRL-R causes printing to begin at 
left margin on next line. 

Use of these control characters 
may seem confusing, but once you 
get the hang of them they're easy to 
use. Control characters are a simple 
way of attaching information to text 
so that the information is invisible 
during printout. 

When you finish typing your prose, 
press the return key twice to return to 
the menu. 

Now that the prose is loaded into 
the array, it can be saved to disk by 
selecting menu option 4 (WRITE TO 
DISK), which calls a subroutine that 
writes the array to disk. 

REVIEW/EDIT Display 

To review and perhaps edit the 
prose you just typed in, you would se- 
lect menu option 2 (REVIEW/EDIT). 
This lets you review the array, ele- 
ment by element, and make addi- 



Address correspondence to Henry Simpson, 
Anacapa Sciences, Inc., PO Drawer Q, Santa Bar- 
bara, CA 93102. 



80 Microcomputing, May 1981 



tions, modifications and deletions. 
When you select menu option 2, the 
screen goes blank and the program 
requests the array element reference 
number. After you enter this and 
press return, the REVIEW/EDIT dis- 
play appears. The array element 
string you selected appears at the top 
of the display, formatted down from 
line four of the display in accordance 
with any formatting instructions en- 
tered with control characters during 
writing. If the selected element is 
empty then the word "EMPTY" will 
briefly appear in reverse video and 
the upper half of the screen will 
go blank. 

The REVIEW/EDIT dis- 
play has five basic options. 

Pressing the F key moves the 
display forward to the next array 
element. For example, if array ele 
ment 101 is initially on the screen and 
the F key is pressed, then array ele- 
ment 102 appears. Holding the F and 
repeat keys down simultaneously 
permits you to slew forward through 
the array. Pressing the B key lets you 
move backward through the array. 

Operation is similar to that for the F 
key. There are stops at array ele- 
ments 1 and 500 to prevent you from 
going outside legal array element val- 
ues. 
Pressing the X key returns the 

menu. 

Pressing the D key deletes the dis- 
played string. 

Pressing the E key lets you edit the 
array element string. The cursor 
moves up onto the display so that you 
can write over the string from first 
character to last. You can do format- 
ting with control characters and cor- 
rect errors with CTRL B. 

When you finish reviewing and ed- 
iting, you can return to the menu by 
pressing the X key. Once back at the 
menu, you can select the appropriate 
option for your next move. Likely op- 
tions after reviewing/editing would 
be to write to disk or, possibly, to 
make a hard copy. 

On the other hand, if you were 
thoroughly disgusted with what you 
had written, you could cancel it by 
selecting option 6 (QUIT). 

This little trip through menu op- 
tions shows basically how the pro- 
gram operates. A number of things 
are fairly apparent but deserve em- 
phasis anyway. First, the program is 
completely manual. You control 
what goes in and out of memory and 
how and when it happens. If you 




spend a day composing a brilliant 
canto, for example, and forget to 
write it to the disk before you shut 
your Apple down for the day, then 
you just discovered the meaning of 
human frailty. The same applies if 
you write an empty array to a canto 
saved on disk. 

Some writers do a lot of cutting and 
deleting. At the computer this is fun— 
you get a genuine sense of exhilaration 
by wiping out blocks of prose with 
the DELETE selection on the RE- 
VIEW/EDIT display. This can, of 
course, be carried to extremes. This 
is, however, an individual matter. 

How the Program Works 

Let us start from the beginning of 
the program and then move through 
the various menu options. 

Array A$ is dimensioned in line 20. 
Lines 30 and 40 define control char- 
acters used to switch Apple II disk 
drives and printers on and off. Line 
50 defines a constant that is used in 
calculating available memory for Ap- 
ple II in the subroutine that begins on 
line 70. Line 60 jumps the program to 
the menu, which begins at line 380. 
The intervening space is taken up 
with the data entry and display sub- 
routines. The display is cleared at 
line 390, and the available memory 
subroutine is called at line 400. Menu 
options are then displayed. 



Data Entry 

When menu option 1 (WRITE) is 
selected, the program jumps to line 
570. Lines 580 through 600 identify 
the next empty array element. The 
display is cleared and a FOR-NEXT 
loop begins at line 620. The array ele- 
ment number is printed in reverse 
video at line 630. Line 640 calls the 
data entry subroutine that starts at 
line 120. This subroutine is probably 
the most complex part of the program, 
so let's take a close-up look at it. 

The A$ element is cleared at line 
130. A FOR-NEXT loop is begun at 
line 140. Line 150 gets one character 
from the keyboard. Lines 160 through 
190 recognize various control charac- 
ters and take appropriate actions. 

Line 160 recognizes a return and 
ends the FOR-NEXT loop. 

Line 170 recognizes a CTRL-P and 
causes the cursor to skip down one 
line and over five spaces. Line 180 
recognizes a CTRL-S and causes the 
display to skip a line and start at the 
left margin. Line 190 recognizes a 
CTRL-R and causes the cursor to skip 
to the next line and move to the left 
margin. 

Line 200 recognizes a CTRL-B. If 
one is present, then the line 210-270 
sequence is followed. Otherwise, the 



Microcomputing, May 1981 81 



program jumps to line 280. The en- 
tered character is printed at line 280, 
and then concatenated with the A$ 
element on line 290. At line 300 a 
NEXT causes a bounce back to line 
140 and through the sequence again, 
until all 240 characters have been 
read or the string is terminated with a 
return. 

Now let's consider the error-cor- 
rection routine in lines 210-270. The 
reason it is done this way is that the 
characters are taken from the key- 
board with a GET command. You 
can't use an INPUT command be- 
cause one of the characters may be a 
comma, and whenever you enter a 
comma, the computer expects an- 
other input. 

You can only get one character at a 
time. If you make an error, you can't 
simply back up with the cursor, cor- 
rect the entry and then hit return. 
The last character has already been 
added to the string you were build- 
ing. Consequently, you need to sub- 
tract that character from the string 
and move the FOR-NEXT counter 
back one notch. Those things are 
what lines 210-270 do. 
Line 210 identifies current cursor 




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82 Microcomputing, May 1981 



^254 



position. Line 220 prevents the com- 
puted tab value from being less than 
1. Line 230 moves the cursor to the 
appropriate position. Line 240 trans- 
forms a one-character string to a null 
string. Line 250 subtracts the right- 
most character from the string. Line 
260 backs the FOR-NEXT counter 
up by 1 , provided that the initial val- 
ue is at least 1. And line 270 jumps 
control back to get the correct charac- 
ter at line 150. 

Note that lines 160-190 are option- 
al. All they do is cause the data entry 
display to take on the same general 
appearance as the eventual hard- 
copy printout. This gives the writer 
an idea of the appearance of his final 
product. Additional control charac- 
ters can easily be used to expand for- 
matting capabilities. 

Now that you have completed this 
key subroutine, jump back to line 
650, which is where you would re- 
turn to if you were a computer point- 
er. 

Line 650 recognizes a blank charac- 
ter. When it encounters one, it ends 
the FOR-NEXT loop that began at 
line 580 and jumps through line 670 
back to the menu. So much for data 
input. 

Review/Edit 

The REVIEW/EDIT program starts 
at line 680. The screen is cleared at 
line 690. The string array element 
number is obtained at line 700. Line 
710 performs a range test, and re- 
turns to line 700 if the entered value 
is illegal. 

Line 720 begins display sequence, a 
point that is returned to from a num- 
ber of places within the REVIEW/ 
EDIT display program. Line 720 sets 
the cursor to the upper left of the 
screen and clears the line. Line 730 
displays the array element number in 
reverse video. The selected array ele- 
ment may contain a character string 
or null string. Line 740 tests for a null 
string. If one is not present, then con- 
trol jumps to line 790. If a null string 
is present, then control runs through 
lines 750-780, which briefly display 
the "EMPTY" message and then 
jump control down to line 820, to pre- 
sent the lower portion of the display. 

If the string array element is not 
empty, then the program goes to line 
790, which sets the cursor to the 
fourth line down from the top and 
clears the lower portion of the screen. 
Line 800 calls the string display sub- 
routine, which starts at line 320. This 
subroutine is as important as the in- 



put subroutine discussed earlier (and 
somewhat less complicated). The dis- 
play subroutine is used not only at 
this point in the program, but also 
during hard-copy printout. 

The display subroutine begins at 
line 320. Line 330 checks for a null 
string and returns if one is present. 
(This check is necessary during hard- 
copy printout to prevent lines 340- 
360 from attempting to dissect null 
strings.) Lines 340-360 test the left- 
most character of the string for con- 
trol characters used for formatting. 
Line 340, for example, looks for a 
CTRL-P. If one is present, then print- 
ing jumps down a line and indents 
five spaces from the left margin. Sim- 
ilar checks are done at lines 350 and 
360. If no control characters are en- 
countered, then line 370 simply 
prints the string. If no control charac- 
ters are ever entered, then all of the 
various string array elements will be 
spliced together. 

When the subroutine is completed, 
control returns to line 810. Lines 810- 
930 present menu choices and for- 
matting reminders to the program us- 
er. The five available choices and 
their effects upon display were de- 
scribed earlier. These are fairly 
straightforward. The only one that 
may not be self-evident is the EDIT 
option. 

If E is selected as the menu choice, 
then control jumps to line 1030. This 
moves the cursor up to the beginning 
of the displayed string. The data en- 
try subroutine that we discussed ear- 
lier is called at line 1040. When this is 
completed, the program returns to 
line 720 to represent the display. 

Read/Write Disk 

Selection of menu option 3 and 4 
calls a subroutine for reading or writ- 
ing the disk. The form of these sub- 
routines will be familiar to Apple us- 
ers. The only possible odd wrinkle is 
that the controlling X$ character con- 
tains a RETURN along with CTRL-D. 
This avoids some of the problems 
that seem to dog the use of such sub- 
routines when they are selected with 
a GET command. 

Make Hard Copy 

Selecting menu option 5 calls a sub- 
routine that begins at line 1060. Line 
1070 calls an additional subroutine 
that turns the printer on. Line 1080 
starts a FOR-NEXT loop. Line 1090 
checks both the current string array 
element and the previous one to see if 
both contain null strings. If they do, 







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Text Writer program in Apple II BASIC. 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

250 

260 

270 

280 

290 

300 

310 

320 

330 

340 



M + Z 
"MEM: ' 



;m: normal 



REM TEXT WRITER PROGRAM 

DIM A*<500> 
X$ = CHR* ( 13) + CHR$ ( 4) 
Y$ = CHR$ ( 9 ) 
Z = 65536 
GOTO 380 

REM AVAILABLE MEMORY SUBROUTINE 

M = FRE (0) 
IF M < THEN M = 

INVERSE : PRINT 

RETURN 

REM DATA ENTRY SUBROUTINE 

A$( P ) = " ■ 

FOR N = 1 TO 240 

GET B$ 

IF ASC ( B$ ) = 13 THEN N = 240 

IF ASC < B$ ) = 16 THEN PRINT 

IF ASC (BS) ■ 19 THEN PRINT 

IF ASC <B*> = 18 THEN PRINT 

IF ASC ( B$ ) 
T = POS < ) 

IF T = THEN T = 1 

HTAB T 

IF LEN ( A$<P>> 
A*(P) = LEFT* 



GOTO 
HTAB 5 
PRINT 
HTAB 1 



300 



HTAB 1 



2 THEN 280 



2 



THEN A$(P) 



ii ii ♦ 

» 



( A$(P)» LEN ( A$( P>> - 
IF N > =1 THEN N = N - 1 
GOTO 150 
PRINT B$J 
A*(P) = A$( P) + B* 
NEXT 
RETURN 

REM DISPLAY SUBROUTINE 

IF A$(P) = "" THEN RETURN 
IF ASC ( LEFT* <A$(P)f1)> = 



GOTO 260 
1 ) 



16 THEN PRINT : PRINT TAB( 5)A$(P>;: RETURN 



350 IF ASC ( LEFT* <A*<P>,1>) = 19 THEN PRINT : PRINT : PRINT TAB( 1 )A 

$<P)»: RETURN 
360 IF ASC < I EFTS <A*<P)rl>> = 18 THEN PRINT : PRINT TAB( 1)A*(P)?: RFTURN 



370 


PRINT A$<P),: RETURN 


380 


REM MENU 




390 


HOME 




400 


GOSUB 70 




410 


VTAB 4: PRINT "SELECT ONE*." 


420 


PRINT "-= ==- 


• 


430 


PRINT : PRINT "1. 


WRITE" 


440 


PRINT I PRINT "2. 


REVIEW/EDIT" 


450 


PRINT : PRINT "3. 


READ FROM DISK" 


460 


PRINT : PRINT "4. 


WRITE TO DISK" 


470 


PRINT : PRINT "5. 


MAKE HARD COPY" 


480 


PRINT : PRINT "6, 


QUIT" 


490 


VTAB 24: GET A0$ 




500 


IF AO* = "1" THEN 


570 


510 


IF AO* = "2" THEN 


680 


520 


IF AO* = "3" THEN 


GOSUB 1140 


530 


IF AO* = "4" THEN 


GOSUB 1200 


540 


IF AO* = "5" THEN 


GOSUB 1060 


550 


IF AO* = "6" THEN 


END 


560 


GOTO 380 




570 


REM WRITE 




580 


FOR G = 1 TO 500 




590 


IF A*<G) = "" THEN F = G:G = 500 


600 


NEXT 




610 


HOME 




620 


FOR P = F TO 500 




630 


INVERSE : PRINT Pi 


; : NORMAL 


640 


GOSUB 120 




650 


IF <A*<P)> = "" THEN P ■ 500 


660 


NEXT 




670 


GOTO 380 




680 


REM REVIEW/EDIT DISPLAY- 


690 


HOME 




700 


VTAB 4: INPUT "REF*" iP 


710 


IF P < 1 OR P > 500 THEN 700 


720 


VTAB 11 HTAB l: CALL - 868 


730 


INVERSE : PRINT "REF* »*PJ NORMAL 


740 


IF A*< P > < > "" THFN 790 


750 


VTAB 4: CALL - 958 


760 


FLASH : PRINT "EMPTY": NORMAL 


770 


FOR K = 1 TO 20: NEXT 


780 


GOTO 820 




790 


VTAB 4: HTAB i: CALL 958 


800 


GOSUB 320 




810 


PRINT 




820 


VTAB 12: HTAB 1 




830 






840 


HTAB 9: PRINT "Ft 


FORWARD" 


850 


HTAB 9*. PRINT "B: 


BACKWARD" 


860 


HTAB 9: PRINT "X: 


EXIT" 


870 


HTAB 9: PRINT "D: 


DELETE" 


880 


HTAB 9: PRINT "E: 


EDIT" 


890 


PRINT 




900 


PRINT " CTRL B: 


BACK UP TO CORRECT ERROR" 




then the program concludes that it is 
at the end of text, the FOR-NEXT 
counter is run up to 500, and the loop 
ends. This test is not very stringent 
and program users may want to 
change it. A heavy editor with a pro- 
pensity for deletion will have many 
gaps in his prose. These can be filled 
with control characters; these will 
not print out, but will prevent the 
computer from thinking that the 
string array elements contain null 
strings. 

Line 1100 calls the REVIEW/EDIT 
display subroutine discussed earlier. 

Line 1120 calls a subroutine that 
turns the printer off. And line 1130 
returns control to the menu. 

The only remaining menu choice is 
6 (QUIT), which simply ends the pro- 
gram at line 550. 

Possible Program Modifications 

This program has many of the fea- 
tures of a text processor, although in 
rudimentary form. You can take a 
number of steps to enhance its abili- 
ties. 

Formatting, for example, is pretty 
simple at present. Only four format- 
ting options are possible: Splice pres- 
ent string to previous, drop down a 
line and indent, skip a line and start 
at left margin or drop down a line and 
start at left margin. You may want to 
add capabilities. 

At present, the program uses a sin- 
gle sequential file. This limits the 
amount of information that can be 
stored on disk. The program could be 
easily modified to use a record-ori- 
ented file to permit additional infor- 
mation storage. 

A user seriously interested in ap- 
plying this program to text composi- 
tion might want to make it a little less 
subject to human error. One way to 
do this is have the program automati- 
cally read a file to load the array 
when the program is run, and auto- 
matically write to file when the 
"QUIT" option is selected. 

One of the more important consid- 
erations in writing is making sure 
that your precious words do not dis- 
appear by accident. I haven't yet run 
out of memory using this program, 
but the possibility is alarming. At 
present, a subroutine displays the 
amount of available memory each 
time the menu is displayed. How- 
ever, there is nothing to prevent you 
from typing nonchalantly on until 
you use up your last byte of available 
memory. Then things move very 
slowly, if at all. You might want to 



84 Microcomputing, May 1981 



add a memory check to the WRITE 
program to prevent running out 
while writing. 

Note to Non-Apple II Users 

Some of the commands in this pro- 
gram are probably unfamiliar. The 
following is a brief description of 
Apple-unique commands and can be 
used for program modification to suit 
other forms of BASIC. 

FRE(O) displays the amount of 
available memory. POS(O) locates the 
cursor's present horizontal position. 
HOME clears the screen and moves 
the cursor to upper left. INVERSE 
causes the next print statement to 
print in reverse video; NORMAL re- 
turns to conventional video. 

FLASH works like INVERSE but 
causes the printed information to 
flash on and off. CALL - 868 clears to 
end of line. CALL -958 clears to end 
of screen. The subroutines starting at 
line 1 140 and continuing to the end of 
the program with the X$ and Y$ are 
Apple II BASIC'S peculiar way of 
controlling disk drives and printers. 
All these really do is turn things on 
and off.B 



Listing continued. 



910 

920 

930 

940 

950 

960 

970 

980 

990 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 

1080 

1090 

1100 

1110 

1120 

1130 

1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

1190 

1200 

1210 

1220 

1230 



CTRL PI 

CTRL s: 

CTRL RS 

HTAB 241 

M X" THEN 



NEU PARAGRAPH" 
SKIP LINE" 
LEFT MARGIN" 
INVERSE : PRINT 
380 



1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 



■i p ii 

ii pM 

..p.. 

,.p I, 
II C ii 
"II" 



AND P < 500 

THEN 720 

AND P > 1 THEN 

THEN 720 
THEN 1030 
THEN AS< P ) = 



THEN P = 
P = P 



HARD COPY- 



PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
VTAB 15*. 
IF AO* = 
IF A0$ = 
IF AO* = 
IF AO* = 
IF AO* = 

IF AO* = 

IF AO* = 

GOTO 820 

VTAB 4: HTAB 

GOSUB 120 

GOTO 720 

REM MAKE 

GOSUB 1260 

FOR P = 1 TO 

IF A*( P ) = " 

GOSUB 320 

NEXT 

GOSUB 1300 

RETURN 

REM READ TEXT FILE 

PRINT X*J"OPENTEXT" 

PRINT X*»"READTEXT" 

FOR P = 1 TO 500: INPUT A*( P >l 

PRINT X*;"CLOSETEXT" 

RETURN 

REM WRITE TEXT FILE 

X*;"OPENTEXT" 

X*;"WRITETEXT" 

= 1 TO 500 : PRINT a*<p>: 

X*?"CLOSETEXT" 



"choice?";: 



p 



+ 
1 



GET AO*: NORMAL 
IS GOTO 720 
GOTO 720 



GOTO 720 



500 



AND A*( P 



1 ) = 



THEN P = 500 : GOTO 1110 



NEXT 



PRINT 
PRINT 
FOR P 
PRINT 
RETURN 

REM TURN PRINTER ON- 
PRINT X*;"PR#1" 
PRINT Y*»"80N" 
RETURN 

REM TURN PRINTER OFF- 
PRINT Y*»"40N" 
PRINT X**"PR#0" 
RETURN 



NEXT 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 85 



This one-man advertising and public relations agency uses this North Star word processing system to 

handle all his business affairs, including keeping tabs on the President. 



Norty, Ronnie and Me 



By Edgar F. Coudal 



Reporting President Reagan's 
move from the hills above Los 
Angeles to the White House proved 
just how much my electronic work- 
place means to me. 

I'm the only employee of Coudal & 
Associates (the associates are fellow 
free-lance graphics people, photogra- 
phers and writers, brought in project 
by project). I decided last year that as 
a full-time writer also working in ad- 
vertising, public relations and other 
marketing communications, I needed 
to increase my output without taking 
on staff. I value my freedom to work 
100 hours a week, or none, as I wish, 
and don't want to feel responsible to 
either boss or subordinate. 

The obvious answer was to com- 
puterize the dungeon where I work, 
in the basement of my home. 

It was the last electronic step, since 
I already depend on cassette tapes for 
interviews, an automatic telephone 
answering machine and call forward- 
er and completely electric 35 mm 
camera. 

Since automation, I've increased 
my productivity by about three hours 
a day, without increasing my clock 
hours. And my appreciation for what 
computerization can do for a small 
business continues to grow. 

The System 

When planning my system, I knew 
that I needed the same kind of print- 
ing quality I got from my Hermes 808 
typewriter. So I decided on an impact 
printer, with a daisywheel for 
changeable typefaces. 

As for terminals, I ruled out any- 
thing less than 80-column display 
with a minimum of 24 lines on the 
screen. The full-page display termi- 
nals may be nice for someone dealing 
with one or two pages at a time, but 



since I'm generally dealing with 1500 
to 5000 words, there was little differ- 
ence between 24 lines and a full 
page. 

Since I was going the full route— re- 
ceivables, billing files, teaching the 
kids, mailing lists, form letters, pro- 
posals, contracts and especially word 
processing— I wanted speed, capacity 
and easy operation, with enough flex- 
ibility for applications that I knew I 
would think of later. 

That meant disk drives, a micro a 
cut above game-player units, and at 
least 32K of memory (I later found 
that 48K was much more comfort- 
able). The prices become formidable, 
at least for new equipment. 

Then I got lucky. Prowling the clas- 
sified ads, I came across the setup I 
use today, at half the price of retail— a 
North Star Horizon with a Diablo 
1610 printer and a Soroc 120 console. 
The North Star was new to me, but I 
liked its speed. Also, a friend swore 
by it for teaching his high school com- 
puter classes, which spoke well of its 
durability, quality and ease of use. 

As a daisywheel printer, the Diablo 
is not the fastest unit around. But the 
print quality, especially with film rib- 
bons, is clearly superior to most 
printers, and equal to the rest. The 
Soroc occasionally produces key- 
board signals to the computer that do 
weird things, and the ESC and RUB 
keys are located just below the return 
key, which also produces an occa- 
sional strange result. Still, I like the 
keyboard action and noise (remem- 
ber, I'm used to a typewriter), and 
the display is quickly and easily read- 
able, even with long hours on dead- 
line. 

I'm not arguing that this system is 
better than any other. But it does all I 
want, with quality and speed. 



A word about my system disk. It re- 
sides in drive 2 and contains DOS, 
BASIC, the Secretary word proces- 
sor, copy disk, copy file, compress 
disk and diskette check. (I never use 
a new disk without running a CK; 
and if the check code is not proper, 
the diskette gets pitched. I don't want 
it in the house. In fact, I don't even 
want it in the same county. One bad 
experience was enough.) 

Further, that system disk contains 
four BASIC programs that let me get 
into type 3 data files and fool around 
with them directly. That's sometimes 
necessary, especially with the mail- 
ing lists. Finally, the system disk con- 
tains the North Star Monitor and the 
Ramtests. I have no compunction 
about letting my computer cook 
away, printing "M" all weekend, if it 
hasn't got something to do for me. 

Word Processing 

I've always been a pretty good first- 
draft writer. Fifteen years in the 
newspaper business taught me that. 
With five deadlines a day, you don't 
have a lot of time between blank pa- 
per and composing room. What the 
word processor does is take that first 
draft— which usually takes almost as 
long to write as a typewriter draft— 
and translate it into a final draft with- 
out the agony of cutting, pasting, re- 
typing and redrafting. And that last 
look through the finished copy in- 
variably finds a scrambled tense, or a 
mixed metaphor, or a pronoun with- 
out introduction, or some such gau- 
cherie, the kind of thing you might 
live with, if it took more than ten sec- 
onds and a few control character key- 



Address correspondence to Edgar F. Coudal, 627 
S. Crescent Ave., Park Ridge, IL 60068. 



86 Microcomputing, May 1981 



strokes to correct. 

I use Gary Young's Secretary word 
processor, which was reviewed in 
these pages in January ("Word Pro- 
cessor for the North Star Disk Sys- 
tem" by G. L. Haller, p. 164), and 
find that it does a remarkable job. In- 
put without carriage return is of par- 
ticular joy. The text wraps around au- 
tomatically by pushing down the last 
word on the line, if it won't fit, to the 
beginning of the next line. 

Another key feature of Secretary is 
its ability to move lines or blocks of 
type, the ability to append existing 
files \moie on that when I get to the 
Reagan move), and the global, or se- 
lective, search and replace features. 
The command language incorporates 
the powerful North Star Line Editor 
commands, which makes it remark- 
ably simple to learn and use. 

It's also inexpensive, available for 
less than $100 from Young, or from 
American Square Computers (Kivett 
Drive, Jamestown, NC 27282). That 
includes a simple and direct manual 
that does everything except tell you 
to turn on the processor. 

Keeping Track of Business 

Keeping track of my work was one 
of the big annoyances of being in 
business for myself. Paper proliferat- 
ed, file cabinets filled, things got lost 
and nothing was ever thrown away. 
Not anymore. My entire working life 
is in eight 5-1/4-inch diskette library 
cases on the shelf over the console. 
One case is marked 'Permanent 
files," and is for material that I want 
to hang onto for a while— completed 
stories that can eventually be re- 
worked for another magazine; corre- 
spondence; copies of proposal letters, 
letters of agreement and contracts; 
invoice copies and tax matters; and 
my exchange of nasty but entertaining 
letters with bank credit card issuers. 

Two other cases are marked "Cli- 
ents." Some of the permanent file is 
duplicated on these disks, but the Cli- 
ents disk files are the second-stage 
working disks. Segregating the files 
by clients makes things easy to find, 
and makes the information on those 
files immediately accessible for other 
projects I might be doing for the same 
client. 

Another case is marked 'Working 
Files." This is work in process, story 
drafts, completed stories or other 
work that is out somewhere for ap- 
proval by a client, acceptance by an 
editor, or just waiting for me to stop 
procrastinating and finish it. 



A fifth library case contains per- 
haps the two most important disks, 
plus a handful of utility disks. The 
two key disks are the TODO/CAL- 
ENDAR disk, which includes a com- 
plete listing— two lines each, with 
deadlines— of everything that must 
be done. When I think I'm caught up, 
there's always that disk to review. It 
also contains a calendar schedule for 
the next six months, one month to a 
screen. I check both of those files 
every morning, first thing, without 
fail. And both are updated every eve- 
ning, last thing, again without fail. 

The second disk is the billing disk. 
Every bill stays on that disk until I re- 
ceive payment. All billing letters, in- 
voices, monthly retainer statements, 



words into a piece, and you haven't 
SAVEd it. 

3. Hard-copy the DOS directory of 
each disk regularly, and paste it on 
the disk jacket. Then replace it regu- 
larly. 

4. I have an hour early every Sun- 
day morning to do nothing but go 
through all the disks, destroy files 
and then compress. The stuff that 
looked like it was for the ages when 
you created it last month usually isn't 
worth saving. Be ruthless. 

Mailing Lists 

A few of my clients live by mailing 
lists. Good publicity is truly a func- 
tion of good mailing lists— reaching 
the right audiences. I use two pro- 




and so on, go there. The nice feature 
is that you establish the format— ad- 
dress, salutation, invoice number po- 
sition, even the proper places to enter 
the explanation of each charge— and 
every bill looks the same from month 
to month. People tend to be comfort- 
able with things they recognize. 

Another case contains factory disk- 
ettes, with a "don't ever touch or 
use" label. Still another case is 
marked "Misc." and contains a flock 
of disks which were obtained one 
way or another, and might have 
something useful — maybe. Then 
there's the kids' box, with their own 
private diskettes, and finally, the 
"Games" box. It's not all work, you 
know. Anyone have any idea what 
the "Magic Zero" is all about in 
Cave? 

A couple of hints about diskette 
files: 

1. Have two copies of everything. 
If you only have one copy, it will de- 
stroy itself in the middle of the night. 

2. Save constantly, for the same 
reason. A gremlin is always waiting 
to freeze the keyboard if you're 1000 



grams. One is a spin-off of Secretary, 
and lets the user merge BASIC data 
files (type 3) with Secretary text files 
(type 7) and insert data lines in the 
text of a letter itself, through the sim- 
ple use of up arrows. It's lovely for 
personalizing form letters, invita- 
tions, reminders of meetings and so 
on. But it's not very fast, and it's 
clumsy for such boilerplate as labels. 

For a flock of labels to direct the 
mailing of a press release to metro- 
politan newspapers and trade maga- 
zines, I use a mailing list program I've 
adapted from the venerable Disco- 
Dex system (which is really a Rolo- 
dex on computer). It searches and ed- 
its for 12 variables, including credit 
rating and phone number. It does let 
you put in odd things like type of ac- 
tivity, which is essential in breaking 
down a trade magazine list into spe- 
cific outlets for specialized products. 

Mailing lists are a bother to main- 
tain, but if you have kids around, 
make them learn to type and pay 
them some paltry sum per correct la- 
bel. The lists will take care of them- 
selves. Besides, they'll learn how to 



Microcomputing, May 1981 87 



use the computer for more than blast- 
ing Klingons. 

It all adds up to a few rules I try to 
follow: 

• Save regularly, especially in crea- 
tion. 

• Destroy just as regularly. 

• Pitch any questionable diskette. 

• Run regular tests of drives and 
memory. 

• Upgrade your system whenever 
you can afford it. (The new 16K 
board cost me $400, but I don't know 
how I got along in that smaller mem- 
ory.) 

• Keep track of what's where. 

President Reagan's Move 

How all this comes together is 
shown in the coverage of the move of 
President Reagan's household goods 
from the Pacific Palisades above Los 
Angeles to the White House. Allied 
Van Lines, one of my clients, was 
chosen to handle the job. Obviously, 
a move of this sort had enormous pos- 
itive news potential. 

After visits to California and Wash- 
ington, DC, to cover both ends of the 
move, and interviews with key peo- 



It was . . . done in perhaps 
50 to 60 percent of the 

time it would have 
taken without Norty. 



pie involved, the actual job of pro- 
ducing the news stories began. A 
number of factors come into play 
here, but how the word processing 
capabilities of Norty (or Noreen, as 
my wife calls the North Star) helped 
may be instructive. 

The basic release ran eight para- 
graphs, and covered the move in 
straightforward fashion. It went to all 
the Allied "peer" press, the maga- 
zines read by the household goods 
moving industry— Transport Topics, 
Traffic Word and numerous others. 

Next were major daily newspapers 
in four metropolitan areas— Los 
Angeles and Washington, DC, of 
course, Omaha and Chicago (where 
Allied' s headquarters are). The Los 
Angeles release focused on the origin 



agent, who also had moved Mary 
Tyler Moore, Bob Hope and many 
other notables. After five paragraphs 
and a transition, the Los Angeles 
story picked up much material used 
in the first trade press release. 

Similarly, the Washington, DC, sto- 
ry focused on the destination agent 
and his role, and by appending exist- 
ing files, and editing them, I com- 
pleted the story. 

I wrote new lead material for the 
Chicago story, quoting top Allied ex- 
ecutives, and again picking up previ- 
ously-written general material on the 
move: the route, the time, how Allied 
was selected and so on. 

Much of the same material was 
used in the Omaha newspaper story. 
Omaha is the base for Allied' s sophis- 
ticated telecommunications network. 
Route plotting and the progress of the 
truck were monitored carefully from 
there, creating a strong local tie-in. 

In a time when trucks are not 
viewed with the same fervor as they 
once were, the highway specialty 
magazines were a useful outlet for 
coverage of the move, again using 
much of the previously written mate- 



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RGNTRADE -The basic "peer" press story. 

REAGANAD —This was additional material, appended to the above. 

REAGCPTN —The President graciously posed for a photo with all the Allied personnel 

involved. This was the caption. 
RGNCALIF —The California version of the new story. 
RGN WASH — . . . and the Washington version . . . 
RGNCHI - ... and the Chicago variety . . . 
RGNOMAHA— . . . and the Omaha release. 
O/OGILL —The Driver feature for Owner Operator magazine. 
O/OBUCH —A memo to Allied regarding the story. Buch is a person. 
O/OCPTN —Nine captions to support the Owner Operator photos. 
O/OSUBMT —Transmittal letter to the magazine. 
OWNOPRTR —Letter confirming exclusivity of the story. 
JET-GILL —Personality feature for Jet magazine on the driver. 
JETCPTN —Captions for the Jet photos to support story. 
JETSUBMT —Transmittal letter to the magazine. 

—The feature story for Allied' s external magazine. 

—A few late paragraphs for RGNSHILD. (You can't think of everything 
the first time around.) 

—An interim report on progress. 

—A final report on what was done. 
Here's what the writer's diskette, containing the many stories about the Reagan move to 
the White House, looks like. 

DOS Directory printout. 



RGNSHILD 
INSSHILD 

ALLIED 
BUCHLTTR 



rial— virtually word for word. 

The mailing lists were broken 
down by zip code sorting for the 
newspapers, and by type of activity 
for the magazines. It went quickly 
and smoothly, timeliness being im- 
portant to these first efforts. 

Narrowing down a bit, the driver 
selected for the move was Allied' s 
'Van Foreman of the Year," a high 
honor among the 5000 men who drive 
for Allied. An independent operator, 
under exclusive contract to the Allied 
destination agent, Sam Gilliam thus 
became the subject of a personality 
feature for Owner Operator magazine, 
and a strong human interest feature 
for Jet magazine. Both stories were 
fresh and contained about 50 percent 
new material, but the general details 
of the move came right out of disk 
storage. 

Allied publishes a fine external 
magazine, The Shield, and the driver 
and the move became the cover fea- 
ture in the next issue of the publica- 
tion. In addition, the driver story will 
be important in a future issue of a 
magazine Allied is planning for its 
van foremen. There are further uses 
for the material, which is now in the 
'Permanent" case, such as for a sec- 
tion of the Annual Report, for mar- 
keting collateral print pieces, for inte- 
gration into videotape and slide pre- 
sentations and for other electronic 
pieces. 

It was a large effort, but one that 
was done in perhaps 50 to 60 percent 



of the time it would have taken with- 
out Norty. 

Conclusion 

Norty doesn't help me spell. He 
doesn't generate catchy leads, or 
know everyone's address, or make 
sure that a singular verb always fol- 
lows a singular subject. What he does 
do is take away a lot of the drudgery— 
the redrafts, the cutting and pasting 
and fitting, the retypes. 

Powering through a first draft is 
great fun, and seeing the final work, 
hanging together in some kind of rea- 
sonable order, and conveying some 
kind of information, or message, or 
emotion, is most satisfying. 

So after years of marching one 
word after another across a typewrit- 
er roller, I now watch the cursor drop 
the letters as it goes. There's just one 
problem left— but I think I have the 
answer for that. 

The powerhouse electronic Hermes 
typewriter has gone to my wife's of- 
fice up on the second floor, and her 
Report Electric was passed on to our 
college junior. The Olympia electric 
portable went to Washington with 
my college freshman. But those ma- 
chines wouldn't have been any use 
anyway, if the problem I fear comes 
along. 

Power failure. 

At my right knee, in the well of the 
desk, sits my ancient Royal Standard, 
a high-mileage 1948 model. It is care- 
fully covered. It has a new ribbon. ■ 



90 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 91 



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All software products have specific requirements for 
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Ordering Information 



COMPUTERS SUPPORTED WITH MEDIA FORMAT ORDERING CODES. 



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AVL Eagle RB 

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Computerized typesetting promises to revolutionize the publishing industry. 



Beyond Gutenberg 



By Bob Woodbury 



Hello, Chief? Jimmy here. Have I 
got a scoop! You know the Met- 
ropol Hotel? It's burning down. . . 
yep, fire trucks all over the place .... 
What do you mean, have I got the sto- 
ry? Of course I have the story .... All 
set? Here it is: 'The wail of sirens 
pierced the night as the Metropol Ho- 
tel, pride of Metropolis, burned out 
of control ....'" 

Forty years later— "Hello, Chief? 
Jimmy here. Got a story! You know 
the New Metropol Hotel? It's burning 
down . . . yep, again .... What do you 
think I am? Of course I got the story 
.... Let me put the phone on my ter- 
minal. Here goes. . . .Got it? Talk to 
you later, Chief." 

Times have changed. A reporter 
used to type a story on a typewriter 
and read it over the phone to some- 
one who typed it on a typewriter. The 
story then had to go to the editor, who 
marked it up and sent it over to the 
typesetter, who again typed it into 
the typesetting machine. 

Nowadays, that's passe". With a 
portable terminal, a reporter can save 
the story and transmit it over the 
same phone he calls the boss on. The 
editor looks at the story on his video 
terminal, makes whatever changes 
are needed and transmits the story to 
the typesetting department. From 
start to finish, the story is in electron- 
ic form, eliminating the costly repeti- 
tion and errors of the old method. 

But this is something only the big 
dailies can afford. If you are prepar- 
ing your club newsletter or company 
advertising, you'll just have to do it 

Address correspondence to Bob Woodbury, North- 
west Computer News, PO Box 4193, Seattle, WA 
98104. 



the old way. If you're a lawyer with 
dozens of legal documents which 
must look very professional, well, 
you'll just have to hire a typist to pre- 
pare the copy. Then you'll have to 
send it to the people at the typesetting 
shop, who will charge you plenty to 



type all this copy into their typeset- 
ter. That's life! Right? 

Wrong! 

Anyone who has access to a termi- 
nal connected directly to a computer 
or to a timesharing service by phone 
can use technology available right 



"IN"EMThis Is a demonstration of t 
of text. Every code provided for b 
in this example, so this demonstra 
codes. Normally, you would use onl 
The first thing you should note is 
reduced as needed for reproduction 
sizes selected in these examples w 
on the original copy."p 
Second, you should begin every fil 
the Editwriter to these initial va 
space equal to 12 points, type siz 
Let's change those values to somet 
"SZ14"LS145"FT3*LL4000"EMNow we ha 
a greater line spacing (14.5 point 
00 points), and font 3 has been se 
point in the text file. Let's chan 
back to 1. Also, we will change th 
line length back to 45 picas. "s 
"SZ12"FTl"LS125"LL4500"EMLet' s loo 
the ASCII characters are here:"s 
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefgh 
1234567890-=!«#$% 
Some of the ASCII characters are n 
the backslash, the carat, the tild 
sign, and the less-than sign. If w 
they will show up in this manner:" 

> < p 
The apostrophe and the quotation m 
translation table. The Editwriter 
minutes symbol, it also has open q 
example : " s 

* ,% IH*« % III '"EM'"EM ""EM""p 
This may look complicated, but you 
apostrophe is translated into a si 
space, in which case it becomes a 
contractions such as: it's, didn't 
a phrase in 'single quotes.' Doubl 
off a phrase in "double quotes." I 
symbol, they may also be had: %l 
In addition to the ASCII character 
"12 "13 "14 "23 "34 "81 "82 "83 "8 
"95 "96 "97 "98 "99 " ♦ 



he use of typesetting codes within a body 
y the translation table is demonstrated 
tion copy is chock-full of typesetting 
y a few codes in a body of text."p 
that the text you see has been enlarged or 
in this magazine. Consequently, the type 
ill probably appear smaller than they did 

e with the initialize code. This sets up 
lues: line length equal to 45 picas, line 
e equal to 12 points, and font 1 selected, 
hing el se : " s 

ve selected a larger size type (14 points), 
s) , a shorter line length (40 picas and 
lected. These values may be changed at any 
ge the size back to 12 points and the font 
e line spacing to 12.5 points, and the 

k at the characters available to us. Most of 



ijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"QL"r 

&»()_f[]|;:l> 

ot on the 501 

e , the accent 

e send a text 

■ 



i i ; i i , . / ?" QL" r 
filmstrip layout. These are 
grave, the greater-than 
file with these characters, 



ark are treated in a special way by the 
has not only the seconds symbol and the 
uotes and close quotes. Here is an 



• ' 



It's time to talk about 
characters in a line so 
both left and right. It 
it can be controlled by 
start of the text file, 



- "/ 
Justif icat 
the lines 
is accompl 
you. When 
the Editwr 



will find it quite natural. In short, an 
ngle close quote unless it follows a 
single open quote. This takes care of 
, and couldn't, but allows us to set off 
e quotes work the same way and we can set 
f we want a seconds symbol or a minutes 
-. % P 

set, we have several special characters.' 
4 "85 "86 "87 "88 "89 "90 "91 "92 "93 "94 

ion"83the adjustment of 

are even at the left, or at the right. 



both left 
centered , 

r 
This line 
This line 
This line 



and right. Individual 11 
by using quadding codes. 



ished automatically by the Editwriter, 
the initialize code was used at the 
iter was set up for full justification, 
nes may be left or right Justified, or 



or 
or 



is left Justified. "QL"r 
is centered ." QC" r 
is right justified. "QR"r 
I goofed on this line."r 

r 



Sample run. This is part of the demonstration text as it appears prior to being transmitted to the Edit- 
writer. Most text files would contain far fewer typesetting codes. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 93 



now to produce finished typeset 
copy. Word processors, if they are 
equipped with a communications op- 
tion, are especially suitable for this 
kind of work, but almost any termi- 
nal will do. For example, look at the 
way my club does it. 

The Northwest Computer Society 
is an association of computer hobby- 
ists and professionals. We produce a 
monthly newsletter called The North- 
west Computer News, located in Seat- 
tle, WA. For a long time we used Nor- 
data timesharing service to store the 
text for our newsletter. Those mem- 
bers with terminals keyboard their 
articles into a file on the downtown 
computer. The editor looked at the 
articles on a terminal and made need- 
ed changes. When all the articles 
were ready, they were turned into 
camera-ready copy. One way to do 
this was to use a program to format 
the articles (make all the lines come 
out the right length) and send the arti- 
cles to a terminal with a letter-quality 
printer. The copy was cut and pasted 
up and sent to a commercial print 
shop. But it wasn't typeset copy; it 
looked like it was done at home on a 
typewriter. 

That's the way we used to do it. 
Now we transmit the articles over the 
phone to a typesetting machine 
equipped with a communications op- 
tion. The typeset copy is pasted up 
and sent to a commercial print shop. 
The result is a professional-looking 
publication. 

What Is Typesetting? 

Typesetting is what makes the type 
in this magazine look good. The let- 
ters are much sharper and more fine- 
ly formed than would be possible 
with a typewriter. Each letter occu- 
pies a different amount of space on 
the line, depending on how much 
space is needed to make it look right. 
Hundreds of different typestyles are 
available, in bold and italic styles as 
well as roman (roman is the regular 
form of a typestyle). 

Do you want to change typestyles 
in the middle of a line? No problem- 
typesetting machines do that sort of 
thing all the time. How about chang- 
ing the size of the characters? That's 
easy, too. Typesetting machines have 
a wide selection of sizes usually rang- 
ing from a small fraction of an inch in 
height to an inch or more. 

For professional-looking advertise- 
ments, invitations, business cards, in- 
struction books, magazines and 
newsletters, typesetting is a must. 



Phototypesetting is the most wide- 
ly used typesetting method today. 
Several different manufacturers 
make the equipment so there is a 
wide variety of designs. The North- 
west Computer News is typeset on a 



Compugraphic Editwriter 7500 be- 
cause that machine can be equipped 
with an Intelligent Communications 
Interface. This lets us transmit our 
text files from the timesharing sys- 
tem we use to the Editwriter 7500. 



Table 1. Typesetting codes and their functions. 



Function Codes 

IN The "Initialize" code sets up the Editwriter to predetermined default parameters, clearing any 

previous parameters in the process. It should be used at the beginning of every text file. 

SZ The "Set Size" code selects the type size. It may be used anywhere in the text file to change the 

size to a new value. It must be immediately followed by a two digit number indicating the actual 
point size desired. To find out what point sizes are available, ask the people at your type shop. 

LS The "Set Line Space" code selects the vertical spacing between lines. It may be used anywhere in 

the text file to change the line spacing to a new value. It must be immediately followed by a three 
digit number indicating the spacing in points and half points. The first two digits indicate 
points; the third digit indicates half points and must be either a zero or a five. For example, 120 
means 12.0 points and 125 means 12.5 points. 

FT The "Select Font" code specifies the typestyle you wish to use. It must be immediately followed 

by a single digit number from one to eight. Check with your typeshop to find out which 
typestyles are available and in what combinations. 

LL The "Set Line Length" code specifies the horizontal length of the lines. It may be used 

anywhere in the text file to change the line length. It must be immediately followed by four 
digits; the first two digits indicate the number of picas and the second two digits indicate the 
number of points. For example, 1905 means 19 picas and 5 points. To find out what the max- 
imum line length may be, check with your typeshop. 

r (accent grave — r — return) The "Hard Return" causes the "carriage" to return to the left 

margin and the paper to feed one line space. In your text file, carriage returns will be converted 
by the translation table into spaces. This is so the Editwriter can justify the lines by putting in its 
own soft returns. If you want to specify a return in a particular place, use a hard return. 

QL The "Quad Left" code is used to keep the Editwriter from fully justifying a line. It will cause 
the line to be left justified leaving excess white space on the right. It must be immediately fol- 
lowed by a hard return code, a tab return code, a call tab code, or an end line code. It may not 
be used when in the justify left, justify right, or justify center modes. 

QR The "Quad Right" code is used to right justify a line leaving the excess white space to the left. It 
must be immediately followed by a hard return code, a tab return code, a call tab code, or an 
end line code. It may not be used when in the justify left, justify right, or justify center modes. 

QC The "Quad Center" code is used to center a line leaving the excess white space evenly to the left 
and the right. It must be immediately followed by a hard return code, a tab return code, a call 
tab code, or an end line code. It may not be used when in the justify left, justify right, or justify 
center modes. 

JL The "Justify Left" code causes all text following it to be justified left, as with a typewriter. Do 

not use quadding codes, paragraph codes, or end section codes when in the justify left mode. 

JR The "Justify Right" code causes all text following it to be justified right. Do not use quadding 

codes, paragraph codes, or end section codes when in the justify right mode. 

JC The "Justify Center" code causes all text following it to be centered leaving excess white space 

evenly to the left and the right. Do not use quadding codes, paragraph codes, or end section 
codes when in the justify center mode. 

JF The "Justify Full" code returns you to the fully justified mode after having used the justify left, 

right, or center codes. In the justify full mode, you may again use quadding codes, paragraph 
codes, and end section codes. Otherwise the text will be fully justified both left and right. 

EM The "EM space" is like a blank character. It is a fixed amount of white space and may be used 
to indent paragraphs. A spacebar is inadequate for indentations. because the Editwriter will 
cause the amount of white space of a spacebar to vary when it justifies a line. The EM space is 
approximately as wide as the type size you are using. If you are using 12 point type, the EM will 
be approximately 12 points wide. Its exact width is determined by the typestyle in use. 

EN The "EN space" is like an EM, only narrower. It is approximately two-thirds as wide as an EM. 

TH The "THIN space" is also like an EM, only narrower. It is approximately one-third as wide as 
an EM. 

s (accent grave — s — return) The "End Section" code is used to end sections of text. It is simply a 

short way of saying, "Quad Left — Hard Return." 

p (accent grave — p — return) The "Paragraph" code is used between paragraphs. It is simply a 

short way of saying, "Quad Left — Hard Return — EM Space." 

e (accent grave — e — return) The "End Line" code is like a hard return except no paper feed takes 

place. Do not use the end line code when in the tab mode. You are in the tab mode from the time 
you use a call tab code to the time you use a quit tabs code. 

MS The "Minus Line Space" code causes the Editwriter to back the paper up one line space without 
moving the "carriage." 

PS The "Plus Line Space" code causes the Editwriter to advance the paper one line space without 

moving the "carriage." 

MP The "Minus Point Space" code causes the Editwriter to back the paper up one point for each 
code used without moving the "carriage." 

PP The "Plus Point Space" code causes the Editwriter to advance the paper one point for each 

code used without moving the "carriage." 

IS The "Insert Space" code is used to insert equal amounts of white space at various places in a 

line. It may be used several places in one line. The line must be ended with a hard return, a tab 
return, a call tab, or an end line code. Quadding codes must not be used. 

IC The "Insert Character" code is used to repeat a character the length of a line. It is immediately 

followed by the character to be repeated. It operates only upon a single character. The line must 
be ended with a hard return, a tab return, a call tab, or an end line code. Quadding codes must 
not be used. 

HY The "Auto-Hyphen" code is used to turn automatic hyphenation off and on. The Editwriter 
will automatically hyphenate a word when convenient to end a line unless we tell it otherwise. 
The first time the auto-hyphen code is used in a text file, the auto-hyphenation is turned off. The 
second time, it is turned back on. The third time, it is turned off. And so on. 

TS The "Tab Set" code is used to define a tab. It must be followed by a nine digit number and a let- 

ter. Digit one is the reference number of the tab, 1-9. Digits two through five specify the starting 
point on the line of the tab in picas and points (digits two and three are the picas, and digits four 
and five are the points). Digits six through nine specify the length of the tab in picas and points. 
The letter specifies how the copy should be justified within the tab. It should be a J, L, R, or C. 

CT The "Call Tab" code is used to call a tab into use which has been defined by the tab set code. It 
must be immediately followed by the reference number of the tab, 1-9. A new call tab code will 
take you out of a particular tab and into the new tab. A hard return (and a soft return) returns 
the "carriage" to the left margin of the tab, not the left margin of the paper. 



94 Microcomputing, May 1981 



The Editwriter is one of the most pop- 
ular phototypesetters and can be 
found in typeshops in any good-sized 
city. More and more of the typeshops 
with Editwriters are installing the In- 
telligent Communications Interface. 



These are the shops you should con- 
tact when you want to typeset mate- 
rial you have already stored in your 
word processor or computer. 

The Editwriter 7500 may have as 
many as eight typefaces in the ma- 



t (accent grave— t— return) The "Tab Return" code takes you out of a tab, returns the 

"carriage" to the left margin of the paper, and feeds the paper one line space. 

q (accent grave— q— return) The "Quit Tabs" code takes you out of the tab mode. You are in the 

tab mode from the time you use a call tab code to the time you use a quit tabs code. This code 
does not feed the paper, but it does move the "carriage" to the left margin of the paper. 

Special Character Codes 



12 
13 
14 
23 
34 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
+ 

/ 

* 



One-Half ( Vi ) 
One-Third ( V% ) 
One-Fourth ( V* ) 
Two-Thirds ( 2 A ) 
Three-Fourths ( V* 



) 



EN Leader (this looks like a period but is used when you want several dots in a 

EN Dash (longer than a hyphen but shorter than an EM dash) 

EM Dash (longest dash of all) 

Degree Sign ( ° ) 

Section Mark ( § ) 

Double Dagger ( % ) 

Dagger ( t ) 

Right Pointer ( ► ) 

Left Pointer ( <+ ) 

Paragraph Mark ( 1 ) 

Large Dot ( • ) 

Small Dot ( • ) 

Solid Box ( ■ ) 

Open Box ( □ ) 

Copyright ( © ) 

Registered ( • ) 

Check Mark ( *^ 

Open Star ( A ) 

Solid Star ( • ) 

Plus or Minus ( ± 



row) 



) 



) 



Minus Sign ( - ) 
Divide Sign ( + ) 
Times Sign ( x ) 
Seconds ( ' ) 
Minutes ( " ) 



ASCII Characters 

With six exceptions, the characters of the ASCII set are available on the 501 layout. There is no need to 
use a code to obtain ASCII characters. They are handled directly by the translation table. 

The six exceptions are the backslash, the carat, the tilde, the greater-than sign, the less-than sign, and 
the accent grave. When these characters are sent over as part of the text file, they will be translated into 
the following character strings: 
[REVSLASH], (CARAT], [TILDE], [GRTRTHAN], [LESSTHAN], [GRAVE]. 

The accent grave is translated in this manner only if it is not used in conjunction with other characters 
as provided in the translation table. 

An ASCII apostrophe will be translated into a single close quote unless it follows a spacebar or a return 
in which case it will be translated into a single open quote, or unless it follows an accent grave in which 
case it will be translated into a seconds symbol. 

An ASCII quotation mark will be translated into a double close quote unless it follows a spacebar or a 
return in which case it will be translated into a double open quote, or unless it follows an accent grave in 
which case it will be translated into a minutes symbol. 




Photo 1. Copy to be typeset is first entered into a text file on a computer— in this case a timesharing 
system. Typesetting codes can be included in the text file, or the typesetter/operator may insert them 
later. 



chine at one time. The characters are 
on a filmstrip which looks like a long 
narrow photographic negative. The 
filmstrip is mounted on a rotating 
drum and an electronic flash lamp is 
flashed at the proper time to project 
one of these characters onto photo- 
graphic paper. 

The Editwriter is also equipped 
with a secretarial keyboard, four aux- 
iliary keypads, an eight-inch hard- 
sectored floppy-disk drive and a CRT 
monitor, all controlled by a micropro- 
cessor. The machine functions as a 
word processor with the ability to do 
screen editing of copy and manipula- 
tion of disk files. When the copy has 
been edited and stored on disk, it 
may be set, at which time the com- 
puter directs the flashing of the elec- 
tronic flash and the movement of a 
mirror to position the characters on 
the paper. Once the copy is set, the 
photographic paper is removed from 
the machine and developed in a spe- 
cial processor. Now the copy is ready 
to be pasted up and sent to the print 
shop. 

The ICI 

The Intelligent Communications 
Interface (ICI) is a device which is in- 
stalled inside the Editwriter. It pro- 
vides one RS-232C port and uses ei- 
ther the asynchronous TTY (Tele- 
type) protocol using ASCII (American 
Standard Code for Information Inter- 
change) or the bisynchronous proto- 
col using EBCDIC (Extended Binary 
Coded Decimal Interchange Code). It 
will operate at speeds from 50 to 
19,200 bits-per- second in the asyn- 
chronous mode and at 1200, 2400 or 
4800 bits-per-second in the bisyn- 
chronous mode. 

Almost all home computer termi- 
nals and many word processors use 
the asynchronous protocol, so that is 
what will be discussed for the rest of 
this article. However, many word 
processors, especially those made by 
IBM, use the bisynchronous protocol. 
The ICI works very well Asynchro- 
nously, but be sure the typeshop you 
are dealing with has a modem that 
can handle the higher speed, and be 
sure their modem is compatible with 
your modem. 

What You Will Need 

Any microcomputer with the abili- 
ty to send disk files to a modem will 
do the job. It should have a word pro- 
cessing software package of some 
sort to make it easy to create text files 
and to edit them. It must have the 



Microcomputing, May 1981 95 




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software to enable it to send disk 
files. Beware of terminal programs. 
These programs often let you send 
only from the keyboard, not from the 
disk. And beware of printer ports 
which will not support a modem. 

A word-processing system with the 
ability to communicate is ideally suit- 



/V603132 
/V603133 
/V603i3 i * 
/V603233 

/V60333U 

/V603831 

/V603832 

/V603833 

/V60383 i » 

/V603835 

/V603836 

/V603837 

/V603838 

/V603839 

/V603930 

/V603931 

/V603932 

/V603933 

/V603931 

/V603935 

/V603936 

/V603937 

/V603938 

/V603939 

/V602B=6 

/V602D=7 

/V602F=4 

/V602A=5 

/V23=8U0 

/V25=8U0 

/V7B=862 

/V7D=860 

/V7C=861 

/V5F=842 

/V27=10/ 

/V2027=0 

/H 

'=0850/ 

/V6027=8 

/V6022=8 

/V22=101 

/V2022=0 

/H 

"=085050 

/R3C=[LE 

/R3E=[GR 

/R5C=[RE 

/R5E=[CA 

/R60=[GR 

/R7E=[TI 

/V605U53 

/veoussu 

/V604AUC 
/V604A52 
/V60UAU3 
/V60MAU6 
/V60710D 
/V60700D 
/V60720D 
/V60730D 
/V60740D 
/V60650D 
/V604953 
/V60U9U3 
/V6051MC 
/V6051U3 
/V605152 
/V60U5UD 

/V60454E 
/V605UU8 
/V604859 
/V604CUC 
/V60465U 

/V604C53 
/V60535A 

/V604D53 
/V605053 
/V604D50 
/V605050 
/V60U9UE 



= 0U/ 

= 33/ 

= 00/ 

= 73/ 

= 40/ 

= 6F/ 

= 51/ 

= 53/ 

= 6D/ 

= 4D/ 

= UF/ 

= 6B/ 

=860D/ 

=860F/ 

=8621/ 

=8U31/ 

=8U0F/ 

=862B/ 

=842B/ 

=8U21/ 

=8U15/ 

=8427/ 

=863B/ 

=8U3B/ 

7/ 

B/ 

3/ 

5/ 

3/ 

D/ 

7/ 

3/ 

5/ 

D/ 

850/ 



631/ 
62D/ 
0/ 
85050/ 

/ 

SSTHAN]/ 

TRTHAM]/ 

VSLASH]/ 

RAT]/ 

AVE]/ 

LDE]/ 

= FA/ 

= 8A/ 

=8U6U/ 

=8U5M/ 

=8M5C/ 

=8156/ 

=8429/ 

=BC290B/ 

= 29/ 

=BC29/ 

= F8/ 

= 1B/ 

= 17/ 

= 49/ 

= BC/ 

= 3D/ 

= 1F/ 

= 0B/ 

= 1D/ 

= 01/ 

= 96/ 

= D0/ 

= 02/ 

= DU/ 

= D6/ 

= C8/ 

= CE/ 

= CA/ 

= CC/ 

=8CDE3B27 



ONE-HALF 

ONE-THIRD 

ONE-FOURTH 

TWO-THIRDS 

THREE-FOURTHS 

EN LEADER 

EN DASH 

EM DASH 

DEGREE 

SECTION HARK 

DOUBLE DAGGER 

DAGGER 

RIGHT POINTER 

LEFT POINTER 

PARAGRAPH MARK 

LARGE DOT 

SMALL DOT 

SOLID BOX 

OPEN BOX 

COPYRIGHT 

REGISTERED 

CHECK MARK 

OPEN STAR 

SOLID STAR 

PLUS OR MINUS 

MINUS 

DIVIDE 

TIMES 

NUMBER SIGN 

PERCENT SIGN 

LEFT BRACE 

RIGHT BRACE 

VERTICAL BAR 

BASE LINE RULE 

SINGLE CLOSE QUOTE 

SINGLE OPEN QUOTE 

SINGLE OPEN QUOTE 
SECONDS SYMBOL 
MINUTES SYMBOL 
DOUBLE CLOSE QUOTE 
DOUBLE OPEN QUOTE 



/V605A: 
/I 



DOUBLE OPE 
[LESSTHAN] 
[GRTRTHAN] 
[REVSLASH] 
[CARAT] 
[GRAVE] 
[TILDE] 
TAB SET 
CALL TAB 
JUSTIFY LE 
JUSTIFY RI 
JUSTIFY CE 
JUSTIFY FU 
QUIT TABS 
PARAGRAPH 
HARD RETUR 
END SECTIO 
TAB RETURN 
END LINE 
INSERT SPA 
INSERT CHA 
QUAD LEFT 
QUAD CENTE 
QUAD RIGHT 
EM SPACE 
EN SPACE 
THIN SPACE 
AUTO HYPHE 
SET LINE L 
SET FONT 
SET LINE S 
SET SIZE 
MINUS LINE 
PLUS LINE 
MINUS POIN 
PLUS POINT 
3B272D3B15212 
INITIALIZE 



N QUOTE 



FT 
GHT 
NTER 
LL 



CE 
RACTER 



N 
ENGTH 

PACE 

SPACE 
SPACE 
T SPACE 

SPACE 
D2D0829/ 



EUDE/ 



Listing 1. The translation table must be accu- 
rately entered into a disk file. It is sent to the 
Editwriter prior to the text files and serves to 
translate the typesetting codes in the text files 
into Editwriter codes. 



ed to this application. Word proces- 
sors usually have special conve- 
nience features such as tabs which 
can be translated into Editwriter 

codes. 

If you only have a terminal, that's 
all right. Maybe you have access to 
your company's computer, or maybe 
you have an account on a timesharing 
service. If you can create, edit and re- 
trieve text files from these big com- 
puters, you're in business. 

A Lesson in Typesetting 

Before I explain exactly how to cre- 
ate text files and send them to the 
Editwriter, a lesson in the basics of 
typesetting is in order. A typesetting 
machine can do marvelous things 
with your copy. It can justify the lines 
so they all come out the same length. 
Both the left margin and the right 
margin are even. It does this by end- 
ing the lines in a convenient place 
and stretching the spaces between 
the words and the letters. It can auto- 
matically hyphenate words, too. 

You can direct it to left justify your 
copy. This makes the left margin 
even but leaves the right margin rag- 
ged, which is how a typewriter does 
it. Or you can direct it to right justify 
the copy, making the right margin 
even and leaving the left margin rag- 
ged. You can even center the copy, 
leaving both margins ragged but with 
an equal amount of white space at 
each end of the line. 

Tabs are available, too. All you 
have to do is specify the starting point 
on the line and the length of the tab. 
Copy within a tab can also be fully 
justified, left justified, right justified 
or centered. 

With the insert character com- 
mand, you can repeat a single charac- 
ter the length of a line using only a 
few keystrokes. And with the insert 
space command, you can insert equal 
amounts of white space at various 
places within a line. 

Using the font select command, 
you can select a different typeface, 
and other commands allow you to 
change the spacing between lines, the 
length of the lines, and the size of the 
type at any time. In the typesetting 
world, size and length are measured 
in picas and points. A point is approx- 
imately equal to 1/72 of an inch, and a 
pica is 12 points. That makes six picas 
to the inch. The size of the type and 
the spacing between lines is specified 
in points, while the length of a line is 
given in picas and points. 

(Continued on page 100.) 



96 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 97 



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98 Microcomputing, May 1981 






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Microcomputing, May 1981 99 



(From page 96.) 

Finally, more characters are found 
in a typesetter than on a word proces- 
sor or computer terminal. There's a 
copyright symbol, a dagger, a double- 
dagger, various fractions and many 
other characters. If the characters 
you want aren't available on the film- 
strip you are using, other filmstrips 
are available. For example, the Greek 
& Math filmstrip has the entire Greek 
alphabet and all the math symbols 
you can think of. 

In this article, I assume the use of 
the 501 filmstrip layout. This is one of 
the most common layouts, and virtu- 
ally all typeshops with Editwriters 
have these filmstrips. If you want to 
use another layout, that's no prob- 
lem. Just find out from your typeshop 
which characters on the new layout 
match in position the characters on 
the 501 layout. 

The Translation Table 

With all the functions and special 
characters available on a typesetter, 
you can imagine the number of keys 
on the keyboard. How then do you 
access all those keys if all you have is 
an ASCII terminal with its limited 
character set? The answer lies in the 
translation table (Listing 1). This ta- 
ble is transmitted as a file to the Edit- 
writer immediately prior to the files 
you wish to typeset. It translates spe- 
cific character combinations within 
those files into Editwriter codes and 
characters. 

Most of the ASCII characters are 
translated directly into the equiva- 
lent Editwriter character (an I for an 
I, and a 2 for a 2). Non- ASCII charac- 
ters and functions require two or 
three keystrokes on the ASCII termi- 
nal. For example, the check mark re- 
quires an accent grave (the back- 
wards apostrophe) followed by the 
two digits 97. All the conversions pro- 
vided for by the translation table in 
Listing 1 are defined in Table 1 and 
demonstrated in the Sample run and 
Fig. 1. 

The translation table in Listing 1 is 
for a terminal, computer or word pro- 
cessor which communicates in ASCII. 
Those which communicate in EBC- 
DIC should use a different table. 
Check with your typeshop for infor- 
mation on EBCDIC tables. 

When typing the translation table 
and the text into files, you will doubt- 
less make some errors. Do not use the 
backspace key or a control-H to back 
up and correct these errors. Instead, 
use the delete key. Backspaces and 



control-H' s are usually stored as 
characters in your file. They will foul 
up the translation process. The delete 
code (rubout to some) actually re- 
moves the offending character from 
memory. 
The accent grave was chosen as a 



delimiter for the special characters 
and functions because it is not com- 
monly used in text. If your terminal 
or word processor does not have this 
character, the translation table can be 
modified to use another character as 
the delimiter. A semicolon works 





.A 



Photo 2. After the text file has been transmitted to the Editwriter, the resulting typeset copy is pasted 
up. The product is camera-ready. 

Fig. 1. This is the demonstration text in typeset form. It is the result of transmitting the demonstration 
text from a computer disk file to the Editwriter. 

This is a demonstration of the use of typesetting codes within a body of text. Every code provided for 
by the translation table is demonstrated in this example, so this demonstration copy is chock-full of 
typesetting codes. Normally, you would use only a few codes in a body of text. 

The first thing you should note is that the text you see has been enlarged or reduced as needed for 
reproduction in this magazine. Consequently, the type sizes selected in these examples will probably ap- 
pear smaller than they did on the original copy. 

Second, you should begin every file with the initialize code. This sets up the Editwriter to these initial 
values: line length equal to 45 picas, line space equal to 12 points, type size equal to 12 points, and font 1 
selected. Let's change those values to something else: 

Now we have selected a larger size type (14 points), a greater line spacing (14.5 
points), a shorter line length (40 picas and 00 points), and font 3 has been 
selected. These values may be changed at any point in the text file. Let's change 
the size back to 12 points and the font back to 1. Also, we will change the line 
spacing to 12.5 points, and the line length back to 45 picas. 

Let's look at the characters available to us. Most of the ASCII characters are here: 
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 
1234567890- = ! @ # $ <7o &*()_+ []|;:{},./? 

Some of the ASCII characters are not on the 501 filmstrip layout. These are the backslash, the carat, the 
tilde, the accent grave, the greater-than sign, and the less-than sign. If we send a text file with these 
characters, they will show up in this manner: 
[REVSLASH] [CARAT] [TILDE] [GRAVE] [GRTRTHAN] [LESSTHAN] 

The apostrophe and the quotation mark are treated in a special way by the translation table. The Edit- 
writer has not only the seconds symbol and the minutes symbol, it also has open quotes and close quotes. 
Here is an example: 



& « * * 



This may look complicated, but you will find it quite natural. In short, an apostrophe is translated into 
a single close quote unless it follows a space, in which case it becomes a single open quote. This takes care 
of contractions such as: it's, didn't, and couldn't, but allows us to set off a phrase in 'single quotes.' Dou- 
ble quotes work the same way and we can set off a phrase in "double quotes." If we want a seconds sym- 
bol or a minutes symbol, they may also be had: ' ". 

In addition to the ASCII character set, we have several special characters. 
Vi '/, Va Vi V* . - — ° § t t ► * 1 • • ■ □ © • ^ it it ± + x 

It's time to talk about justification— the adjustment of characters in a line so the lines are even at the 
left, or at the right, or both left and right. It is accomplished automatically by the Editwriter, or it can be 
controlled by you. When the initialize code was used at the start of the text file, the Editwriter was set up 
for full justification, both left and right. Individual lines may be left or right justified, or centered, by us- 
ing quadding codes. 



This line is left justified. 



I 



goofed 



This line is centered, 
on 



This line is right justified, 
this line. 



Unless you tell it otherwise, the Editwriter will justify your lines both left and right. Let's make it 
justify all text left. 

The "justify left" code causes all text to be "neat left, ragged right." This is how a typewriter would 
do it. It's useful with business letters, reports, resumes, and poetry. Do not use quadding codes when 



100 Microcomputing, May 1981 



well because it is always followed by 
a space in text. The presence of some 
other character or characters follow- 
ing it would clearly indicate a special 
character or code. 

To modify the translation table to 
use a semicolon instead of an accent 



grave, substitute /V3B wherever /V60 
appears in the table. The translation 
table can be tailored to your specific 
terminal or word processor. Your 
typeshop should have the documen- 
tation you need to do this. Compu- 
graphic Corporation has prepared 



in the left justified mode. Do not use the "paragraph" or "end section" codes. Use only a hard 
return at the end of each section. 

The "justify center" code causes all text to be centered. It is useful in advertising and in many other 

unusual applications. Do not use quadding codes while in the center justified mode. Do not use the 

"paragraph" or "end section" codes. Use only a hard return at the end of each section. 

The "justify right" code causes all text to be "neat right, ragged left." This is the opposite of the 

way a typewriter works. It's useful in advertising and other special applications. Again, do not use 

quadding codes while in the right justified mode. Do not use the "paragraph" or "end section" 

codes. Use only a hard return at the end of each section. 

The "justify full" code causes all text to be fully justified. It puts us back where we started. Now we must 
use quadding codes if we wish to left, right, or center justify a particular line. Otherwise, the line will be 
fully justified. 

EM spaces, EN spaces, and THIN spaces are used for indenting paragraphs and for other applications 
where a fixed space is needed. In typesetting, the spacebar must not be used for indenting because the 
typesetter will cause the spacing to vary when it justifies the line. The indent would vary from one 
paragraph to another. It is customary to use an EM space to indent paragraphs, but an EN space works 
well, too. As a rough rule, the EM space is approximately as wide as the type size you are using, but it 
may vary some depending on the typestyle in use. We are using 12 points here, so the EM is approximate- 
ly 12 points wide. The EN space is approximately 2 A of an EM space, and the THIN space is approximate- 
ly l A of an EM space. 
] I 
] [ 
][ 

By now, we have used enough hard return codes, paragraph codes, and end section codes that their 
function should be apparent. In order to justify the text which you are sending, the Editwriter must be 
allowed to determine where to put the returns. Consequently, it converts the returns in your text file into 
spaces. Then it puts in its own returns wherever it feels like. These are called "soft returns." Sometimes 
you want a return in a particular place, like at the end of each line in an address. In this case, a hard 
return may be used. A hard return must be obeyed by the Editwriter. If you are in the "justify full" 
mode, you should use a quadding code immediately in front of the hard return. A simpler way is to use 
the "end section" code. As you have probably figured out, this is just a quick way of saying, "quad 
left — hard return." Likewise, the paragraph code is just a short version of "quad left — hard return — Em 
space." 

We haven't mentioned the "end line" code. This code is like a hard return except that no paper feed 
takes place. We can use it in the following manner to underscore a line of characters. The "insert 
character" code is explained in more detail a little further on. 
This line of text is underlined. 

The paper feed codes are most easily explained in typewriter terms. As we know, the return feeds the 
paper one line space and returns the carriage to the left margin. 



The "plus line space" code 



advances the paper one line space without moving the carriage. 

does the reverse. 
The "minus line space" code 

The "plus point space" code advances the paper one point for each code. 
The "minus point space" code does the reverse. 

Use these commands with care. Do not back the paper up more than an inch. 

Before we wrap up this demonstration, there are three codes which are very useful. These are the "in- 
sert space" code, the "insert character" code, and the "auto-hyphen" code. 

The insert space code allows you to insert equal amounts of white space at various places in a line. 
Northwest Computer News March Page 5 

Use only a hard return on a line which has insert space codes. Do not use quadding codes, paragraph 
codes, or end section codes. 

The insert character code allows you to repeat a particular character the entire length of a line. 

****************************************************************************************** 

Name 

Address 



Use only a hard return on a line which has an insert character code. Do not use quadding codes, 
paragraph codes, or end section codes. 

The auto-hyphen code is like a push-button switch. The Editwriter automatically hyphenates words 
unless we tell it otherwise. The first time we use the auto-hyphen code in a file, the auto-hyphenation is 
turned off and the Editwriter will only put in soft returns between words, rather than hyphenating words. 
The second time we use the code, hyphenation is turned back on. The third time, it is turned off — and so 
on. 

Last but not least are tabs. The Editwriter can store information for nine different tabular columns at 
one time. Let's do a few as an example: 



Item 

Jimbol 



Part Number 

198-504 



Price Remarks 

$199.99 Requires 5 frambulated gear- 
whizzes — not supplied. 
Widget 197-503 349.99 Machined to 1/2000 inch and gold 

anodized. 

Each tab set code is followed by nine numbers and a letter. The first number is the reference number of 
the tab, 1-9. The next four numbers are the starting point on the line in picas and points — the first two 
numbers are picas and the second two are points. The last four numbers are the the length of the tab in 
picas and points. The letter determines how the copy should be justified within the tab. It should be a J, 
C, R, or L. 

Each tab is started with the call tab code followed by the reference number of the tab. You may move 
on to another tab by calling it. While you are in a tab, soft returns and hard returns do not return you to 
the left margin of the paper — only to the left margin of the tab. Tp get to the left margin of the paper, use 
a tab return code. 

Do not use the end line code when in the tab mode. You are in the tab mode from the time you use a call 
tab code to the time you use a quit tab code. 

Well, that does it. Armed with this information, you can now typeset your newsletters, brochures, 
what-have-you, in a professional manner. 



dozens of translation tables custom- 
ized for the popular word-processing 
systems on the market. Your type- 
shop will probably be able to obtain a 
custom translation table for you if 
you are using a word processor or 
large mainframe computer. With a 
table customized to your particular 
word processor, you will be able to 
take advantage of the special features 
it provides. 

Sending the Files 

When arrangements with your 
typeshop have been completed and 
you have the translation table file and 
your text files ready, you will be able 
to phone your typeshop and say 
'Here it is.' They will prepare their 
Editwriter to communicate. Once 
you have established a communica- 
tions link with the Editwriter, all you 
have to do is send the translation ta- 
ble first and then the text files. The 
editwriter may function as a terminal 
if you are using a timesharing system 
which requires log-on. 

What if you made a mistake in your 
text file? That's not a big problem. 
The Editwriter operator can edit your 
copy quickly and easily. It sure beats 
having to keyboard all that copy over 
again. And it saves a lot of time and 
money. 

Wrapping It Up 

With a word-processing system 
(homebrew or otherwise) you have 
the most powerful writing tool since 
the word was invented. The printing 
press is obviously the most powerful 
publishing tool. Now the two are 
linked more closely than ever, and 
it's up to you not only to save money, 
but to make money using this new 
technology. ■ 




Photo 3. The camera-ready sheets go to the print 
shop, and the final product goes to the consumer. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 101 



A single-board computer functions effectively as a dedicated controller in a life-or-death situation. 



AIM for Total Control 



By Dr. Michael Bazaral 



The AIM 65 single-board computer 
can readily be used as a dedicated 
controller. The approach described 
here requires no hardware modifica- 
tion, and no off-board logic other 
than the motherboard-supported 
EPROM programmer and RAM 
(which are required only during pro- 
gramming). The equipment and tech- 
niques should be suitable for a wide 
variety of low-volume applications in 
production control and testing, with 
laboratory equipment or for personal 
uses. 

Since the AIM 65 can be used both 
for program development and in the 
final application as a controller, no 
emulation is required. The essential 
intermediate step (and the central 
point of this article) is to put external 
RAM at the memory location of the 
EPROM socket that will be used in 
the final application. Thus, the appli- 
cations programs can be written and 
debugged under real-time conditions 
in RAM, and transferred to EPROM 
without any assembly steps. The pro- 
gram in EPROM will run in any AIM 
65 with the appropriate inputs and 
outputs, and with the appropriate 
jumper in place of the keyboard. 

While desirable, custom-built 
equipment with dedicated micropro- 
cessors is usually expensive, because 
you need both extensive hardware 
design and a development system for 
programming. While relatively inex- 
pensive microcomputers such as the 
Apple and the TRS-80 have more 
than adequate capabilities, they are 
far too bulky and fragile to be used in 
most dedicated controller applica- 



tions. Moreover, even when equipped 
with disk drives, the start-up routine 
for these computers would discour- 
age the intended users, most of 
whom will be entirely unfamiliar 
with computer operation. Very sim- 
ple single-board computers such as 
the KIM and SYM are compact, but 
lack prewired hardware for power- 
on jump to EPROM, lack adequate 
displays and are tedious to use for de- 
veloping programs. 

After some research, we saw that 
the AIM 65 filled our needs. It has a 
6502 microprocessor and a powerful 
8K monitor in PROM. The monitor, 
together with the on-board 20-char- 
acter alphanumeric display, 20-col- 
umn printer and the tape cassette in- 
terface, provides the essentials for 
convenient program development. 

The AIM 65 also has appropriate 
hardware to allow it to be used as a 
sophisticated controller. A user-dedi- 
cated 6522 VIA provides lines for up 
to 20 parallel bits of input or output 
and contains two 16-bit program- 
mable timers. Two independent re- 
lay-driver output lines are controlled 
by another 6522. There are three 
24-pin PROM sockets. A jump to any 
of these PROM locations can be ob- 
tained by a single-character keyboard 
command, and a power-on jump to a 
program in PROM can be obtained 
by substituting in place of the key- 
board a 16-pin DIP plug having a sin- 
gle jumper wire. 

The Application 

I had developed a variety of pneu- 
matic devices for automatic ventila- 



tion of lungs. These ventilators re- 
quired an open-loop electronic con- 
troller to operate a solenoid valve, 
which is the key control element in 
the pneumatic circuits. The develop- 
ment of the ventilators was done us- 
ing hard-wired TTL digital timing 
and display circuitry. The timers 
were adequate, but were expensive 
to build and difficult for most users to 
understand quickly. 

A microprocessor-based controller 
seemed desirable. A microprocessor 
could handle the arithmetic conver- 
sions to let the user specify the oper- 
ating parameters in familiar units. In 
this example, the hard-wired timers 
required "seconds per cycle" as in- 
put rather than "rate" (in breaths per 
minute), which is a parameter much 
more familiar to people who opeia\e 
ventilators. 

Flexibility was another advantage. 
The pneumatic circuits will be rede- 
signed and improved over the next 
few years, and the changes in the 
pneumatic circuits will require major 
changes in controller logic. A particu- 
lar hard-wired system would rapidly 
become obsolete, whereas a micro- 
processor-based system will require 
only reprogramming and changes in 
the input and output connections. 

The microprocessor-based system 
had to meet several criteria. The elec- 
tronic hardware cost for each control- 
ler could not exceed $500, including 



Dr. Michael Bazaral is an assistant professor of 
anesthesiology at the University of North Carolina 
School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. 



102 Microcomputing, May 1981 



display and power supply. The labor 
to produce a finished unit had to be 
minimal. The controller had to be ca- 
pable of a power-on jump to a pro- 
gram entirely in EPROM. Also im- 
portant, it was necessary to have an 
inexpensive development system 
that supported convenient assembly- 
language programming. 

In practice, creating dedicated con- 
trollers by this method is remarkably 
simple. The entire project, including 
the time required to order and to be- 
come acquainted with the equip- 
ment, took less than six months of 
spare time work. 

Input and Output Functions 

Input and output functions of the 
controller must be defined early in 
the project. The inputs for my appli- 
cation are front-panel switches. A 
two-decade BCD-encoded thumb- 
wheel switch controls the ventilator 
rate (breaths per minute). An eight- 
position BCD-encoded rotary switch 
selects one of eight specific ratios of 
inspiration time to expiration time 
(I/E ratio) listed in the program. One 
SPST toggle switch selects between 
run and standby status, and another 
SPST switch is used to identify which 
of the two ventilator mechanisms is 
to be activated. 

All connections are made via a 
22/44-contact edge connector on the 
AIM 65 (connector Jl). The appropri- 
ate pins of the user 6522 are ground- 
ed for true by the panel switches, and 
the resulting inputs to the board are 
complemented in software. Port A 
(eight bits) is used for the two-decade 
BCD switch; these lines are supplied 
with pull-up resistors within the 
6522. The remaining five input bits 
are through port B. The port B lines 
float high but must be pulled up ex- 
ternally with 4.7k resistors only for 
the purpose of providing immunity to 
electrical noise. 

Any of the user 6522 lines not used 
as inputs can be used as outputs. 
However, two additional output lines 
from a system 6522 are also available 
at Jl. Since these two lines are sup- 
plied with on-board high current 
drivers (addressed by the monitor as 
tape recorder motor drivers), they 
can be used to sink current-to-drive 
relays without additional buffering. I 
used fast 5- volt DIP relays (Radio 
Shack 275 215) with diodes added to 
shunt the reverse current surge pro- 
duced when the relay coils are de-en- 
ergized. Memory location A800 is the 
byte for driver control; 1C at this lo- 



cation brings J 1 contact W to ground, 
and 2C at this location brings contact 
V to ground potential. The off state 
(high) for both drivers is OC at M = 
A800. 

Before beginning to write the con- 
troller program, we connected the in- 
put switches and the output lines to 
the relays. At this point we tested the 
function of the input and output ports 
and the external hardware, along 
with the simple program steps re- 
quired to read the data from the input 
ports and control the outputs. The 
use of the 6522 is well-illustrated in 
the documentation accompanying the 
AIM 65. 

The desired displays must also be 
defined. The AIM 65 user's manual 
lists the location of monitor subrou- 
tines for display of ASCII characters, 
which simplifies the programming 
considerably. In the program I am us- 
ing, four messages are placed on the 
display in repeating sequence. Each 
message is left on the display for 0.8 
seconds, which is adequate time for 
most users to read one 20-character 
line. One of the timers of the user 
6522 is used to determine the dura- 
tion of inspiration; this information is 
needed to calculate the volume of gas 
delivered per breath, and one of the 
messages displayed is "INSPIRA- 
TION =X.X SEC," where X.X is the 
duration in seconds. The other mes- 
sages list the rate and I/E ratio, and 
specify the ventilator being used. 

The next step is to decide which of 
the three PROM locations will be 
used for the program. These sockets 
were primarily intended for BASIC in 
PROM and an assembler in PROM, 
and each socket is addressed through 
the monitor as a separate single-char- 
acter keyboard command. Each sock- 
et occupies a 4K block of memory 
and will accept either a 2732 (4Kx8) 
EPROM or a 5 volt 2716 (2Kx8) 
EPROM without modification. A 
2716 will be addressed as the lower 
2K of the 4K block. I chose to forgo 
the use of the assembler and to use 
the location of the socket intended for 
the assembler (D000-D800) for the 
controller program. 

There were two reasons for this 
choice. First, for relatively straight- 
forward programs of less than 2K, the 
use of the assembler is probably 
more trouble than it is worth. The 
monitor alone allows mnemonic in- 
puts, automatic computation of rela- 
tive addresses, line editing and pro- 
gram and memory listing. Second, 
the BASIC in PROM was used in the 



generation of an extensive look-up ta- 
ble, and these constants were placed 
directly into the controller program 
by use of the POKE command; if one 
of the sockets intended for BASIC 
PROMs were used, I would have had 
to key in the look-up table by hand. 

For programming, the system bus 
was connected to a motherboard sup- 
porting an EPROM programming 
board and a block-selectable static 
RAM board. RAM from the accessory 
board was switched into location 
D000-D800, the memory location of 
the (unused) assembler PROM sock- 
et. The required assembly-language 
program (1.5K) was written and de- 
bugged in RAM. As the program was 
being written, it was easily debugged 
at each step because it could be tested 
with the inputs and outputs required 
by the final application. After final 
testing, the program was copied from 
RAM beginning at D000 into EPROM, 
using the EPROM programmer sup- 
ported by the motherboard. 

The EPROM was then plugged into 
the EPROM socket at memory loca- 
tion D000 and the accessory RAM de- 
selected from that location. The key- 
board was disconnected from the 
computer board and replaced with a 
DIP plug having a jumper from pin 3 
to pin 14, equivalent to a constant N 
on the keyboard. This converted the 
AIM to a dedicated controller. When 
power is turned on, the monitor 
scans the keyboard socket and finds 
N, which signals a jump to D000, 
where the controller program is 
found in EPROM. 

Equipment 

All equipment was purchased from 
RNB Enterprises, Phoenix, AZ. The 
VAK-1 motherboard ($139) is buf- 
fered, and adapts the AIM 65 to the 
KIM-4 bus. The AIM 65 applications 
connector is brought out unchanged 
as a separate connector on the moth- 
erboard. The VAK-5 EPROM pro- 
grammer and 2716 adapter together 
cost $294. They are an excellent in- 
vestment for those who are not pri- 
marily interested in operating system 
software and hardware develop- 
ment, since the VAK-5 on-board soft- 
ware in PROM works without any 
user programming or hardware mod- 
ification. The software allows 
EPROM testing, programming and 
verification with a single command. 
The other commands available in- 
clude a dump of EPROM to memory, 
which permits easy examination and 
modification of programs already in 



Microcomputing, May 1981 103 



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EPROM. The VAK-EPS/AIM power 
supply ($149) powers everything, in- 
cluding the printer. 

The static RAM board used was a 
VAK-4 ($325). This board was de- 
signed to have two separate address- 
selectable 8K blocks, but was modi- 
fied for my application. The tech- 
nique described requires placing 
RAM for program development at 
the address in which the application 
program EPROM will ultimately re- 
side. Because I wanted to use the BA- 
SIC ROMs for program development 
(at addresses B000-BFFF and C000- 
CFFF), only the socket at address 
D000 was free on the AIM 65 board. 
This does not fall at an 8K boundary. 
Michael G. Bennett of RNB Enter- 
prises resolved this problem by modi- 
fying the VAK-4 RAM board to a 12K 
board with an 8K block selectable on 
8K boundaries and a 4K block on 4K 
boundaries. A reasonable alternative 
would be to use the VAK-2 8K board 
($239) to provide RAM at address 
C000-DFFF, but only if the BASIC in 
RAM is removed from the AIM 65 to 
avoid address conflicts. 

The AIM 65 with IK of RAM costs 
about $375, and an additional 3K of 
on-board RAM costs $50. BASIC 
ROMs add another $99. Thus, for 
about $ 1500, 1 have a complete devel- 
opment system for dedicated control- 
ler design, and also a computer with 
hard copy, BASIC and 16K of contig- 
uous RAM for scientific data process- 
ing. A development system without 
BASIC or on-board expansion RAM 
could be put together for about 
$1200. Electronic hardware for each 
subsequent dedicated controller 
costs about $500 and consists of an 
AIM 65, a 3-ampere 5-volt power 
supply, an Augat 16-pin DIP compo- 
nent carrier (for a jumper in place of 
the keyboard), several switches and a 
2716 EPROM. 

Superficially, it seems wasteful to 
dedicate a $400 computer to a single, 
relatively simple, task. Perhaps $200 
per unit could be saved by a board 
designed specifically as a controller, 
using only the chips directly required 
in the final units. However, the costs 
for purchase or lease of a develop- 
ment system, and engineering costs, 
total to $20,000 or more. Thus, at 
least 100 identical units would be re- 
quired before a savings would result. 
With the approach described in this 
article, individuals who need only 
one or several controllers can create 
their equipment with a realistic ex- 
penditure of money and effort. ■ 



104 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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With his new portable computer, this hardware manufacturer urges other developers to get on the move. 



• 



By Adam Osborne 







The current microcomputer indus- 
try leaders— Radio Shack, Apple 
and Commodore— have lost their 
way. They've turned their backs on 
the strategies that made the industry 
successful. They have redirected 
themselves to building more expen- 
sive computers, locked into unique 



proprietary software, competing 
with established minicomputer man- 
ufacturers. Their unrealistic perspec- 
tive will trigger disaster with all the 
tragic ruthlessness that early success 
had on such companies as Imsai and 
Processor Technology. 
I have been an observer of the in- 



dustry since 1976, and have written 
numerous books, columns and arti- 
cles on the subject. An enormous 

Address correspori 
Osborne Compute 
Ave., Ha 



amount of research, combined with 
reader feedback, has given me an un- 
paralleled opportunity to keep my 
finger on the industry's pulse. I saw 
as early as 1980 that the leading hard- 
ware manufacturers were making 
significant misjudgments. I saw that 
we must return to the strategies that 
created the microcomputer industry. 

That is why I started Osborne Com- 
puter Corporation, and built the Os- 
borne I computer. 

Hardware manufacturers must 
concentrate on driving down the 
price of computer hardware. It's the 
only way we'll put microcomputers 
into more hands and keep our indus- 
try growing. 

Hardware manufacturers must 
stay out of the software business. 
They must build computers that run 
industry-standard software. If soft- 
ware manufacturers can sell a few in- 
dustry-standard operating systems, 
languages and application programs 
to everyone, without being beholden 
to one hardware manufacturer or an- 
other, then we can lower the soft- 
ware costs and realize the true poten- 
tial of low-cost computing. 

This is my mandate at Osborne 
Computer Corp. This is the purpose 
of the Osborne I. 

The rest of the microcomputer in- 
dustry has a few years in which they 
can either adopt these same policies, 
or they can elect to go into some other 
line of business. 

Repeating Mistakes 

There is a lesson to be learned from 
the minicomputer industry. 

That industry represents an appall- 
ing manifestation of rigged high 
prices. This is particularly ironic, 
coming from an industry that repre- 
sents itself as being at the forefront of 
the cost-cutting technological revolu- 
tion. 

The minicomputer industry con- 
sists of numerous hardware manufac- 
turers, each of whom builds unique 
minicomputers, and then creates 
software that will not run on anyone 
else's computer. This combination of 
unique hardware design and restric- 
tive software licensing has given 
manufacturers a stranglehold on 
their customers, forcing consumers 
to pay far more than necessary for 
minicomputer products. 

Each minicomputer manufacturer 
reinvents their unique software, and 
the customer foots the bill— again, 
and again, and again. These manufac- 
turers also discourage direct hard- 

^■See List of Advertisers on page 242 



ware competition, and keep peddling 
obsolete designs at inflated prices— 
once again the customer pays the tab. 

A few jackals have tried to peddle 
replacement hardware, but only IBM 
CPU replacement manufacturers 
have succeeded, aided by the ever- 
present threat of antitrust litigation. 

The microcomputer industry, de- 
spite its inauspicious start, was suc- 
cessful because it circumvented the 
artificial restrictions on cost-cutting 
imposed by minicomputer manufac- 
turers. The early microcomputer 
manufacturers were lucky; they did 
not understand what they were do- 
ing, but they did, nevertheless, stum- 
ble on a correct strategy for success. 
They built hardware using industry- 
standard central processing units and 
industry-standard system buses and 
hardware components and connec- 
tors. Dozens of microcomputer man- 
ufacturers shared four assembly lan- 
guages. If your microcomputer used 
the S-100 bus, numerous sources for 
hardware components guaranteed 
low hardware costs. 

That is where the microcomputer 
industry began. That is most certain- 
ly not where industry leaders are to- 
day. 

Apple and Commodore share the 
6502 microprocessor, but do they 
have compatible software? Of course 
not. Even Apple's own new product, 
the Apple III, has limited compatibili- 
ty with its predecessor, the Apple II. 

Radio Shack uses the Z-80 CPU. 
Does that mean you can use industry- 
standard CP/M-based software? Yes, 
providing you circumvent the soft- 
ware strategy that Radio Shack has 
tried to impose on its customers. The 
new Radio Shack Color Computer is 
an inexpensive version of the TRS-80 
and uses a subset of TRS-80 software, 
right? Wrong. It has a 6809 micropro- 
cessor that makes it completely in- 
compatible with the rest of Radio 
Shack's product line. 

The early losers, exemplified by 
Imsai and Processor Technology, 
were superb innovators; but they 
were lousy businessmen, which is 
why they failed. Current industry 
leaders are managed by superb busi- 
nessmen, but they are lousy innova- 
tors; therefore, they are vulnerable. 

They are lousy innovators because 
they have rejected the novel strate- 
gies that gave birth to the microcom- 
puter industry. I'm not sure, that 
management ever really understood 
these strategies. They are now adopt- 
ing the tried philosophies of the mini- 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 107 



Sooner or later, someone had to take all this proven 
microcomputer hardware and software technology and wrap 
it up in a portable package at a price that shocks the industry. 
Adam Osborne decided to do it sooner. 

The OSBORNE 1®, from Osborne Computer Corpora- 
tion. You get full CP/M® disk computer capabilities — 
Z80A® CPU, 64K bytes of RAM memory, a full business 
keyboard, a built-in monitor, and two floppy drives with 
100K bytes each of storage. You get two interfaces, 
the IEEE 488 and the RS-232C. Just connect a 
printer, via either interface. 

Software? You get 
CP/M®, CBASIC-2®, 
Microsoft BASIC®, the 
WORDSTAR® word 
processing system with 
theMAILMERGE® 
mailing list feature, 
andtheSUPERCALC® 
electronic spread- 
sheet package. 
All standard. 
All for $1795. 



And it's portable. When the keyboard is 
clipped over the display panel, only the 
weatherproof brushed aluminum case 
is exposed. (There are even optional 
modem electronics, couplers, battery 
packs, and external monitor connections, 
providing practically unlimited system portability.) 

It's all business. The OSBORNE 1 delivers significant 
productivity at an irresistable price. At $1795, its immediate 
and lasting success as a personal business computer is, 

quite simply, inevitable. 








COMPUTER CORPORATION^ 

26500 Corporate Avenue Hayward , California 94545 (41 5) 887-8080 



Orders for the Osborne 1 Computer can be placed 
over the telephone at (41 5) 887-8080. Your order 
will be forwarded by the factory for delivery by 
your nearest authorized Osborne 1 dealer. 



computer marketplace and are gear- 
ing up to do battle with established 
minicomputer manufacturers. 

With the Osborne I, I have laid 
down my challenge for the future. 
This future will see a rapid evolution 
of new, low-cost portable microcom- 
puters that appeal to individuals and 
are used with the frequency of type- 
writers. Within five years I can see 
microcomputers such as the Osborne 
I selling for less than $1000, while 
products selling for less than $2000 
will have abilities that surpass 
today's $10,000 microcomputers. 

The Osborne I 

The Osborne I microcomputer is a 
single integrated package, with the 
size and weight of a briefcase. This 
package includes a five-inch monitor 
that displays 24 rows of 50 charac- 
ters. The character set includes up- 
percase and lowercase letters, two 
display intensities and underlining 
for all characters. Other features in- 
clude two floppy-disk drives, a Z-80 
CPU, 64K bytes of RAM, an IEEE- 
488 interface, an RS-232-C interface, 
a standard typewriter keyboard, mo- 
dem electronics and a ten-key nu- 
meric pad. Every system comes with 
free, industry-standard software: 
CP/M, CBASIC, MBASIC, WordStar, 
MailMerge and SuperCalc. Super- 
Calc is a program of the type pio- 
neered by Software Arts with Visi- 
Calc. 

The listed retail price for all this 
hardware and software is $1795. 
Dealers can receive 40 percent dis- 
counts. 

The following hardware options 
are offered: 

—double-density, double-sided flop- 
py-disk drives 

—a nine-inch monitor that repro- 
duces the five-inch monitor display 
—a battery pack providing three to 
five hours of operation away from an 
electric outlet 
—an acoustic coupler 
—a 12-inch monitor providing an 
80-column display. 

Many people have told me that this 
low price will shock the microcom- 
puter industry. But the price is an in- 
dictment of Apple, Commodore and 
Radio Shack. Any one of them could 
have offered you this same product, 
probably for even less money. And 
they could have done so a year ago. 
They do not offer such a product 
either because they do not under- 
stand the market, or because they are 
afraid of undermining sales of their 

^See List of Advertisers on page 242 



existing, more expensive, microcom- 
puters. 

The three industry leaders can get 
away with selling expensive hard- 
ware, propped up by even more ex- 
pensive and unique software, as long 
as all mass producers of microcom- 
puters adopt the same policies. 

But the rules have changed. 

I could never have built the Os- 
borne I computer and sold it for 
$1795 if I had had to underwrite the 
cost of developing my own operating 
system, language compilers and in- 
terpreters and unique application 
programs. But I did not have to spend 
money on software development; 
Microsoft, Digital Research, Compil- 
er Systems and innumerable other 
software manufacturers have already 



done the job for me. 

Osborne Computer Corporation 
(26500 Corporate Ave., Hay ward, CA 
94545) will continue to drive down 
the cost of computer hardware. Prod- 
ucts such as the Osborne I will cost 
less. Products in the Osborne I price 
range will do more. 

Within five years briefcase-sized 
computers will include a printer and 
cost less than $2000. The problem 
with such a configuration today is not 
so much parts cost as it is size. You 
simply cannot fit two floppy-disk 
drives, a CRT display and a printer 
mechanism into a briefcase. But flat 
screen displays are on the way, and 
soon we will be able to dispense with 
one of the floppy-disk drives, using 
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Microcomputing, May 1981 109 





Osborne's microcomputer system in a briefcase. 



to provide bulk storage, while a sin- 
gle floppy-disk drive functions as a 
backup device. 

The current and future markets for 
microcomputers such as the Osborne 
I are as ubiquitous as today's type- 
writer market. The Osborne I is al- 
most as compact, and almost as inex- 
pensive, as an electric typewriter; 
and it is just as portable. I project that 
sales for this new type of microcom- 
puter will surpass a quarter of a mil- 
lion units in 1982, a million units in 
1983 and many millions annually 
thereafter. 

All these sales will not go to the Os- 
borne I, of course. The Osborne I is 
just the first entry in this new class of 
microcomputer. By 1983 it will have 
a lot of company. 

Looking Ahead 

Low-cost microcomputer systems 
will have a profound impact on our 
daily work habits. 

Consider the hallowed tradition 
whereby secretaries type letters for 
bosses. Using a microcomputer, a 
boss could write a letter in less time 
than it takes to prepare the informa- 

110 Microcomputing, May 1981 



tion for the secretary and then proof 
the secretary's work. 

Managers will no longer be able to 
depend on underlings to generate fi- 
nancial data. Today it can take weeks 
for a cash-flow analysis or financial 
forecast to percolate up from the low- 
level flunky who generates the data, 
through the many levels of manage- 
ment of a large corporation, to the 
bosses who use this information. In 
the future the boss will prepare this 
information himself or herself. The 
information will then flow from the 
top down. 

There is a ruthless inevitability to 
these changes in white-collar work 
habits. White-collar professionals 
who adopt microcomputers will sig- 
nificantly outperform their cowork- 
ers. Coworkers will have the option 
of joining the revolution or changing 
their profession. 

Consider next the flow of informa- 
tion. Instead of sending typed letters 

and memos, it will be far more effi- 
cient to send diskettes— or simply to 
transmit the data over communica- 
tions lines. Networking for comput- 
ers in the future represents one of the 



most challenging frontiers facing the 
microcomputer industry. 

Microcomputers must communi- 
cate directly with each other over 
telephone lines to permit point-to- 
point messages. Using a microcom- 
puter with a battery pack, attorneys 
will be able to work on a brief while 
flying coast to coast, then send the ed- 
ited material from a hotel room back 
to the law office. Journalists, like- 
wise, will be able to write their 
stories on a word processing system 
and telephone the result from any 
point in the world to the home office. 
Microcomputers connecting with 
large central computers will be able 
to access and contribute to central 
databases. 

Soon the concept of a central office 
will be questioned. Why should com- 
muters suffocate in traffic jams twice 
a day when they could do 90 percent 
of their work at home with a micro- 
computer and telephone? Perhaps of- 
fices should be nothing more than 
conference rooms, where people 
meet for those meetings that really do 
require the physical attendance of 
participants. 

Certainly microcomputers will 
force white-collar professionals to be- 
come more efficient in their work 
habits. Human nature may slow 
down this march toward greater 
white-collar efficiency, but won't 
stop it. 

Although we may argue about the 
impact that microcomputers will 
have on white-collar professionals, 
the future of the microcomputer in- 
dustry itself is now quite clear. 

You are about to witness a new, 
massive round of hardware price re- 
ductions. 

The microcomputer industry is 
about to separate completely into 
hardware and software branches. 
Software vendors will generate in- 
dustry-standard programs. Hard- 
ware manufacturers will build indus- 
try-standard microcomputers. Those 
who stray from industry standards 
will be forced to leave the microcom- 
puter marketplace. 

The microcomputer industry dif- 
fers radically from any type of com- 
puter industry that has preceded it. 
Those who run microcomputer com- 
panies along minicomputer lines will 
fail, because some of us will do the 
job as it should be done. Economics 
overwhelmingly favors the first mi- 
crocomputer manufacturers who un- 
derstand the microcomputer for the 
different product that it is.B 



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Discover some of the hidden features of HIRES graphics with RAM Applesoft. 



The Animated Apple II 



By Edward Burlbaw 



The Apple II is well known for its 
HIRES graphics capability. Two 
HIRES screens are available— unless 
you are using Applesoft Floating 
Point BASIC in RAM (commonly 
called RAM Applesoft or cassette Ap- 
plesoft). RAM Applesoft is loaded in- 
to memory from (hex) $800 to $2FFF. 
Looking at Appendix 1 of the Apple- 
soft manual, you see that HGR (the 
first HIRES screen) is located at 
$2000 to $3FFF. Because Applesoft is 
loaded into memory used by that 
screen, you are warned by the manu- 
al that only HGR2 should be used 
with RAM Applesoft. HGR2, $4000 
to $5FFF (16K-24K), then, is outside 
the area used by Applesoft. 

Because of this, at least 24K is need- 
ed for graphics with RAM Applesoft. 
With 24K of RAM a program requir- 
ing graphics is restricted to less than 
4K ($3000-$3FPF), or calling HGR2 
will erase part of the program. You 
can have longer programs only if you 
have more memory. 

Memory is cheap, so the first thing 
most Apple owners do is buy a full 
complement of memory to have a 
48K machine. That's what I did, any- 
way. 

To achieve animation you will 
need at least two screens that can be 
displayed alternately; that is, while 
you draw the graphics on the hidden 
screen, the other screen is being dis- 
played, and when you are finished 



drawing, you switch screens. With 
only one screen available, you have 
to watch while the drawing is taking 
place. This is fine for some things, 
but for true animation a completely 
updated screen must be presented in 
less than the blink of an eye. At first 
glance this seems impossible if you 
are using RAM Applesoft (with only 
one screen)— not true! 

The technique for acquiring an ad- 
ditional HIRES screen for your Apple 
(actually a choice of three additional 
screens) was developed for and is in- 
corporated in the RAM Applesoft 
version of a commercially available 
program. The Space Shuttle Landing 
Simulator (available from H.S.S.R., 
PO Box 3478, University Park, Las 
Cruces, NM, 88003) displays in cor- 
rect perspective an out-of-cockpit 
view of the landing strip, on a back- 
ground of grass, with a mountain on 
the horizon and a cloud in the blue 
sky. With graphics this elaborate, 
plotting done in plain view would be 
unacceptable. 

Background and Development 

There is nothing special about the 
memory used for the HIRES screens. 
The difference is in the hardware that 
allows that section of memory to be 
displayed. Whatever is in memory lo- 
cations 16K-24K will be displayed on 
the video readout (providing HGR2 
has been initialized). 



The technique I developed is sim- 
ply to plot in memory 40K-48K 
($A000.BFFF), and then move that 
section of memory to the HGR2 
memory area. If you only have 32K 
you can still use this method, as I will 
explain later how to use 24K-32K 
memory locations instead. 

Before detailing how this is done, 
let me introduce and explain some 
commands and switches in the Ap- 
ple. Some of this information can also 
be found in the Applesoft manual. 

HGR— sets HIRES graphics mode 
(280x160) leaving bottom 
four lines of text. Page one 
(8K-16K) is displayed. To be 
strictly avoided with RAM 
Applesoft. 
HGR2-full-screen HIRES graphics 
mode (280x192). The 
screen is cleared to black 
and page two of memory is 
displayed. With RAM Ap- 
plesoft it is not possible to 
display mixed graphics/text 
because page two of text 
(2K-3K) is used by Apple- 
soft. 

POKE - 16304,0— switch to graphics display 

without clearing screen to 
black. 

POKE - 16299,0-page two of text or HIRES. 

POKE - 16297,0-HIRES page one or page two 

graphics. 

POKE - 16302,0-full screen hi- or low-res. 

graphics. 



Address correspondence to: Edward Burlbaw, 945 
Brook Circle, Las Cruces, NM 88001. 



112 Microcomputing, May 1981 



5 REM THIS PROGRAM DISPLAYS 

A COMPLETE SCREEN OF EACH 
COLOR PAUSING AT EACH 

10 DATA 0r42r85»127» 1 70 » 213,255 



20 
30 
40 
50 

60 

70 

80 
90 
99 



HGR2 

FDR A := 1 TO 7 

READ X 

POKE 28, X: REM 



SET UP HCOLOR 



CALL 11250: REM CLEAR SCREEN 

TO HCOLOR 
FOR I = 1 TO 2500: NEXT 



REM 



PAUSE 
NEXT 
TEXT 
END 



Listing 1. 



3 


REM AN INTERESTING PROGRAM 


20 


HCR2 


40 


FOR X ■ TO 255 


50 


POKE 28, X: REM SET UP HCOLOR 


60 


CALL 11250: REM CLEAR SCREEN 




TO HCOLOR 


70 


FOR I ■ 1 TO 200 : NEXT 


30 


NEXT 


90 


TEXT 


7 7 


END 




Listing 2. 



CALL 1 1246— clears current HIRES screen 

to black. 
CALL 1 1250— clears current HIRES screen 

to last HCOLOR HPLOTed. 

This must be preceded by a 

plot. 

The preceding commands and 
some others are described in the Ap- 
plesoft manual on pp. 131-134 and 
pp. 87-88. 

As you can see (by trying it out) ex- 
ecuting the four POKEs is nearly 
equivalent to executing HGR2 except 
that the screen (memory) is not 
cleared to black. If the CALL 1 1246 is 
executed the screen is cleared to 
black and you have executed the 
HGR2 command equivalent. If in- 
stead you execute CALL 11250 (with 
its precedents) the screen will clear to 
the last HCOLOR. 

Let me introduce an additional 
command. 

POKE 28,COLR-this sets up the HCOLOR to 

be HPLOTed, where 
COLR = O-corresponds to HCOLOR = 0: 
black, 
42— corresponds to HCOLOR = 1: 

green, 
85— corresponds to HCOLOR = 2: 

violet, 
127— corresponds to HCOLOR = 3: 

white #1, 
170— corresponds to HCOLOR = 5: 

orange, 
213— corresponds to HCOLOR = 6: 
blue, 



100 



110 

120 

130 

140 
150 
160 
170 
130 

190 



200 
210 
220 
230 
240 



250 
260 



270 

230 
290 



REM THIS PROGRAM PLOTS A 
WHITE STAR ON A BLUE BACK- 
GROUND. THE STARS POSITON 

IS CONTROLLED BY THE PADDLES 

HGR2 

POKE 28,213: CALL 11250: REM 
CLEAR SCREEN TO BLUE 
X ■ 1.02 * PDL ( ):Y ■ 191 - 
* PDL < 1 ) 
20 THEN 
20 THEN 
260 THEN X 
THEN Y 



X 
Y 
X 
Y 



X 
Y 



.75 

IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 

REM PREVIOUS FOUR LINES 
PROTECT BOUNDARIES 
XI ■ XtYl = Y - 20 



175 



20 
20 

■ 260 

■ 175 



X2 - 
X3 = 
X4 = 
X5 - 
REM 
UP 



X 
X 
X 
X 



- 1 

- 1 
+ 1 
+ 1 

PREV 

STAR 
HCOLOR* 7 

HPLOT XI r 
TO X5>Y5 
HPLOT T 
XlrYl 
REM PREV 
HPLOT UHI 
GOTO 130 
REM CHAN 
TO 120' T 
TIME 



9tY2 
2:Y3 
2:Y4 
9tY5 
I0US 



Y - 

Y + 
Y3 
Y2 



6 
16 



FIVE LINES SET 



POINTS 

Yl TO X3»Y3t HPLOT 
t HPLOT TO X2yY2t: 
X4>Y4t HPLOT TO 



IOUS TWO 
TE STAR 



LINES 



GE LINE 280 TO 'GO 
GET ERASURE EACH 



Listing 3. 



255— corresponds to HCOLOR = 7: 
white #2. 

Listing 1 will demonstrate this. This 
program will cycle through the above 
seven colors, with a pause at each col- 
or, and return to text page when fin- 
ished. If you get tired of the single 
color screen you can try this. Replace 
lines 30 and 40 by 

40 FOR X = TO 255 

and change the delay in line 70 to 
about 200. Listing 2 illustrates this. 

In both of the above programs the 
screen is being filled with the new 
color (s) as you watch and has a Vene- 
tian blind look to it. Ideally for ani- 
mation we would like the entire 
screen to change color at once. If you 
will follow me through the next few 
steps you will see how to achieve 
this. 

HPLOTing into the Memory of 
Our Choice 

There is also a POKE which en- 
ables us to HPLOT into any section of 
memory we choose. Yeah, but. . . 
how will that help us? Wait and see. 

POKE 230,SCREEN#, 

where 

SCREEN* = 32-HGR(8K-16K), 

64-HGR2 (16K-24K), 
96-'HGR3' (24K-32K), 
128-HGR4' (32K-40K), 
160-HGR5' (40K-48K), 



The value in location 230 ($E6) deter- 
mines where the HPLOT 0,0 is locat- 
ed in memory. I suppose if you want- 
ed to you could use other values for 
SCREENS but these ranges of mem- 
ory seem most convenient. 

Here is a more interesting program 
(Listing 3) which I will use as an ex- 
ample for the rest of this article. List- 
ing 3 will also justify the need for ani- 
mation better than the previous pro- 
grams. I wanted a simple program 
that you would key in. 

After keying in Listing 3, run it to 
get an idea how it works. Then 
change line 280 to read 

280 GO TO 120. 

Now you can see how shoddy it looks 
to erase and replot as you are watch- 
ing. 

The following changes and addi- 
tions will demonstrate HPLOTing on 
the 40K-48K screen, 'HGR5', and us- 
ing the monitor memory move sub- 
routine to move that memory to 
HGR2. First to HPLOT on HGR5', 

115 POKE 230,160. 

Then to initialize the monitor routine 
add this subroutine, 

1000 POKE 66,0: POKE 67,64 

(destination address) 
1010 POKE 60,0: POKE 61,160 

(source start address) 
1020 POKE 62,0: POKE 63,192 

(source end address) 
1030 CALL -468 

(monitor move call) 
1040 RETURN 

Finally add this line, 

275 GOSUB 1000. 

If you did not change line 280 as in- 
structed above, do it now. Run your 
new version of Listing 3. 

You can still see the Venetian blind 
effect. This is because the monitor 
memory move routine is quite slow 
compared to a move routine dedi- 
cated to the job of moving 8K of data 
from (starting at) 40K to 16K. 

By this time you are either bored 
with all this or interested in seeing 
some really slick work. So, if you are 
still with me, here is a move subrou- 
tine that I adapted for the job from 
the MOS Technology MCS6500 Micro- 
computer Family Programming Manu- 
al, 2nd ed., p. 95. 

After you have made the changes 
in lines 105, 275 and 1000-1040 (de- 
leted), the material in your Apple 
should look like Listing 4. Run the 
program. 

You should be able to move the star 
around the screen and hardly see the 
image changing. Because the HPLOT 
is done in BASIC there is some delay 



Microcomputing, May 1981 113 



100 



105 
110 
115 
120 



130 

140 
150 
160 
170 
180 

190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 

250 
260 



270 



275 
280 
2000 



REM THIS PROGRAM PLOTS A 
WHITE STAR ON A BLUE BACK- 
GROUND. THE STARS POSITON 

IS CONTROLLED BY THE PADDLES 

GOSUB 2000 
HGR2 

POKE 230 f 160 

POKE 28,213: CALL 11250: REM 
CLEAR SCREEN TO BLUE 



X ■ 1.02 
.75 * 
IF X < 
IF Y 
IF X 
IF Y 
REM 



( ) : Y 



* PDL 
PDL ( 1 ) 
20 THEN X ■ 
< 20 THEN Y ■ 

> 260 THEN X ■ 

> 175 THEN Y ■ 
PREVIOUS FOUR 



191 - 



20 
20 



260 

175 

LINES 



PROTECT BOUNDARIES 



XI ■ 
X2 ■ 
X3 ■ 
X4 ■ 
X5 ■ 

REM 
UP STAR POINTS 

HCOLOR= 7 

HPLOT X1»Y1 TO X3,Y3: 



x:yi ■ Y - 
X - 19JY2 
X - 12:Y3 
X + 12:Y4 
X + 19JY5 
PREVIOUS 



20 
■ Y - 6 
== Y f 16 
= Y3 
= Y2 
FIVE LINES 



SET 



HPLOT 



TO X2rY2J : 

HPLOT TO 

LINES 



2010 
2020 
2030 
2040 

2050 



2060 



TO X5,Y5: HPLOT 

HPLOT TO X4,Y4: 
XI, Yl 

REM PREVIOUS TUO 
HPLOT WHITE STAR- 
CALL 768 
GOTO 120 

DATA 169,0,133,6,169,16 
0,133,7,169,0,133,8,169,64,1 
33,9,162,32,160,0,177,6,145, 
8,136,208,249,230,7,230,9,20 
2,48,6,208,240, 160,0,208,236 
,96 

FOR I = 1 TO 41 

READ AX 

POKE 767 + I, AX 

NEXT 

REM THIS SUBROUTINE '2000 

-2060' SETS UP THE MEMORY 

MOVE SUBROUTINE STARTING AT 

$300. TO MOVE 40K-48K TO 

16K-24K --CALL 768 

RETURN 



Listing 4. 





0300- 


A9 


00 


85 


06 


A 9 


AO 


85 


07 


0308- 


A9 


00 


35 


03 


A9 


40 


85 


09 


03 10 - 


A 2 


20 


AO 


00 


Bl 


06 


91 


08 


0318- 


88 


DO 


F9 


E6 


07 


E6 


09 


CA 


032O 


30 


06 


DO 


FO 


AO 


00 


DO 


EC 


0320- 


60 
















Memory Dump of Memory Move routine. 



between paddle movement and im- 
age movement. 

If you would now like to use this 
technique in your own programs, 
simply do the following: 

•key in the subroutine at lines 2000- 
2060, 

• include a GOSUB 2000 command 
early in the program to put the pro- 
gram at location 768 ($300), 

• HGR2 to initialize graphics mode, 

• POKE 230,160, 

• (place your graphics program 
here), 

• CALL 768, and 

• loop back into graphics program. 
It is probably a good idea to set 



1300LL 










0300- 


A9 


00 


LDA 


#$00 


03O2- 


85 


06 


STA 


$06 


03O4- 


A9 


AO 


LDA 


#$A0 


0306- 


85 


07 


STA 


$07 


0308- 


A9 


00 


LDA 


#$00 


03OA- 


85 


08 


STA 


$08 


03OC- 


A9 


40 


LDA 


#$40 


030E- 


85 


09 


STA 


$09 


0310- 


A2 


20 


LDX 


#$20 


0312- 


AO 


00 


LDY 


#$00 


0314- 


Bl 


06 


LDA 


( $06 )»Y 


0316- 


91 


08 


STA 


($08)»Y 


0318- 


88 




DEY 




0319- 


DO 


F9 


BNE 


$0314 


031B- 


E6 


07 


INC 


$07 


031D- 


E6 


09 


INC 


$09 


031F- 


CA 




DEX 




0320- 


30 


06 


BMI 


$0328 


0322- 


DO 


FO 


BNE 


$0314 


0324- 


AO 


00 


LDY 


#$00 


0326- 


DO 


EC 


BNE 


$0314 


0328- 


60 




RTS 




Disassembled Memory Move 


routine. 



HIMEM: 40960 early in the program 
to protect 40K-48K. 

I should add that the memory move 
routine is completely relocatable and 
can be placed anywhere you like, 
providing you don't overwrite Apple- 
soft, HGR2or 'HGR5'. 

Now that you have the basic tools 
and procedures, here are some op- 
tions and additional information. If 
you want to include the memory 
move routine with a machine-lan- 
guage program that loads somewhere 
else in memory, that's fine. A disas- 
sembled version of the routine and a 
memory dump are included with this 
article. 

If you would rather use 'HGR3' or 
'HGR4' it is necessary only to change 
the sixth entry in the data statement 
(line 2000) from 160 to 96 or 128, re- 
spectively, and POKE 230 with the 
corresponding number. The sixth 
data entry is location (dec) 773 or 
$305. 

If your Applesoft program is longer 
than 4K you will be unable to use the 
HGR2 unless you load the program 
above 24K. To do this a simple POKE 
is necessary. POKE 104 ($68) with 
the hibyte of the desired beginning of 
the program. POKE 104,96 will begin 
loading at 24K ($6000). Likewise, 
poking 128 or 160 corresponds to 32K 
and 40K, respectively. 

In order for this to work on all Ap- 
ples you must POKE the first three 
starting memory locations with a 0. 
For example, POKE 24576,0, POKE 
24577,0, and POKE 24578,0 to begin 
loading correctly at 24K. 

One alternative might be to begin 
loading the program at 32K and use 
'HGR3' for your other HIRES screen. 



This would require the appropriate 
change in the memory move routine. 
I used 'HGR5' as my primary exam- 
ple because that was what I had used 
for my purposes. 

I understand that DOS resides in 
the higher memory locations (I don't 
have a disk, yet) so possibly there is 
an advantage in using HGR3' rather 
than 'HGR5'. If your program fits be- 
tween 32K and DOS you wouldn't 
crash DOS. 

One hidden advantage of loading 
your program above HGR2 is that 
you now have more room for ma- 
chine-language programs. Locations 
$3000-$3FFF are now free for 4K of 
machine-language programs of your 
choice. Since DOS uses some of the 
free space, $300-$3F7, it's nice to 
have that 4K sitting there. 

One thing you will have noticed by 
now about HGR2 is that it's impossi- 
ble to get the bottom four lines TEXT 
as is available on HGR. The HIRES 
Character Generator programs work 
on the new HIRES screens. The pro- 
gram from the Apple Contributors Li- 
brary Vol. 3-5, for example, de- 
scribes a POKE to location 974 of 32 
for p. 1, 64 for p. 2, and now I add 96 
for p. 3, 128 for p. 4, and 160 for p. 5. 
It's all very easy once you know how! 

This technique is simple in princi- 
ple and not much harder in applica- 
tion. HPLOTing in another section of 
memory requires only one POKE, 
and changing screens is an easy 
memory move done with a CALL. 

Summary 

I certainly hope that I haven't over- 
whelmed you with too much infor- 
mation. What I hope I have done is 
led you through a discovery of some 
of the hidden details of high-reso\u- 
tion graphics. I have tried to explain 
each step with exemplary programs 
short enough to key in as we went 
along from step to step. I also wanted 
to use programs that made some use 
of animation without being too com- 
plicated. I developed this technique 
of simulating another HIRES screen 
for use by a program with very elabo- 
rate graphics, where having two 
screens was mandatory. 

I think that if you followed along 
you will now have a useful tool for 
your own programs, and will no long- 
er feel cheated out of the two HIRES 
screens by cassette Applesoft. Sur- 
prise and amaze your friends with 
ROM cards at your next club meeting 
by showing off your two-screen ani- 
mation. ■ 



114 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Rax Massa 
Vers i on 7.0 



**##***##*##***###*##*# 



HEADER.LOG 



00010 REM 

00020 REM 

00030 REM 

00040 REM 

00050 REM 

00060 REM 

00070 REM 

00080 REM 

00090 REM 

00100 REM 

00110 GOSUB 1690 

00120 PRINT TAB (35);" DATALOG 

00130 PRINT IPRINT IPRINT 

00140 DIM C*( 150) . A«( 150) , R8 ( 150) ,E«( 150) ,B»< 150) ,C1*<28) 

00150 D5»=""."D1* = ""IF0R I=8383T0 8391 I Dl »=CHR* ( PEEK ( I ) ) I D5* = D5*+D1 • I NEXT I 

00160 D5«=MID«(D5*.4,3)+" . "+LEFT» ( D5* , 2 ) + " , 19"+RIGHT* < D5» , 2 ) 

00170 LINE INPUT "ENTER THE YEAR OF THE DATA LOG YOU WI5H TO ACCE58: M ; Yt 

00180 Z«="SYO.'LOG"+RIGHT«< Y»,2) + "HDR.DAT" IPRINT 

00190 PRINT IIF Y*<>" NEW "GOTO 590 

00200 PRINT 

00210 LINE INPUT "ENTER YEAR OF THE FILE YOU WANT TO CREATE: "',Yt 

00220 Z*="SY0IL0G"+RIGHT*(Y*,2)+"HDR.DAT" IPRINT 

00230 IF OAL( Y*)< 1970G0T0 210 

00240 PRINT "ENTER STARTING JOB# FOR "Y»;iLINE INPUT ": (4 disits) "'.J* IPRINT 

00250 IF LEN(J»)<>4 THEN PRINT IPRINT "ERROR — Please enter a 4 diait number. "IGO 

TO 240 

00260 PRINT "WILL NOW WRITE THE FOLLOWING DATA TO DISK, IF INFORMATION IS CORRECT 



00270 
00280 
00290 
00300 
00310 
00320 
00330 
00340 
00350 
00360 
00370 
00380 
00390 
00400 
00410 
00420 
00430 
00440 
00450 
00460 
00470 
00480 
00490 
00500 
00510 
00520 
00530 
00540 
00550 
00560 
00570 
00580 
00590 
00600 
00610 
00620 
00G30 
00640 



D3»=D5» 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB( 13) "Name oF Fi 1 e I " ; TAB ( 50 ) ; Z* 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB(13)"Date oF Great l on I " ; TAB ( 50 ) : D3* 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB( 13) "Number oF Disks Used For "iY*',"'. ";TAB(49);E 

X=EIIF X*OTHEN >(=1 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB( 13) "Total Records For ";Y*;"I " ; TAB ( 49 ) ', I < X- 1 ) *1503-»-0 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB( 13) "Number oF Records on Latest Di sK I " ? TAB ( 49 ) ,* V 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB( 13)"Startina Job Number For " ; Y* ; " I " ; TAB (50 ) ; J* 

PRINT 

IF A9»*""THEN A9»=STR* ( UAL ( J» ) -1 ) 

PRINT TAB<13)"Next Available Job Number For Uce I " ; TAB ( 49) ; VAL ( A9» ) +1 

PRINT .'PRINT 

IF R2>0G0T0 770 

PRINT IPRINT IPRINT IPRINT 

INPUT "ANY CHANGES? M ;X» 

IF X**"Y"THEN A9»="" IGOSUB 1680 IGOTO 200 

IF X»O"N"G0T0 480 

• 

REM WRITE HEADER FILE 

OPEN Z% FOR WRITE AS FILE #1 

PRINT #1,Z«IPRINT #1,D3»!PRINT #1.E!PRINT #1,J»IPRINT #1,A9» 

PRINT #1,Y*IPRINT #1,0 

CLOSE #1 

GOTO 650 

• 

rem read header file 

open z»for read as file #1 

line input #i,;z*:line input #1 , ;d3*iinput #i,;e:line input #i,;j« 

line input #i,;a9*iline input #i,;y»: input #i,;v 

CLOSE #1 




By Raymond Massa 



One of Benton Harbor Disk BA- 
SIC'S biggest drawbacks is its 
lack of random access disk manipula- 
tion. The sequential file structure 
supported by B.H. BASIC is good, but 
rather slow when reading or writing 
large data files. One factor contribut- 
ing to this is the need of FOR/NEXT 
loops along with an IF/THEN state- 
ment to check for the appropriate 
data being searched for. 

Also, using the string functions to 
concatenate the common fields of 
any given record, and later to decode 
these strings, places an additional 
burden on the execution speed of the 
program. 

This led me to develop a disk pro- 
gram that would overcome these ob- 
stacles as much as possible without 
having to sacrifice a great deal. I did 
this by using an index that is created 
along with the data that you enter. 
This index is a brief description of the 
main data record, indicating the job 
number, its title, date of entry and 
number of pages that exist for that 
particular record. 

When searching for a specific rec- 
ord, the program looks up its associ- 
ated number in the index, and if 
found, confirms the fact that a record 
by that number does exist. This is im- 
portant, since each datum is written 

Address correspondence to Raymond Massa, 125 
Aspen, Birmingham, MI 48009. 



118 Microcomputing, May 1981 



to the disk as a separate file with a 
completely unique name. This ex- 
plains how data can be retrieved so 
quickly without random access files. 

After the record number is con- 
firmed as valid, the program directly 
reads the data from the disk, using 
the record number preceded by the 
letter M as the file name. The letter M 
is needed because all legal file names 
must start with an alphabetical char- 
acter. 

Immediately following the last dig- 
it of the record number is the letter P, 
followed by a numeral 1 through 9. 
This represents the page number of 
the data. This will be explained in 
greater detail later. 

General Functions 

DataLog.Bas runs under B.H. Disk 
BASIC and requires a minimum of 
32K of RAM memory, an H19 termi- 
nal and dual disk drives. An H-89 
Heath computer can also be used, as 
long as it is equipped with the above 
configuration. A printer is not a must, 
but the program can accommodate 
one if available. 

Datalog lets you keep records of 
virtually any size in a very organized 
manner. Records of any type or vari- 
ety in any sequence can be entered 
without problems. At the same time, 
it has provisions for computing the 
total number of items on a cost/size 
basis. Although this feature was writ- 
ten to keep track of the cost of photo- 
stats for an art studio, it is easily 
adaptable to your needs by changing 
the necessary print and input state- 
ments described later. 

In addition to this, it automatically 
constructs an index for all the data 
you enter. This gives you an orga- 
nized listing of all accounts on the 
disk. 

DataLog.Bas lets you search for a 
job in any one of four ways. It has 
complete provisions for errors made 
or entry of additional data, and dis- 
plays a summary of pertinent year-to- 
date information. 

Since the code for this program is 
rather lengthy, it has been subdivid- 
ed into four separate sections, thus 
enabling the program to store and ex- 
ecute in 32K of memory. Using the 
CHAIN command, the four modules 
interact with each other under pro- 
gram control. 

Capabilities 

If each record length does not ex- 
ceed two sectors in size (512 charac- 



Listing 1 continued. 



00630 
00660 
00670 
00680 
00690 
00700 
00710 
00720 
00730 
00740 
00750 
00760 
00770 
00780 
00790 
00900 
00910 
."GOTO 
00920 
00930 
00940 
00950 
00960 
00670 
00990 
00990 
00900 
00910 
00920 
00930 
00940 
00950 
009G0 
00970 
00990 
00990 
01000 
01010 
01020 
01030 
01040 
01050 
01060 
01070 
01090 
01090 
01100 

oino 

01120 

01130 

01140 

01150 

01160 

01170 

01180 

01190 

01200 

01210 

01220 

01230 

01240 

01250 

01260 

01270 

01290 

01290 

01300 

01310 

01320 

01330 

01350 

01360 

01370 

01360 

01390 

01400 

01410 

01420 

01430 

A6(73 

01440 

01450 

01460 

01470 

01480 

01490 

01500 

01510 

01520 

01530 

01540 

01530 

01560 

01570 

01580 

01590 

01600 

01610 

01620 

01630 

01640 

01650 

01660 

01670 

01680 

01690 

01700 

01710 

01720 



REM PRINT HEADER INFO. 

PRINT TAB(31)Y»" DATA LOC'IPRINT 

PRINT TAB(19)"For the Records of (Insert Company Name)" 

PRINT 

R2=l 

PRINT CHR«(27) ;CHR»(70) ; 

FOR 92-1T0 79!PRINT CHR« < 97 > ; .' NEXT 

PRINT 

PRINT CHR«(27) ;CHR*(71 ) ; 

GOTO 290 

REM SET UP INDEX / CHECK DISK# 
M-E 

IF E=0THEN E=l 

PRINT IPRINT 

PRINT ■ Enter Disk* 9eina Used.' (1 to"?E") "?:LINE INPUT "";L2» 

IF VAL<L2*)<1 OR VAL<L2«>> E THEN PRINT "=*=INVALID FILE NUMBER* = -T PR INT 

900 

I*="SY1 I INDEX"-«-L2»+".DAT" 

IF G9 = 0THEN GOSUB 15 10 .'GOTO 900 

IF 0*0AND 0AL(L2*)=E THEN GOSUB 1510IG0T0 900 

GOSUB 1590 

• 
■ 
• 

REM OPTION LIST 

REM 

GOSUB 1690 

PRINT :PRINT .'PRINT 

PRINT TAB(25)"1 Input New Data'TPRINT 

PRINT TAB(25)"2 Examine Data":PRINT 

PRINT TAB(25)"3 Update Data":PRINT 

PRINT TAB<25)"4 Oiew Index'TPRINT 

PRINT TAB(25)"5 Print Index " : PRINT 

PRINT TAB(25)"B End Proaram" : PRINT 

print :print .-print tab<22) ; iline input - enter: m ;x* 
on ln0<ual(x»)) goto 1010, 1020 , 1030 , 1 160 , 1 190 , 1060 

GOTO 990 

CHAIN "NEWDATA.LOG" 
CHAIN "EXAMINE.LOG" 
CHAIN "UPDATE.LOG" 



REM END PROGRAM 
GOSUB 1690 
PRINT CHR«< 12) 
PRINT TAB(22)"E N D 
PRINT .'PRINT .-PRINT 
PRINT TAB(23);" TYPE 
PRINT TPRINT 
END 



DATA 



LOG 



PROGRAM" 



BYE' and UPDATE BACK-UP DISK 



rem set tt:/lp: 
tb** m tt: m :goto 1200 
to*="lp: m 

M5=l 

GOSUB 1590 



REM VIEW/PRINT INDEX 

GOSUB 1690 

08*0 

OPEN T9» FOR WRITE AS FILE #2 

PRINT #2,""TAB<35>;Y«; m INDEX ";TAB<65>" C disk #";L2«" 3"TAB(79)" " 

PRINT #2, 

PRINT #2,"Title"TAB(34)"Job #"SPC ( 7 ) " Pases "SPC ( 9 ) "Dat e "SPC ( 9 ) "Stat us ■ 

FOR S2*1T0 79 .'PRINT #2," = "; I NEXT 

S2 = 

IF G9=77G0T0 1360 

FOR X=1T0 O 

xa= ,,M 

S2=S2+1 

IF M5*l AND S2 = 55 THEN 09=77 :G0T0 1290 
IF M5=l GOTO 1410 

IF S2=ll THEN CLOSE #2 : PAUSE :Q9=77: GOSUB 1690 

IF S2»11THEN OPEN T9» FOR WRITE AS FILE #2 IPRINT #2 , ."GOTO 1290 
PRINT #2r 

IF A*<X)=" H THEN CLOSE #2IPRINT "<CR>" m , '. PAUSE :09«77:G0T0 900 

PRINT #2.X*+LEFT»(C*(X) , 32 ) TAB ( 33 >RIGHT* ( A« ( X ) , 6 ) TAB ( 47 ) R8 ( X ) TAB ( 56 )£• < X ) T 
>B*(X> 
NEXT X 
GOTO 1420 

a 

REM SUBROUTINES 

REM 

REM OPEN NEW INDEX 

OPEN I» FOR WRITE AS FILE #1 

FOR X=1T0 V 

print #i,ca:PRiNT #i,a*:print #i,rb:print #i,e«:print #i,b» 

NEXT X 
CLOSE #1 
RETURN 

REM READ INDEX 

OPEN I» FOR READ AS FILE #1 

FOR X«=l TO V 



line input #i,;c*<x> ILINE INPUT #i,;a*<x) 

LINE INPUT HJEKXI ILINE INPUT #i.;B«(X> 
NEXT X 
CLOSE #1 
RETURN 

■ 

REM 

REM CLEAR SCREEN 

PRINT CHR*<27> ;CHR«(69) 

RETURN 



.'INPUT #lr ;R8(X) 



REM 



END 



Microcomputing, May 1981 119 



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ters per record), there will be room pletely packed record can use up to 
for 150 records on one disk. A com- five sectors, in which case 75 records 



00010 

00020 

00030 

00040 

00050 

00060 

00070 

00080 

00090 

00100 

00110 

00120 

00130 

00140 

00130 

00160 

00170 

00180 

00190 

00210 

00220 

00230 

00240 

00250 

00260 

00270 

00260 

00290 

00300 

00310 

00320 

00330 

00340 

00330 

00360 

00370 

00380 

00390 

00400 

00410 

00420 

00430 

00440 

00450 

00460 

00470 

00480 

00490 

00500 

00510 

00520 

00530 

00540 

00550 

00560 

00570 

00580 

00590 

00600 

ic" 

00610 

00620 

00630 

00640 

00650 

00660 

00670 

O0B80 

00690 

00700 

00710 

00720 

00730 

00740 

ad" 

00750 

00760 

00770 

00780 

00790 

00800 

00810 

00820 

00830 

00840 

00850 

870 

00860 

00870 

00880 

00890 

00900 

00910 

00920 

00930 

00940 

00950 

00960 

00970 

00980 

00990 

01000 

01010 



Listing 2. Newdata program. 



»»»*** NEWDATA.LOG 



Ray Massa 
Function #1 oP Datalos 
Version 7.0 



REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM »*###»#»##♦#♦#*#«»**#•**» 

REM 

G0SUB 2780 

IF V = AND VAL(L2»)<> E THEN G0SUB 2910 ICHAIN "HEADER. LOG" . 880 

IF Q9-0G0T0 140 

IF V-0G0T0 140 

GOTO 190 

V»0 

REM IF FIR5T RECORD 

IF Q9 = 0THEN A9* = " " + J* IV-V+1 ."GOTO 230 

REM IF FIRST RECORD ON NEW DISK 

IF V*0THEN ¥■¥♦! .'GOTO 230 

V«V+1 

A9»=STR*(VAL(AS$ )♦! ) 



REM CLEAR ALL PROMPT VARIABLES 

ji**-" :j2**"" :j3»= m " :j4*« m h :j5*» m 
K3*="" :k4** m " :k5«= mm :k6»= ,,h ik7»=" 



:j6**" m :j7*= m " 
:k»="" il»«" 



:ki»* mm :k2»* m " 
:m» = ,,m :n«« m,, :o«*" m 



INDEX FLAG FOR PAGE # 



1=0 

GOSUB 2780 

REM 

19-0 

PRINT TABOO)" Next Available Job# ";A9t 

PRINT IPRINT 

PRINT TABOO) "RECORD*" ;V ON FILE#";L2» 

PRINT CHR902) 

PRINT TAB( 15) ILINE INPUT "Enter Job#I "JA* 

IF VAL(A»KVAL( J*) THEN PRINT .'PRINT "=== INVALID J0B#= ■ •■ .'GOTO 350 

IF LEN(A*)>4 THEN PRINT IPRINT "Maximum of 4 Disits, Please." IGOTO 340 

A3t-A* 

PRINT 

IF V>25 THEN PRINT "WORKING " 

FOR X«1T0 V 

IF VAL(RIGHT*(A*(X) ,6) ) =VAL ( A» ) THEN PRINT "Addina Paae "R8(X ) ♦>! ,' ."GOTO 450 

NEXT X 

GOTO 540 

PRINT " to Job* ";LEFT*<A*.4) IPRINT IPRINT 

IF R8(X)=9THEN PRINT "ERROR! — Maximum oF 9 Paaes/ Job#" I PAU9E 1000IG0T0 290 
PRINT TAB(5);.'LINE INPUT "SURE? "JXalPRINT CHR«(12) 
IF X«»"Y"THEN 19=88 IR8«R8(X)+1 IGOTO 560 
IF X»<>"N"G0T0 470 
GOTO 280 

• 
a 
■ 

REM SET PAGE# TO 1 

R8*l 

REM PRINT ALL PROMPT ?'S 

GOSUB 2780 

PRINT IPRINT 

GOSUB 2820 

REM GRAPHIC AND VIDEO ESC CODES ARE EMBEDDED WITHIN PRINT STATEMENTS 

PRINT "Faaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaasaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



" K "TAB (28)" *"TAB(71 !■•■ 

" x STATUS! "TAB (28) " » "TAB<71 ) 

" %M TAB(2B)"'"TAB(71 )" v " 

■» JOB TITLEI"TAB(28)"*"TAB(71 )" % " 

■ x " TAB ( 28 ) TAB ( 7 1 ) " v " 

■« CATEGORY.' "TAB ( 28) " x "TAB(71)" % " 

M *"TAB(28)" '"TAB (71 )" x " 

MS SALESMAN'S NAME I "TAB( 28) " ♦ "TAB ( 71 ) 

TAB (28) " * "TAB (71 »■*« 

GENERAL DESCR I PT I ON I " TAB ( 28 ) " ' " TAB (71)"'" 

TAB(28) " v "TAB(71 )" v " 

CLIENT J0B# I"TAB(28) " * "TAB(71 ) " v " 
■ * -TAB(28) " * "TAB(71 ) " % " 

"eaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaauaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 



■• \ « 

it \ 

ii \ ii 

M \ 



aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 



GOSUB 2860 



REM 
L3»3 

GOSUB 3060 
GOSUB 3060 
GOSUB 3060 
GOSUB 3060 



INPUT RE6P0NSES TO PROMPTS 



.'LINE INPUT 
I LINE INPUT 



.'LINE 
.'LINE 



GOSUB 3060 ILINE 



INPUT 
INPUT 
INPUT 



""IB* 
»«;c* 
" " I D* 

"";f* 
h ";g« 



IF LEN(G»)>40THEN L3=ll. 'GOSUB 3060IPRINT CHR* ( 27 ) ; "K " I L3« 1 1 I GOSUB 3060IG0T 

GOTO 880 

PRINT ■ ENTRY TOO LONG III RE-ENTER! • " IL3- 1 1 IG05UB 3060 

PAUSE 1000IF0R S2«1T0 34IPRINT " "JINEXT !L3=11 IGOTO 840 

GOSUB 3060 ILINE INPUT " M ;H* 

REM 

REM LOAD IN DATE 

E»»D5t 

PRINT IPRINT .'PRINT IPRINT 

LINE INPUT ■ Any Chanaet? M ;Xt 

IF X»*"Y"G0T0 560 

GOSUB 2780 

PRINT IPRINT IPRINT 

LINE INPUT "Do Want To Enter Text? ",'X* 

IF X*-"N"G0T0 1600 

IF X*O"Y"G0T0 870 




120 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 121 



Listing 2 continued. 



01020 

01030 
01040 
01030 

oioeo 

01070 
01080 

01090 
01100 

OHIO 
01120 

01130 
01140 

01130 
01160 



REM 

1-0 

FOR 12-1 TO 

QOSUB 2820 

GOSUB 2780 

PRINT "fia 

■■■■e" 

PRINT 

PRINT 



ENTER 1 LINE OF WORK RECORD 



14 



TAB (27) M » M TAB(80) M 
WORK RECORD DATE.' 



PRINT 
PRINT 

PRINT 
PRINT 

PRINT 
PRINT 



" ,M TAB(27>" ' "TAB(BO)"» M 
■• WORK THAT WAS DONE.' 

M * " TAB ( 27 ) " * M TAB ( 80 ) " x M 
" % NUMBER OF HOURS.' 

" '"TAB (27) M x "TAB (80)" * " 
"eiaaaniaaaaiaaaaaaaaai 



01170 

01180 

01190 

01200 

01210 

01220 

1240 

01230 

01240 

01250 

01260 

01270 

01280 

01290 

01300 

01310 

01320 

01330 

01340 

01350 



GOSUB 

L3-1 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

REM 



2860 



3060 .'LINE INPUT "" m , P* 
3060 .'LINE INPUT ""',Q% 

CHECK FOR OVERFLOW AND CORRECT 



IF LEN(G») >50THEN L3«3:G08UB 3060:PRINT CHR» ( Z7 >; "K " : L3*3 : GOSUB 3060:G0T0 



GOTO 1270 



PRINT 
GOSUB 
REM 
GOSUB 

■ 

PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
IF X* = 



" ENTRY TOO LONG! ::: RE-ENTER 
3060:PAUSE lOOO.'FOR S2-1T0 34.'PRINT 



:next 



• « TL3"3 

:l3*3:print :goto 



1200 



3060 .'LINE INPUT 



;s« 



.'PRINT .'PRINT 

"LINE NUMBER " I2"READS I " .' PRINT TPRINT TAB(15)Pf M 

.'PRINT .'PRINT 

TAB( 15) ;:LINE INPUT " Add/Delete/Qui t : ■ m , Xt 

"D"GOTO 1060 



Q*« 



S* 



IF X»O m A"AND X*<>"Q"THEN PRINT .'GOTO 1320 

ON 12 GOSUB 1440. 1450. 1460.1470.1480, 1490. 1500, 1510r 1520, 1530r 1540, 1530r 13 



60,1570 
01360 I-I-M 



01370 

01390 

1500 

01390 



PRINT 

IF X»«"A"AND I2=13THEN PRINT 



J 1 •* P» + " * " ♦Of* " A " +S%+ "* u : RETURN 
J2t = P«* " A " + Q4+ " A " -»-S»+ " A '*: RETURN 

j34*p»+" a "*q4+" a "+s*+" a ":return 
j4»"P»+" a "*q*+ ma "+s«+ ma ":return 

J5»*Pf-»-" A "'»-Qt+" AM -»-S»+" A ":RETURN 
J6t-P»+ MA "*a«+ MA "+S«+" A ": RETURN 
J74» Pf+ M A " +Q*+ " A " +S»* M A M : RETURN 
K 1 • = Pt + " A " +Qt+ " A " +S«+ " A " .' RETURN 
K2»»Pt+ " A " +Q%+ " A "+S» + " A ".' RETURN 

k3««p«+" a "*q»+" a "+s«+" a " .'return 
k4*»p»+ ,,a "+q»+" a "*s«+ mam :return 

K5t = P**" A "+Q* + " A,, +S»+ MA " I RETURN 

k6**p«+" a "*q»+" a "+s*+ ,,a -:return 
k7»«p»+" a "-»-q»+" a "+s»+" a ":return 



IF VAL (A9»X«VAL(A») THEN A9*»STR» ( UAL ( A* ) ) .'GOTO 1620 
A9»*STR«(VAL(A9«)-1 ) 
GOSUB 2780 

print :print :print 

LINE INPUT "Do You H«w» Photostat* to Entir? 
IF X**"N"G0TO 2170 
IF X«K>"Y"GOTO 1620 



IF X»="A M AND 
E ISOO.'GOTO 1600 
01400 IF Xt-"A"THEN NEXT 12 
01410 GOTO 1600 
01420 : 
01430 : 
01440 
01450 
01460 
01470 
01480 
O1490 
01500 
01510 
01520 
01530 
01540 
01550 
01560 
01570 
01580 
01580 
01600 
01610 
01620 
01630 
01640 
01650 
01660 
01670 
01680 
01680 
01700 
01710 
01720 
01730 
01740 
01750 
01760 
01770 
01780 
01790 
01800 
01810 
01820 
01830 
01840 
OIBSO 
01860 
01870 
01880 
01890 
01900 
01910 
01920 
01930 
01940 
01950 
01960 
01970 
01980 
01990 
02000 
02010 
02020 



PRINT TAB(15) H LA5T LINE FOR THIS PAGE" I PAUSE 
I2 = 14THEN PRINT .'PRINT TAB(15)"0UT OF ROOM ON THIS PAGE":PAUS 



;x« 



GOSUB 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



2780 
"LN=LINE"TAB(28) 



SC=SCREENED"TAB(56) "BL=BLUEL INE" 



"CP=CELL P0S"TAB(28)"CN=CELL NEG"TAB ( 56 ) "RU=REVERSE" 

'K2=CHR0MA(2 COLOR) 



M K1*CHR0MA( 1 COLOR) 
TPRINT .'PRINT 



"K3=CHR0MA(3 COLOR) 



FOR K=1T0 ! 

12=1 

IF K=1THEN 
K»2THEN 
K=3THEN 
K-4THEN 
K-5THEN 



X»*' 
X*»' 
Xt*' 

x» = 
xt* 



8 X 10" 
10 X 12" 
X 

X 
X 



11 

12 
18 



14' 
18' 
24' 



: PRINT Xt" PHOTOSTATS" 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 

at* " •• 

PRINT 

PRINT "zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz" 

C14(I2)»"NULL" 

IF I2>20THEN PRINT I PRINT "WARNING ! —PLEASE CONDENSE THIS STAT ENTRY' 

LINE INPUT " Enter h ";Clt(I2) 

PRINT 

IF LEFT*(C1»(I2) ,1)-"Q"0R CI ♦ ( 12) = " "GOTO 2030 



REM CHECK FOR CODE VALIDITY 

READ R2» 

DATA LN , SC , RU , C P , CN . BL . K 1 , K 2 . K 3 , ZZ 

IF R2« = "ZZ"THEN PRINT "INVALID CODE ENTRY J " .'RESTORE 

IF RIGHT»(C1«( 12) ,2>*R2«THEN RESTORE IGOTO 2020 

GOTO 1960 



IGOTO 1890 



I2«I2+1.'G0T0 1890 




is the maximum allowed before run- 
ning out of disk space. A warning is 
issued both visually and audibly 
when 150 entries are reached. This 
value can be set to 75 or any other 
numeral below 150 after you deter- 
mine approximately what your aver- 
age record lengths will be. Change 
the number 150 in the indicated 
statements below if this value must 
be adjusted. 

HEADER.LOG LINE#140 r 370 
NEWDATA.LOG LINE#200 ( 2190, 2390 

Operating Instructions 

To run the program, type CHAIN 
"HEADER.LOG" (Listing 1). This is 
the smallest of the four segmented 
programs. Also, this is the only pro- 
gram that you load into the computer 
manually. The other programs oper- 
ate under program control only and 
cannot run separately. 

When the prompt ENTER THE 
YEAR OF THE DATA LOG YOU 
WISH TO ACCESS: appears, enter 
NEW if you are starting a new year of 
files. The first disk for a given year 
will be titled DISK 1, the second disk 
for the same year is DISK 2 and so on 
for as many disks as you need. 

Header.log will set up a new year's 
files by asking all pertinent informa- 
tion. If the year has already been 
started, it will display current year- 
to-date status such as starting job #, 
total number of jobs, total number of 
disks used for a year, date of file crea- 
tion, name of the file and the next 
available job number for use. The 
Header.log also contains the menu 
display. The three other subprograms 
will chain to and from this module 
when a new option is selected. 

The valid options are: 
1 -INPUT NEW DATA 
2-EXAMINE DATA 
3-UPDATE DATA 
4- VIEW INDEX 
5-PRINT INDEX 
6-END PROGRAM 

Input New Data 

This is only for starting new jobs. 
(See Listing 2.) It will display the next 
sequentially available job number. 
You have the option of choosing that 
number or any other that is greater 
than the starting number for the year. 
If you select a number that has al- 
ready been used, then a message in- 
dicating that you are requesting to 
add a page to that job number will ap- 
pear. You can then decline and reen- 
ter the number, or proceed to add a 
page. Nine pages for one job number 



122 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Listing 2 continued. 



02030 

02040 

02050 

02060 

02070 

02080 

02090 

02100 

02110 

02120 

02130 

02140 

02150 

02160 

02170 

02180 

02190 

02200 

02210 

02220 

02230 

02240 

02250 

02260 

02270 

02280 

02290 

02300 

02310 

02320 

02330 

02340 

02350 

02360 

02370 

02380 

02390 

02400 

02410 

02420 

02430 

02440 

02450 

02460 

02470 

02480 

02490 

02500 

02510 

02520 

02530 

02540 

02550 

02560 

02570 

02580 

02590 

02600 

02610 

02620 

02630 

O2640 

02650 

02660 

02670 

026B0 

02690 

02700 

02710 

02720 

02730 

02740 

02750 

02760 

02770 

02780 

02790 

02800 

02610 

02820 

02830 

02840 

02850 

02860 

02870 

02880 

02890 

02900 

02910 

02920 

02930 

02940 

02950 

02960 

02970 

02980 

02990 

03000 

03010 

03020 

03030 

03040 

O3050 

03060 

03070 

03080 

03090 

03100 

03110 



IF I2-1G0T0 2060 
FOR D=1T0 (12-1 ) 

a»=a**ci*<D)+"/ M :next d 

IF LEFT»(C1*(I2) , 1 )="Q"THEN 

GOSUB 2100 

IF K*5G0T0 2170 

NEXT K 

IF K=1THEN 

IF K=2THEN 

IF K=3THEN 

IF K«4THEN 

IF K*5THEN 

RETURN 



G08UB 2 1 00 ! GOTO 2170 



k»=q» 

L**Q* 
M* = Q* 
N* = Q* 



REM FORMAT FILE NAME 

IF V»150THEN G05UB 2910 

GOSUB 2780 

REM ADD <M' TO FILE NAME AND PAGE# 

A*="M M +A*+ M P"-»-MID»(STR$(R8) ,2,1) 

PRINT -Record * m 9Mi mi Now Beins Written 

w*= m syi: h +a» 



to File 



REM WRITE TO FILE 

OPEN W* FOR WRITE AS FILE #3 

print #3.a»:print #3,b*:print #3,c»:print #3,d*:print #3,E* 
print #3,f»:print #3,g$:print #3,h*:print #3,i:print #3.ji»:print 

PRINT #3»J3«:PRINT #3 . J4* : PRINT #3,J5«:PRINT #3,J6»:PRINT #3,J7» 

PRINT #3.K1*.'PRINT #3,K2*:PRINT #3,K3».*PRINT #3,K4*:PRINT #3,K5* 

PRINT #3,K6»:PRINT #3.k7«:print #3,k»:print #3,l*:print #3,M» 

PRINT #3.N».*PRINT #3.0» 

CLOSE #3 



c«u»)=c« :a$(».»)=a» :rb(«.')=rb :e*(V)=e» :b«(».')=b$ 

IF <.'^150THEN «.» = :E=E+1 
09 = 99 



REM WRITE UPDATED HEADER INFO. TO DISK 
PRINT .'PRINT "Header File Now Beina Updated." 
OPEN 2* FOR WRITE AS FILE #1 

print #i,z»:print #i,d3*:print #i.e:print #i,j«:print #i,A9» 
print #i,y»: print #i,v: close #1 



REM UPDATE INDEX PAGE* 

REM 

REM SKIP UPDATE IF NOT ADDING PAGE 

IF I9O88G0T0 2600 

FOR X=1T0 V-l 

IF VAL (RIGHT* <A»(X) ,6) )=VAL(A3») THEN R8 ( X ) =RB ( X ) +1 

NEXT X 



REM WRITE UPDATED INDEX TO DISK 

OPEN 1% FOR WRITE AS FILE #1 

FOR X=1T0 V 

PRINT #1,C»(X) :PRINT #1,A*(X> IPRINT #1,R8(X> 

PRINT #1,E»(X) IPRINT #1,B«(X) 

NEXT X 

CLOSE #1 



GOSUB 2780 

PRINT .'PRINT IPRINT 

LINE INPUT " Enter Another Job? "TX* 

IF X»="Y"GOTO 10 

IF X*O H N"G0T0 2680 

CHAIN "HEADER. LOG ",880 



REM SUBROUTINES 

REM 

REM CLEAR SCREEN 

PRINT CHRt(27) ;CHR»(68) 

RETURN 

• 
a 

REM CUR50R OFF/ON 

PRINT CHRK27) ;CHR*(120) ;CHR*(53) 7 

RETURN 

REM 

PRINT CHR»(27) JCHR»( 121) ;CHR*(53) ; 

RETURN 



REM BLINKER SUB. 
PRINT .'PRINT IPRINT 
FOR S2=1T0 7 
PRINT CHR«(27);CHR»(75) r 

100 

CHR*( 13) : 

»-«=END OF SPACE ON 

CHRf(7) ; : PAUSE 300 

CHR*(13) ; 
■2 



#3, J2» 



FOR THE APPLE : 






1 •'.< ' ' J C OUt. M 



X PMC -O IE M 

V PNC »0 OS M 
y/(i 3000 M SEC 



PAU5E 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

NEXT 

PRINT "End 

PAUSE 900 

RETURN 



THE IZIMJMdJ:*^) LANGUAGE SYSTEM 



TM„n »CPLEJOFT 



SIX TO SIXTY TIMES ia»»l*gi TU«t) mPPL 
'BENCUMARkED FASTER TP~,N TUE POP -11 



liii'iC F C'i""t IEX' 



TUnU • ASIC PASCAL OP FOPTPAN 



• FAST. EXTENDED UICU-RES' 

♦ EXCEPTIONALLY COMPACT 



• PROGRAMMING EFFORT 



)N CPAPUXCS 



REDUCED 



LANGUAGE - BASED ON FORTU 
(UNLIMITED UIGU-LEMEL MftCPO: I 

♦ AUXILIARY PROCESSOR CARD - USES AMD ?S 1 1 



REQUIRES <J8K APPLE II OR II ♦ SINGLE DISk 



THIS FILE==*' 



Prosraw and Start a New DisK 



( Ln 



Col. ) 



REM CURSOR ADDRESSING 

L3=L3+2 

C = 27 

PRINT CHR*(27) :CHR*(89) ;CHR«(32+L3) ;CHR»(32*C) ,* 

RETURN 

REM END 



Please send: 
^134 

Name 



D Complete System $495.00 
D User's Manual only $35.00 
D Detailed information 



Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



applied analytics incorporated 
5406 Roblee Dr., Upper Marlboro, MD 20870 



."J 



See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 123 



is the maximum allowed. They will correct page number, 
automatically be labeled with the The format for a job number that is 



Listing 3. Examine program. 



oooio 

00030 

00040 

00030 

00070 

00075 

00080 

00100 

00110 

00120 

00130 

00140 

00150 

001S0 

00170 

00180 

E" 

00190 

00200 

00210 

00220 

00230 

00240 

00250 

00260 

00270 

00280 

00290 

00300 

00310 

00320 

00330 

00340 

00350 

00360 

00370 

00380 

00390 

00400 

00410 

O0420 

00430 

00440 

00450 

00460 

00470 

00480 

00490 

00500 

00510 

00520 

00530 

00540 

00550 

00560 

00570 

00580 

00590 

00600 

00610 

00620 

O0630 

00640 

00650 

00660 

00670 

00680 

00690 

00700 

00710 

00720 

00730 

00740 

00750 



00760 

00770 

00780 

00790 

00800 

) )D* 

00810 

00820 

O0830 

O0840 

O0850 

00860 

00870 

00880 

O0890 

00900 

00910 

00920 

00930 

00940 

00950 

00960 

00970 

O0980 

O0990 

01000 

01010 

01020 



REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

M5*0 

R3 = 

L7 = 

CNTRL 

GOSUB 

PRINT 

PRINT 



>*#♦# EXAMINE.LOG ##*«*< 
Ray Mast a 
Version 7.0 
Function #2 of Datalos 



M5 = LP.*FLAG R3-SEARCH FLAG L7=C0NT.LIST FLAG 



0,3340 

3000 

"YOU MAY ACCESS A RECORD IN ANY OF THE FOLLOWING WAYS I " : PRINT 

IPRINT TAB(22>"1 JOB#"IPRINT :PRINT TAB<22>"2 SALESMAN'S NAM 



TAB(22>"3 CATEGORY" ! PRINT IPRINT TAB(22)"4 STATUS" 

TAB(22)"5 SINGLE STEP":PRINT IPRINT TAB(22)"6 EXIT- 



PRINT IPRINT 

PRINT IPRINT 

PRINT IPRINT 

LINE INPUT " 

IF UAL<X*)<1 

IF X»-"6"THEN 

GOSUB 3000 

IPRINT 

TAB(25)"1 — Uideo terminal 

TAB(25)"2 — Printer" 



Enterl " m .X* 
OR VAL(X*)>6 GOTO 210 
CHAIN "HEADER. LOG", 880 



PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB(25) ; ILINE 

IF X2*="2"THEN M5=l 

IF X2*=""0R X2»="l" 

GOTO 250 

PRINT IPRINT IPRINT 

PRINT TAB(20) ; ILINE 

IF X2*="Y"THEN M8=0 

IF X2«="N"THEN M8=l 

PRINT IGOTO 350 

GOSUB 3000 

ON LNO(UAL(X») )GOTO 

GOTO 210 



INPUT ■ Enterl < 1 . 
T8*= M LPI" IGOTO 340 
THEN T8»="TTI" IGOTO 



X2* 



390 



INPUT "List 
IGOTO 390 
GOTO 390 



Hours? 



;X2« 



430,2150,2290,2430,2570 



Examine I 
TABOO) " 



INVALID 



JOB#«»»" IGOTO 430 



"TV*;" Not Found On This DisK 



PRINT IPRINT IPRINT 

LINE INPUT " Enter Job# you Wish to 
IF UAL <V»XVAL(J«) THEN PRINT "PRINT 
IF LEFT*(V», 1 )<>"M"THEN V*="M"+V* 
IF MIDt(U»,6, 1 )<>"P"THEN V»=V»+"P1" 
W5-VAL(RIGHT»(V», 1 ) ) 
IF W5=0THEN W5»l 
W»="SY1 I"+V» 

■ 

REM VERIFY JOB* IN INDEX 

FOR XMTO V 

IF V»-A«(X)GOTO 590 

NEXT X 

PRINT IPRINT IPRINT TAB < 21 > " Job 

PRINT IPRINT "< CR>"; I PAUSE 

CLOSE #2 1 GOTO 100 

REM READ DATA 

GOSUB 3040 

GOSUB 660 

GOTO 100 



REM FORMULATE DISPLAY 

X2»="" 

OPEN T8» FOR WRITE AS FILE #2 

REM T=TOTAL HOURS Y8=» TOTAL Q = * SUB-TOTAL 

T8 = 

T = 

Y8 = 

= 

GOSUB 3000 

PRINT IPRINT 

IF R8(X)>1THEN PRINT "There *r* "R8(X>" Pases For this Job Number" IGOTO 77 

GOTO 800 

PAUSE 8001 

GOSUB 3000 

PRINT #2, IPRINT #2,"<PAGE " ;RIGHT«< Wt , 1 ) ," " >" I PRINT #Z, 

PRINT #2,"Job# "RIGHT*<A*,6>" / "B*TAB < I NT ( ( bO LF.N ( C* ) ) /2 ) ) C»TAB ( 80-LEN ( D% 

PRINT #2,E»;TAB(80-LEN<F») )F» 
PRINT #2, TAB (I NT ( ( 80-LEN (G») )/2) >G» 
PRINT #2,TAB( INT( < 80-LEN <H*> )/2) )H* 
PRINT #2. 
GOSUB 3260 



REM 

B = 

IF I-OGOTO 

FOR P9«1T0 

M-0 

IF P9-1THEN 
P9-2THEN 
P9»3THEN 
P9»4THEN 
P9=5THEN 
P9-6THEN 
P9*7THEN 
P9-8THEN 
P9»9THEN 
P9=10THEN 



DECODE A LINE OF TEXT 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



1170 
I 

U«= Jl* 
U*= J2» 
Ut=J3t 
Ut"J4t 
U*= J5« 
U»= J6» 
U»-J7t 
U»=K1» 
Ut-K2« 
U*=K3» 



P9-11THEN U«=K4« 




recorded on the disk is MxxxxPt, 
where M is the first character of 
every job , so that it is a legal disk file 
name; xxxx represents your four-dig- 
it job number. P is a constant to sepa- 
rate the job number from the page 
number. And t is the actual page 
number. 

The program will prompt you on 
all necessary information to be en- 
tered. The Newdata input prompts 
are STATUS, JOB TITLE, CATEGO- 
RY, SALESMAN NAME, GENERAL 
DESCRIPTION, CLIENT JOB #, 
WORK RECORD AND PHOTO- 
STATS. 

Job title is self-explanatory, but 
note that this is what will appear on 
the index. I suggest using something 
that will distinguish one job from an- 
other as much as possible for easy 
identification. 

Status is a general-purpose entry. 
You can indicate whether the job is 
open, closed, paid or no-charge. The 
others are self-explanatory, but can 
be changed to meet your specific 
needs. 

When entering text in the work rec- 
ord mode you are allowed a 14-line 
page. When that limit is met you are 
notified to start a new page. This 
method lets a job contain as many as 
126 lines of data (14 lines x 9 pages). 
The available entries in this section 
are the date that the work was done 
on, a description of the work done 
and the number of hours spent on the 
work. 

Any of the three categories may be 
left without a response, but if all 
three are null (three successive car- 
riage returns), then that line is delet- 
ed. You may leave lines blank by typ- 
ing in at least one ASCII character in 
response to any of the three prompts. 

In the photostat section, you can 
keep track of total dollar amounts on 
items that may be a variety of sizes 
and prices. In its current form, you 
will be prompted with five different 
photostat categories. They are: 8 x 10, 
10x12, 11x14, 12x18 and 18x24. 

Each category works identically, so 
only one will be explained. When 
prompted with Enter-* you type in a 
numeric value that represents quan- 
tity, along with a two-letter code. The 
code designates a specific kind of 
photostat in this case. The eight valid 
codes are: 

LN SC CP RV 
BL Kl L2 K3 

If a number is entered without one of 
the proper codes (no spaces between 
number and code), an invalid entry 



124 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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FOR TRS-80* Model I 

CCMOOTEAC 5 1 /4",40Track(102K) $314 

CCMOOMPI 5 1 /4",40Track(102K) $319 

CCI-280 5 1 /4", 80 Track (204K) $429 



ADD-ON DRIVES FOR ZENITH Z-89 
CCM89 5 1 /4",40Track(102K) $394 

CCI-289 5 1 /4",80Track(204K) $499 

Z-87 Dual 5 1 /4 " system $995 

External card edge and power supply included. 90 day warranty/one 

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R.O. with tractor feed 

KSR with tractor feed 



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POWER SUPPLIES 



$425 
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C.ITOH Starwriter $1695 

EPSON MX-80 $479 

PAPER TIGER 

IDS 445 Graphics & 2K buffer 

Graphics & 2k buffer 
Graphics 
DP-8000 $849 



Starwriter II 
MX-70 



2 DRIVE $1635 
2 DRIVE $2245 
M10 $2999 



MORROW DESIGNS/THINKER TOYS™ 
DISCUS 2D 1 DRIVE $ 938 

DISCUS 2 + 2 1 DRIVE $1259 

DISCUS Hard Disk M26 $3990 

DEI CARTRIDGE TAPE BACK-UP 

For your hard disk. With either S-100 control card 
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DISK El ES — Box of 10 with plastic library case 

5 1 / 4 " Scotch $35 Maxell $40 BASF/ Verbatim 

8" Scotch $50 Maxell $55 BASF/ Verbatim 

PLASTIC CASE-Holds 50 5 1 /i" diskettes 

SCOTCH HEAD CLEANING DISKETTE 

FLOPPY SAVER $11.95 RINGS 



IDS 460 
IDS 560 
ANADEX 
OKIDATA 
Microline 80 
Microline 80 
Microline 82 
Microline 83 



DP-9500701 



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Friction, and pin & tractor feed 

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120 cps, uses up to 15" paper 

737 $ 749 



CENTRONICS 730 $ 595 737 $ 749 779 

TI-810 

TRS-80* software, compressed print & vert, form control 



$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 



420 
520 
620 
849 
969 



$1865 



$2995 



$27.95 
$36.00 
$19.00 
$25.00 
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16K RAM KITS 2 for $56 $30 

200 ns for TRS-80*, Apple II, (specify): Jumpers $2.50 

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MAINFRAME Model 2200A 

Z80CPU Model 2810 

MOTHER BOARD Model 2501 

16K STATIC RAM, 200ns Model 21 16C 

32K STATIC RAM, 200ns Model 2032C 

64K DYNAMIC RAM Model 2065C 
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See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 125 



Listing 3 continued. 



01030 
01040 
O1050 
01060 
01070 
01080 
01090 
01100 
OHIO 
01120 
01130 
01140 
01150 
01160 
01170 
01180 
01190 
01200 
01210 
01220 
01230 
01240 
01250 
01260 
01270 
01280 
01290 
01300 
01310 
01320 
01330 
01340 
01350 
01360 
01370 
01380 
01390 
01400 
01410 
01420 
01430 
01440 
01450 
01460 
01470 
01480 
01490 
01500 
01510 
01520 
01530 
01540 
01550 
01560 
01570 
01580 
01590 
01600 
01610 
01620 
01630 
01640 
01650 
01660 
01670 
01680 
01690 
01700 
01710 
01720 
01730 
01740 
01750 
01760 
01770 
01780 
01790 
01800 
01810 
01820 

01830 
01840 
01850 
01860 
01870 
01880 
01890 
01900 
01910 
01920 
01930 
01940 
01950 
01960 



U»»K5» 
U*=K6* 
U«=K7« 



IF P9=12THEN 

IF P9-13THEN 

IF P9=14THEN 

FOR I2*1T0 3 

L = M+1 

M*MATCH(U», """,D 

Cl*< I2)=MID«<U»,L 

NEXT 12 

REM 

REM ALTERNATE 

IF MB=1THEN PRINT 



IF M = 
M-L) 



OGOTO 1110 



LINE FOR NO-LIST HOURS 
#2, .'PRINT #2,C1*(1 )TAB(12)C1*(2> 

I "SPC(2)C1»(3) 



:GOTO 1160 



#2» "Cci '. inued on Next Paae 



PRINT #2,C1*< 1 )TAB( 1 2 ) CI t ( 2 ) TAB ( 70 ) 

T = T>VAL(C1»(3) ) 

NEXT P9 

GOSUB 3260 

IF R8(X)>1THEN PRINT #2, .'PRINT 

IF M8=1G0T0 1280 

PRINT #2. TAB (58) "TOTAL HOURS.' I "T 

IF M5=1G0T0 1270 

CLOSE #2 

IF L7=1G0T0 1260 

PRINT "<CR>"; 

PAUSE 

OPEN T8« FOR WRITE AS FILE #2 

GOSUB 3000 

PRINT #2, .'PRINT #2.. 'PRINT #2, IPRINT #2. 

PRINT #2,TAB<27)"PH0T0STATS FOR JOB# " ; RIGHT* ( A» , 6 ) 

PRINT #2, 

GOSUB 3260 

REM SET LP! TO 6 LPI 

IF M5MTHEN PRINT #2 , CHR* ( 27 ) ,* " y " 

FOR P=1T0 5 

m=o:q=o:d=i :ci»(D)= m " 



REM SET UP PRICES OF ITEMS 

REM 

REM N1=LN. N2=SC, N3=R0. N4=CP, N5»CN, N6=BL, N7=K1, N8=K2, N9*K3 

REM 

IF P=1THEN U»=Kt IPRINT #2," 8 x 10 I"? IGOTO 1440 

GOTO 1470 

Nl-5.00 :N2=5.85 TN3=6.00 IN4=5.50 IN5=7.50 IN6»12.0 

N7-15.00 :N8«20.00 !N9=25.00 

IF P = 2THEN U» = L*.'PRINT #2."10 x 12 I"; .'GOTO 1490 
GOTO 1520 

Nl=5.5 .'N2 = 6.5 .'N3 = 8.00 IN4=6.50 .'N5 = 8.50 IN6=13.00 
N7=17.00 :N8 = 22.00 IN9=27.00 

IF P = 3THEN Ut«=M».'PRINT #2 , M 1 1 x 14 I"; IGOTO 1540 

GOTO 1570 

Nl=6.50 :N2*7.50 IN3=10.00 :N4=7.50 :N5=10.50 IN6M5.00 

N7=20.00 :N8=24.00 :N9=30 

• 

IF P = 4 THEN U« = N»:PRINT #2,"12 x 18 I " ;.'G0T0 1590 

GOTO 1620 

Nl=8.00 :N2»9.00 :N3*12.00 :N4=8.50 TN5-13.00 :N6=17.00 

N7=26.00 IN8=30.00 IN9=33.00 

■ 

IF P=5THEN U»=0»:PRINT #2."18 x 24 I"; IGOTO 1640 

GOTO 1680 

Nl«10.50 IN2=11.50 IN3*16.00 IN4*12.00 IN5»15.00 IN6=22.00 

N7«35.00 IN8=40.00 IN9=45.00 



W=LEN(U«> 

L«0 

L=M+1IIF L > W GOTO 1760 

M*MATCH<U», "/" -L) I IF M = OGOTO 1760 

C1»<D)*MID*(U*,L»M-L> 

D-D+l 

C 1 • ( D ) = " M 

GOTO 1690 

FOR H=1T0 D 

IF H«ll OR H = 20THEN PRINT #2 , CHRf ( 13 ) I PRINT #2 , TAB( 1 1 ) " I "TAB ( 12 ) ; 

PRINT #2,SPC< l)Clt(H) ' 



REN ADD PRI 
IF RIGHT»(C1«(H 
IF RIGHT*(C1«(H 

IF RIGHT»(C1»(H 
IF RIGHT*(C1»(H 
IF RIGHT»(C1»(H 
IF RIGHT»(C1*(H 
IF RIGHT*(C1»(H 
IF RIGHT»<C1*(H 
IF RIGHT»(C1»<H 
NEXT H 

IF Q=OTHEN PRIN 
GOSUB 3410 
PRINT #2,TAB<68 
y8=y8*Q 

IF P=5G0T0 1970 
PRINT #2," 



CES 
) ,2) 

> ,2) 

) ,2) 
) .2) 
) .2) 
) .2) 
) ,2) 
) ,2) 

> .2) 



OF ITEMS 

«"LN M THEN 

="SC"THEN 

="RO"THEN 
»"CP"THEN 
="CN"THEN 
="BL"THEN 
= M K1"THEN 
="K2"THEN 
■"K3-THEN 



Q=Q+0AL(LEFT»(C1»(H) 
Q*Q+OAL ( LEFT* ( C 1 * ( H ) 

Q=Q+OAL ( LEFT* ( CI • ( H ) 
Q=a+VAL<LEFT*(C1*<H> 
Q-Q+VAL(LEFT*(C1«(H) 
Q=Q+0AL<LEFT»<C1*(H) 
Q = Q+OAL ( LEFT* < C 1 ♦ ( H > 
a=Q+OAL ( LEFT* ( CI • ( H ) 
G=Q+OAL < LEFT* < C 1 • < H > 



,LEN(C1»(H) ) 
,LEN(C1»(H) ) 

rLEN(Cl«(H) ) 

, LEN(C1*(H) )- 
,LEN(C1*<H) )■ 
, LEN(C1«(H) )- 
, LEN<C1*(H> >■ 
.LEN(Clf(H) >- 
,LEN<C1»(H> )■ 



•2) )*N1 
-2) )*N2 

2) )»N3 
2) )»N4 
2) )*N5 
2>)*N6 
2) )*N7 
2) )«N8 
2) )*N8 



T #2rTAB(G8)"» 0.00"IGOTO 1940 



)"♦ ";06« 



I 



01970 NEXT P 

01980 REM SET LPI TO 8 LPI 

01990 IF M5MTHEN PRINT #2 , CHR« ( 27 ) 7 ■ x M 

02000 GOSUB 3260 

02010 PRINT #2, IPRINT #2, 

02020 PRINT #2, TAB (45) "TOTAL AMOUNT... t " ; Y8 

02030 CLOSE #2 

02040 IF L7-1THEN RETURN 

02050 PRINT "<CR>" ; I PAUSE 

02060 IF R3«=88THEN RETURN 

02070 IF ».»AL< RIGHT* <W», 1 ) )<R8(X)G0T0 2090 

02080 RETURN 

02090 IF W5-10THEN RETURN 

02100 W5»W5+1 

02110 W»«"SY1 I M +LEFT»(V»,6)+MID»(STR»(W5) ,2,1) 

02120 GOSUB 3040 




warning is displayed. 

Each code, internally in the pro- 
gram, represents an amount in dol- 
lars and cents for a specific size pho- 
tostat. The 8x10 category, for exam- 
ple, has provisions for entering all 
stats that are 8x 10 in size, but may 
be one of eight different types and 
eight different prices. 

Since there are five different size 
categories, and eight code names at 
present, the program as it stands will 
accept up to 40 different priced and 
sized items. Each size category will 
look up the price, compute and dis- 
play the total dollar amount of all its 
entries, using the code to compute 
each cost separately. 

This section can easily be modified 
by changing the input and print state- 
ments to suit your needs. The codes 
can be changed, along with the dollar 
amounts that they represent, to ac- 
commodate price changes in the 
items that you will use. You can also 
increase the number of categories 
and codes to any number by modify- 
ing the FOR/NEXT loops and input 
statements used in the photostat sec- 
tion. 

To advance to a new stat size, hit 
return. When finished with this 
mode, type the letter Q to quit. At this 
point the completed record will be 
written to the disk file. You will then 
have the option of entering another 
job or returning to the menu. 

Examine Data 

If this option is selected, you can 
view any of the jobs that have already 
been entered. The program (Listing 
3) will search for a requested job by 
job number, salesman's name, cate- 
gory name or status, or in single 
steps. 

Simply select one of the above op- 
tions, and then type in the specific job 
number, salesman's name and so on 
that you want to access. It must be 
typed exactly the way it was original- 
ly entered. Datalog will then search 
the file, and if found, display all in- 
formation pertaining to that job. 

Single-step mode lets you view all 
jobs on file in the order that they 
were entered. 

You have the option of outputting 
the record to the video terminal or to 
a line printer. You may also select a 
CONTINUAL LIST mode. This 
means that the program will display 
all jobs that contain the same sales- 
man's name, category or status that 
you requested without pausing in be- 
tween each record. This also is a valid 



126 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Listing 3 continued. 


02130 GOTO 660 


02140 : 


02150 REM SALESMAN SEARCH 


02160 N3»=" SALESMAN'S NAME" 


02170 GOSUB 2850 


02180 FOR X=1T0 V 


02190 W«="SYi:-+A«(X) 


02200 GOSUB 3040 


02210 IF V* = FtTHEN GOSUB 6601 IF L7 = 0G0T0 2230 


OTTZO NfcVa X: GOSUB 3 180 '.GOTO 100 


02230 GOSUB 3000 TPRINT CHR*(12) 


02240 PRINT "Examine the Next x ";<.'*;"' Record? "JTINPUT "'TXS 


02250 IF X»="Y"GOTO 2220 


02260 IF X»O"N"G0T0 2230 


02270 GOTO 100 


02280 : 


02290 REM CATEGORY SEARCH 


02300 N3«» "CATEGORY" 


02310 GOSUB 2850 


02320 FOR X=1T0 V 


02330 W$="SY1 :"+A«(X) 


02340 GOSUB 3040 


02350 IF VS=D*THEN GOSUB 660 I IF L7 = GOTO 2370 


02360 NEXT X .'GOSUB 3180 :GOTO 100 


02370 GOSUB 3000TPRINT CHR*(12) 


02380 PRINT "Examine the Next *";<J%;"' Record? "i .'INPUT ""JX* 


02390 IF X»="Y"GOTO 2360 


02400 IF MfO"N"G0T0 2370 


02410 GOTO 100 


02420 : 


02430 REM STATUS SEARCH 


02440 N3*="STATUS" 


02450 GOSUB 2850 


02460 FOR X=1T0 U 


02470 W»="SY1 :"+A»(X) 


02480 GOSUB 3040 


02490 IF V» = B»THEN GOSUB 660 .'IF L7 = GOTO 2510 


02500 NEXT XI GOSUB 3180 .'GOTO 100 


02510 GOSUB 3000 IPRINT CHR»(12) 


02520 PRINT "Examine the Next "".Vf,"' Record? "JTINPUT " n ;X» 


02530 IF X»="Y"GOTO 2500 


02540 IF X*O"N"G0T0 2510 


02550 GOTO 100 


02560 : 


02570 REM 5INGLE STEP 


02580 N3«=-STARTING JOB#" 


02590 GOSUB 2850 


02600 IF U»=""THEN U«=A*<1) 


02610 IF LEFT9{V9r 1 ><>"» "THEN V«="M"+Of 


02620 IF MID*(V*r6,lK>"P"THEN 0» = V»+"P1" 


02630 FOR X=1T0 V 


02640 IF V*=A*(X)GOTO 2710 


02650 NEXT X 


02660 GOSUB 3180 


02670 GOTO 100 


02680 : 


02690 X«X+1 


02700 IF X>0 THEN GOSUB 3180IG0T0 100 


02710 REM FOUND RECORD/NOW READ 


02720 W»="SY1 .'"♦A«<X) 


02730 GOSUB 3040 


02740 GOSUB 660 


02750 IF L7*1G0T0 2690 


02760 GOSUB 30001 PRINT CHR»(12) 


02770 LINE INPUT "Examine Next Record? <yes> "',X* 


02780 IF XS=""OR X*="Y"GOTO 2690 


02790 IF X*O"N"G0T0 2770 


02800 GOTO 100 


02810 : 


02820 : 


02830 REM SUBROUTINES 


02840 REM 


02850 REM SEARCH ROUTINE 


02860 L7-0 


02870 R3*99 


02880 GOSUB 3000 


02890 PRINT TPRINT IPRINT 


02900 PRINT "Enter ";N3S;" to be Searched: M ; 


02910 LINE INPUT ""JVS 


O2920 PRINT IPRINT .'PRINT 


02930 LINE INPUT "Continual Listins? n ',Xt 


02940 IF X»="Y"THEN L7=i:G0SUB 3000!PRINT CHR»(12) 


02950 IF X»«"Y"THEN PRINT TAB(22) "CNTRL B -- ABORTS FURTHER SEARCHING" TPAUSE 600 


IGOTO 2970 


02960 IF XtO"N"G0T0 2920 


02970 RETURN 


02980 : 


02990 REM CLEAR SCREEN 


03000 PRINT CHRt(27) ;CHR»(69) 


03010 RETURN 


03020 : 


03030 REM READ 1 RECORD 


03040 OPEN W« FOR READ AS FILE #3 


03050 LINE INPUT #3.;A«.'LINE INPUT #3,.'B».'LINE INPUT #3,;C*ILINE INPUT #3,;D» 


03060 LINE INPUT #3.;E*.'LINE INPUT #3,;F».'LINE INPUT #3,;G».'LINE INPUT #3,JHS 


03070 INPUT #3.; I. 'LINE INPUT #3, OUTLINE INPUT #3.JJ2«:LINE INPUT #3.;J3S 


03080 LINE INPUT #3,;J4«:LINE INPUT #3,;J5*ILINE INPUT #3.JJ6« 


03090 LINE INPUT #3,;J7*.'LINE INPUT #3,;K1*.'LINE INPUT #3,?K2» 


03100 LINE INPUT #3,;K3»:LINE INPUT #3,;K4»ILINE INPUT #3,?K5» 


03110 LINE input #3,;k6*:line input #3,;k7«:line INPUT #3,;k» 


03120 LINE INPUT #3,?Lt.'LINE INPUT #3,;Mt:LINE INPUT #3,JN» 


03130 LINE INPUT #3,;0* 


03140 CL08E #3 


03150 RETURN 


03160 : 


03170 REM OUT OF DATA 


03180 G08UB 3000IPRINT CHRK12) 


03180 PRINT TABOO);" 


03200 PRINT TABOO)?" END OF DATA ■ 


03210 PRINT TABOO);" " f >» 


03220 CLOSE #2 (Afore__v 



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2510A Solder Tail Board $23 

2520K ExUTerminator Kit $45 

2521 A Extender Board $34 

2590 A Etch Board $19 



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MB10 16k Static RAM Kit $279 A&T $319 

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Side DD Drives, DD Controller A&T $2209 

VDS IIMDD Same, but 2 Double Sided 

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Timer, Memory Management A&T $382 

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tsSee List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 127 



Listing 3 continued. 


03Z30 


PRINT "<cr> m ; : PAUSE 


03240 


RETURN 


03230 


• 


03260 


REM DRAW BORDERS 


03270 


IF M5=l THEN FOR S2=1T0 79IPRINT #2,"* M *:NEXT 


03280 


PRINT #2.CHRf(27) ;CHRf(70) ; 


03290 


for s2*ito 78:print #2, b «"-:next 


03300 


PRINT #2rCHR$(27>;CHR»(71)? 


03310 


PRINT #2. 


03320 


RETURN 


03330 


• 


03340 


REM CNTRL B — ABORT CONT. LIST 


03330 


L7-0 


03360 


IF R3*99 THEN X«V 


03370 


W5=10 


033B0 


PRINT 2PRINT '.PRINT TABOO) "SEARCHING ABORTED! 


03390 


RETURN 


03400 


• 
• 


03410 


REM MONEY FORMATER 


O3420 


Q6t*STR*(INT( 100*0)) 


03430 


L6«LEN(Q6»)-2 


03440 


Q6«=MID«(Q6»,2rL6-2)+". "+MID» ( Q6» , L6 , 2 ) 


03460 


RETURN 


03470 


• 


03480 


END 



:print #2. :return 



Listing 4. Update program. 



oooio 

00020 
00030 
00040 
00050 
00060 
00070 
00080 
00090 
00100 
00110 
00120 
00130 
00140 
00130 
00160 
00170 
00180 
00190 
00200 
00210 
00220 
00230 
00240 
00250 
00260 
00270 
00280 
00280 
00300 
00310 
00320 
00330 
00340 
00350 
00360 
00370 
00380 
00390 
00400 
00410 
00420 
00430 
00440 
00450 
00460 
00470 
00480 
O0480 
00500 
00510 
00520 
00530 
00540 
00550 
00560 
00570 
00580 
00590 
00600 
00610 
00620 
00630 
O0640 
00650 
00660 
00670 
00680 
00680 
00700 
00710 
O0720 
00730 
00740 
00750 
007GO 
00770 



>#♦*## UPDATE.LOG *#*♦♦## 

Rax Massa 
Version 7.0 
Function #3 of Dataloa 



REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM *•»**•***•*»»*«*••»*»*»««« 

REM 

R3-0 

X-0 

GOSUB 2560 

PRINT .'PRINT .'PRINT 

LINE INPUT "Enttr Job# oF Record You Wish to Modify: "JV* 

if val(v»kval< j*)then print iprint """invalid j0b#»« " : print igoto 130 

if left«(v», 1 )<>"m"then v*="m"-»-v* 

if mid*<vt,6, 1 )<>"p"then v«=v*+" pi m 

w5»val(right»(v*, 1 ) ) 

if w5=0then w5-1 

w»="syi : m «-v* 

• 

REM VERIFY J0B# IN INDEX 

FOR YB»1T0 V 

IF V*-A»(Y8)G0T0 290 

NEXT Y8 

PRINT CHRt(12) 

PRINT TPRINT TAB(21) M J0B# H ;V*;" NOT FOUND ON THIS DISK." 

PRINT TPRINT "<CR> M ;: PAUSE 

GOTO 330 

w»=-syi : "-►v* 

GOSUB 3180 
GOTO 450 

• 

GOSUB 2560 

PRINT .'PRINT IPRINT 

PRINT TABOO) "1 — UPDATE JOB" 

PRINT TABOO) "2 — EXIT" 

PRINT .'PRINT TAB(25) ;:LINE INPUT " Enter! < 1 > M ',X% 

IF X«="1"0R X»-""GOTO 10 

IF X»O"2"G0T0 370 

GOSUB 2770 

CHAIN "HEADER. LOG ",880 

• 
• 

REM OPTION LIST 

GOSUB 2560 

PRINT "Job# m ;RIGHT*<A*,6> 

PRINT C* 

PRINT 

IF RB(Y8)>1THEN PRINT "This Record Has m ;R8(Y8); m Paae(s)" 

PRINT TPRINT TPRINT 

PRINT TAB(15)"1 STATUS"TAB ( 45 ) "6 SALESMAN'S NAME" 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB(15)"2 TITLE OF JOB"TAB ( 45 ) "7 DESCRIPTION/CLIENT #" 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB(15)"3 CATEG0RY"TAB(45 ) "8 WORK RECORD" 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB(15)"4 DATE OF ENTRY"TAB( 45) "8 ADVANCE PAGE- 
PRINT 

PRINT TAB(15)"5 PHOTOSTATS"TAB ( 45 ) " 1 NEXT UPDATE" 

PRINT .'PRINT TAB(32)"11 EXIT- 
PRINT .'PRINT 

LINE INPUT " Enter Type oF Update: ";x» 
PRINT :print 

GOSUB 2560 

ON VAL(X»)GOTO 770,830,890,940,1960,1000,1050,1170,680,720,740 

GOTO 450 

• 

GOSUB 2600 .'GOSUB 3010 

IF R3=99G0T0 330 

GOTO 450 

REM 

GOSUB 2600 :GOTO 10 

REM 

GOSUB 2600:G0SUB 2770.-CHAIN "HEADER. LOG" , 880 



PRINT "CURRENT STATUS.* "B» 




More 



command when single-stepping. 

This option would be used the most 
when data is being output to a print- 
er. In this way it will print out all de- 
sired records on a disk without fur- 
ther commands from you once the 
initial parameters have been set. 

If you have selected a continual list 
and no longer wish to view or print 
the remaining records that may still 
exist, you can cancel this option 
while the program is running. Just 
depress the CNTRL key and hit the 
letter B at the same time. After the job 
in progress is finished, you will have 
the option of continuing or returning 
to the menu. The messsage SEARCH- 
ING ABORTED! will be displayed on 
the video terminal when CNTRL B is 
struck. 

Update Data 

Any data that has been entered 
may now be altered or additional in- 
formation added to it (see Listing 4). 
Enter the desired job number, and 
the program will search the disk. If 
found, it will display the title and job 
number in the upper-left corner of 
the screen, along with the available 
categories you may change or update. 
These are: status, title, category, date, 
photostats, exit, salesman's name, 
description/client number, work rec- 
ord, advance page and next update. 

When changing the contents of one 
of the categories, the original entry 
will be displayed along with a 
prompt for you to enter the new data. 

You may add to the work record of 
a job quite easily. If less than 14 lines 
are used for that page, then you can 
add more lines. Or you can change or 
delete any of the existing lines. De- 
lete a line by typing a carriage return 
in response to the three prompts. 
Note that although the contents of the 
line are deleted, the physical line is 
still contained on the record. 

If the photostat section is to be up- 
dated, the program will display for 
each size category the current entries 
on the record. You can then add to or 
delete the entire contents of a specific 
size photostat. 

In both the update and examine da- 
ta options, entering a four-digit job 
number to be searched automatically 
results in the program searching for 
page 1. On the disk catalog this ap- 
pears as MxxxxPl. If you type in a 
four-digit number followed by the 
letter P and a numeral 1 to 9 to indi- 
cate the page number, then Datalog 
will search only for that specific 
page. 



128 Microcomputing, May 1981 



■ 







M€€T AXIOM'S IMP 



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IMPfKT Pjjjfflgj 
D€SIGN€PFOfl 

APPLE COMPUTERS 



Three-Way Forms Handling 

IMP is equipped with both friction and adjustable tractor feed (2-1/2 
to 9-1/2 inches) to provide three-way forms handlins — sinsle sheet, roll paper, 
and fan fold. 



Hardware 
and Software 
Compatible 

Priced at only $699, 
Axiom's versatile IMP-APPLE is the 
only hish quality impact printer 
specifically desisned to operate 
with the popular APPLE computers. 
It's completely hardware and 
software compatible with APPLE. 
Even comes with cables and 
connectors for direct plus-in to 
the computer. No additional 
interface is needed. 



The Nitty Gritty 

IMP prints 80, 96 or 132 columns of crisp hardcopy at a speed of 

one line per second. The 7x7 dot matrix has a standard 96 ASCII 

character set. IMP'sstylish low profile case will complement APPLE 

in any home or office. And, in addition to beins distinctively 

styled, IMP is russed, with a heavy duty mechanism, ribbon 

cartridse and sinsle snap-out board for easy maintenance. 

Visit your local computer store to see Axiom's 
IMP-APPLE in action. 

trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



mmm 



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AXIOM CORPORATION 






€nhances HiRes Graphics 

IMP sreatly enhances HiRes 
Sraphics. While other printers can only 
reproduce sraphics on a 1 for 1 basis, IMP 
provides over 20 different aspect ratios, with 
complete control over horizontal and vertical 
resolution, placement, and orientation. For example, 
a chart could be reduced and printed on one portion of 
the paper, with text added. IMP also enhances APPLE'S alpha- 
numeric capability by providins lower case. It's super simple to 
operate, too, with all printer commands controlled with a simple 
key stroke. Another plus, IMP is one of the few printers compatible 
with PASCAL. How is all this versatility made possible? For one 
thins, 'MP has a 2K byte ROM in its special APPLE interface, 
while others have 256 bytes or less. 



1014 Griswold Avenue • San Fernando, CA 91340 
Telephone: (213) 365-9521 -TWX: 910-496-1746 



v*t/M/tttt*Mitiiit/!/fi/iii, mmiituintiiiii t/ti/itmt 



n :rvr\ .n ', 



I-D-SHI 






a 









Listing 4 continued. 



PRINT .'PRINT 
LINE INPUT " 
B«< YB) =B* 
GOTO 450 



PRINT "CURRENT TITLE: "C« 

PRINT ."PRINT TAB(IO); 

LINE INPUT " Enter New Title! 

C*(Y8)=C* 

GOTO 430 

PRINT "CURRENT CATEGORY.* "D» 
PRINT TPRINT TAB(IO); 
LINE INPUT " Enter New Catesorr' 
PRINT .'GOTO 430 

• 

PRINT "CURRENT DATE OF ENTRY: 

PRINT TPRINT TAB( 10) ; 

LINE INPUT " Enter New Date! 

£•( Y8) =Et 

GOTO 450 



PRINT "CURRENT SALESMAN NAME 
PRINT TPRINT TAB(IO); 
LINE INPUT " Enter New Name: 
GOTO 430 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
LINE 



IF LEN(G»> >40THEN PRINT TPRINT "New 
PRINT TPRINT .'PRINT TAB(IO),' 

Enter New Client Job#: 



LINE 
GOTO 



INPUT 
450 



00780 

00790 

00800 

00810 

00820 

00830 

00840 

00850 

00860 

00870 

00880 

00890 

00900 

00910 

00920 

00930 

00940 

00950 

00960 

00970 

O0980 

00890 

01000 

01010 

01020 

01030 

01040 

01050 

01060 

01070 

01090 

01090 

O1100 

Oil 10 

01120 

01130 

01140 

01150 

01160 

01 170 

01190 

01190 

01200 

01210 

01220 

01230 

01240 

TO 1260 

01250 GOTO 1270 

01260 PRINT " . TO 

GOTO 450 

01270 IF Z2**"A"AND 

450 

01Z60 

01290 

01300 

01310 

01320 

01330 

01340 

01350 

01360 

01370 

01380 

01390 

01400 

01410 

01420 

01430 

01440 

01450 

01460 

01470 

01480 

01490 

01500 

01510 

01520 

01330 

01540 

01550 

01560 

01570 

01580 

01590 

01600 

01610 

01620 

01630 

01640 



TAB( 10) ; 
Enter New 



Status 



;b* 



C* 



D* 



;e% 



e» 



;f» 



:f% 



g» 



"CURRENT DESCRIPTION IS 
TAB( 12) "CLIENT JOB*." "JH* 
TAB (75) "K" 
.'PRINT TAB (10); 
INPUT " Enter New Description 



-;g» 

Line is 

m ;h* 



too Lons".'GOTO 1080 



PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

IF 

IF 



: PRINT .'PRINT 

TABOO) "A Add" 

TAB(30)"C Chanae" 

TAB(30)"Q Quit" 

:print tab(24) ; :line input 
i=othen print .'print "no text 

Z2«"="Q"GOT0 450 



" Enter.' 
EXISTS FOR 



■ ; Z2» 

THIS RECORD. 



PAUSE 600 



IF Z2*="A"AND I = 14AND R8(Y8)>1THEN PRINT .'PRINT "ADVANCE TO NEXT PAGE";:GO 

ADD ANOTHER LINE OF I NFORMATION. " .' PRINT .'PRINT "<CR>" ;.' PAUSE .' 

I = 14THEN PRINT :PRINT "♦#* END OF PAGE **«":PAUSE 1300.'G0T0 

IF Z2»="A"THEN !■!♦! :X=I :GOTO 1360 
IF Z2*O"C"G0T0 1170 
GOSUB 2560 

print :print :print 

PRINT " Chanae What Line? 

IF I-OTHEN 1-1 

X*VAL(X«):iF X<10R X>I GOTO 

IF X>UGOTO 1370 

ON X GOTO 1 390 . 1390,1400, 1410 . 1420, 

ON LNO( 15-X)G0T0 1510,1500,1490 

x»=ji«:gosub i55o: ji»*x*:goto 1520 



(1 t o " ; 1 " ) 



.'LINE INPUT 



;x* 



1300 



1430, 1440, 1450, 1460, 1470, 14B0 



x«cJ2*:gosub 
xs»j3s: gosub 
xs= j4»:gosub 
x$*j5*:gosub 
x»- j6»:gosub 
x$=j7«:gosub 
x«-ki»:gosub 
x»=k2»:gosub 

X«=K3S 

X»=K4* 

X«=K3» 

X*=K6« 

Xt-K7« 

PRINT 

GOTO 1170 



GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 



1 550 .' J2**X«: GOTO 
1550.' J3»-X»:G0T0 
1550: J4t*X»:G0T0 

1550: j5«*x«:goto 
1550: j6»*x*:goto 

1550: J74»X«:G0T0 

i55o:ki«=x«:goto 
155o:k2»=x»:goto 
155o:k3««x»:goto 
i55o:k4»=x*:goto 
i35o:k5»*x«:goto 

1530: 
1550: 



K64=X*:G0T0 
K74 = X».'G0T0 



1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 



GOSUB 2560 
PRINT :print 
IF ZZ»="A"THEN 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 

• 

GOSUB 
PRINT 
PRINT 



'Current 



PRINT "Line# "X .'GOTO 1590 

Information on Line "'X'" Reads as Follows 



TAB( 10)X* 



aaaaaaaaaac 
01650 PRINT 
01660 PRINT 

01670 PRINT 
01680 PRINT 



01690 
01700 



PRINT 
PRINT 



Z930 

:print 

"Faaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaasaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 

TAB (27) TAB (80) 

"* WORK RECORD DATE! 

" * "TAB(Z7> TABOO) " * " 

■• WORK THAT WAS DONE! 

i 

" ■ "TAB(Z7> " % "TABOO) 

" l NUMBER OF HOURS.' 



01710 PRINT 
01720 PRINT 
aaaaaaaaaad" 
01730 GOSUB 2970 

L3»9 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

REM 



TAB (27) TAB (BO) 

"eiiaiiaaiiiiiiaaaaaaaiiiujiiniaaiai 



01740 

01750 

01760 

01770 

01780 

1800 

01790 GOTO 



286o:line input mm ;p« 
286o:line input ■•;•• 
check for overflow 



IF LEN(Q») >50THEN L3-10:G0SUB 2860! PRINT CHR« ( 27 ) ; "K " : L3= 10 .' GOSUB 2B60:G0T 
1820 




The advance page option simply 
searches for any additional pages for 
the job number you are currently up- 
dating. It is advanced in a sequential 
manner with the next highest page 
number being searched for. If found, 
normal updating procedures follow. 
This can be repeated for as many 
pages as exist for that job number. If 
no other pages are found, then an 
OUT OF DATA message is displayed. 

Selecting NEXT UPDATE writes 
the current revised job back to the 
disk file and deletes the old one at the 
same time. It then asks for the next 
job number to be updated. 

EXIT also writes the updated job 
back to the disk and then chains to 
the header.log and displays the 
menu. 

View Index 

This will display on the video ter- 
minal a complete summarized listing 
of all jobs entered on a disk. The fol- 
lowing is the information that is 
shown on the index for each page of a 
job. 

TITLE 
JOB# 

TOTAL PAGES 
ENTRY DATE 
STATUS 

The index displays ten pages of jobs 
at a time on the video terminal. Hit 
return to display the next ten. 

Print Index 

This is identical to View Index ex- 
cept that output is directed to your 
printer. You do not need to advance 
each of the ten jobs; it will automati- 
cally print the entire index without 
stopping. 

This simply exits the Datalog pro- 
gram in an orderly fashion and re- 
minds you to make a new copy of 
your back-up disk. 

Conclusion 

The code for DataLog.Bas is a bit 
complex, but because of its self- 
prompting structure, operating the 
program is quite easy. The program 
can be changed to a nonbusiness 
structure by removing all references 
to job numbers and replacing them 
with record numbers. Also, the pho- 
tostat section can be eliminated if not 
needed. The included sample print- 
out (Listing 5) should give you some 
ideas for nonbusiness uses. 

Readers who prefer not to type in 
the code can send me $10 for a copy 
of DataLog on a 5-1/4 inch disk, with 
documentation. ■ 



130 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Listing 4 continued. 



01800 
01810 

o 

01820 
01830 
01840 
01850 
01860 
01870 
01880 
01880 
01800 
01810 
01820 
01830 
01840 
01850 
01960 
01970 
01980 
01880 
02000 
02010 
02020 
02030 
02040 
02050 
02060 
02070 
02080 
02080 
02100 
02110 



PRINT M ENTRY TOO LONG! .*:: RE-ENTER 
GOSUB 2860 : PAUSE 1000 IFOR S2=1T0 34 '. PRINT 



.'NEXT .'PRINT 



'•:L3=10 

:l3=io:goto 



176 



GOSUB 2860:LINE INPUT 



:s% 



s» = 



GOTO 1900 



IF P*= MM AND Q«= M "AND 

PRINT TPRINT IPRINT 

PRINT : PRINT "NEW LINE#"X"N0W READS.' 

PRINT !PRINT P%" "Q%" "S» 

XS = P*+ " A " +Q*+ " * " +SS+ ■"»• : RETURN 

PRINT IPRINT 

IF Z2*= M A"THEN PRINT IPRINT 



PRINT .'PRINT 



Line* 



Line* 
X,'" Deleted 



' T • •• 

1 9 

X* = 



Deleted " .* I «I-1 : RETURN 
« « «••: RETURN 



REf" 

K = 

GOSUB 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

K=K + 1 

12*1 

IF K = 



PHOTOSTAT ROUTINE 



2560 
TAB( 15) 



When Thru, Type 



TAB( 15) "Delete a Line, Type 



'QUIT 



DEL 



TAB(15) "Advance 
IF K-GGOTO 450 



Category, Hit 'RETURN 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



PRINT 
PRINT 



x«=-8xio m :q»=k» 
x»= M ioxi2":a«-L« 
x»="iixi4":a$=M» 
x»=-i2xi8-:a«=N» 

X«»"1BX24 m :Q«=0* 
: PRINT ."PRINT XS" PHOTOSTATS" 
"aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 



1THEN 
K«2THEN 
K=3THEN 
K=4THEN 
K=5THEN 



aaaaaaaaa" 
02120 PRINT 



02130 

02140 

02150 

02160 

02170 

02180 

02190 

02200 

02210 

02220 

02230 

02240 

02250 

02260 

O2270 

02280 

02280 

02300 

02310 

02320 

02330 

02340 

02350 

02360 

02370 

02380 

02390 

02400 

02410 

02420 

O2430 

02440 

02450 

02460 

02470 

02480 

02480 

02500 

02510 

02520 

02530 

02540 

02550 

02560 

02570 

02580 

02590 

02600 

02610 

02620 

02630 

02640 

02650 

02660 

02670 

02680 

02680 

02700 

02710 

02720 

02730 

02740 
02750 

02760 
02770 
02780 
02780 
02800 
02810 
02820 
02830 
02840 
02850 
02860 
02870 



•a*: goto 2200 

Q1$.-PRINT 02« 



X»44:iF LEN(Q«X45G0T0 2170 

M=MATCH(Q$, M /",X) 

IF M>700R M=LEN(Q«)THEN 01 t=LEFT*( Q* . M) :Q2*=MID» ( Q* , M*l ) :M»0:G0T0 2180 

X = X+1 .'GOTO 2140 

PRINT ."PRINT TAB ( 10) "CURRENT "XS" PHOTOSTATS.* ' 

PRINT .'PRINT "CURRENT "X«" PHOTOSTATS.' "IPRINT 



C4=0IM=1 

M=MATCH(Q«, "/" ,M) IIF LEN(Q«)*M GOTO 2230 

C4=c4+i :m=m+i .-goto 2210 

Cl*( I2)»"NULL" 

IF I2+C4>20THEN PRINT .'PRINT "WARNING! — PLEASE 

PRINT 



CONDENSE ENTRY. (20 TOTAL) 



LINE INPUT " ADD h "J CIS (12) 

REM CHECK FOR VALID ENTRY CODES 

IF LEFT»<C1S<I2> , 1 )»"0" OR C1*<IZ>»" M THEN GOSUB 2S60.'G0T0 2380 

IF C1»(I2) = "DEL"THEN Q$ = "".' 01 ♦ = "" IQ2«= "".' GOSUB 2450.-G0T0 1870 

READ R2t 

DATA LN,SC,RV,CP,CN,BL,K1 , K2,K3,ZZ 

IF R2» = "Z2"THEN RESTORE .'PRINT .'PRINT " = = = INVALID CODE ENTRY--"" .'GOTO 

IF RIGHT«(C1*(I2) ,2)=R2» THEN RESTORE 'GOTO 2370 

GOTO 2310 

• 
• 

I2-I2+1 .'GOTO 2240 

IF I2=1G0T0 2410 

FOR D-1T0 (12-1 ) 

Q»-Q»+C 1 ♦( D >♦"/": NEXT 

IF LEFT»(C1«(I2) , 1 )="Q"THEN 

GOSUB 2450 

IF K=5 GOTO 450 

GOTO 2030 

IF K-1THEN K« = QS 

IF K=2THEN L* = QS 

IF K-3THEN M* = G« 

IF K-4THEN N* = G* 

IF K-5THEN 0* = Q* 

RETURN 



2240 



GOSUB 2450 .'GOTO 450 



REN SUBROUTINES 

REN 

REM CLEAR SCREEN 

PRINT CHR«(27) ;CHR»(68) 

RETURN 



REM WRITE UPDATED RECORD BACK TO DISK 

REM 

OPEN W» FOR WRITE AS FILE #3 

PRINT #3,A«*PRINT #3,B*'PRINT #3,C».'PRINT #3,D*'PRINT #3,Et 

#3,f»:print #3,g«:print #3,h»:print #3,i:print #3,ji»:print 
#3, j3«.'print #3, j4*'print #3,j5«:print #3,j6»:print #3,j7s 
#3,k1*:print #3,k2»:print #3,k3»:print #3,k4»:print #3,k5j> 
#3,K6*'PRINT #3,K7».'PRINT #3,k»:print #3.ls:print #3»f1S 
#3, N«! PRINT #3,00 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
CLOSE #3 

open z% for write 
print #i,z»:print 
print #i,y*:print 
close #1 .'return 



#3, JZS 



AS FILE #1 
#1 ,D3*'PRINT 
#1 ,0 



#i,e:print #i,j*:print #i,as* 



REM UPDATE HEADER FILE 

OPEN I«FOR WRITE AS FILE #1 

FOR Y8*1T0A' 

PRINT #1 ,C»(Y8) ."PRINT #1,AS(Y8) 

PRINT #1 ,E»(Y8).-PRINT #1,B*<Y8) 

NEXT Y8 

CLOSE #1 

RETURN 



PRINT #1,R8(Y8) 



REM 
L3-L3+2 



CURSOR ADDRESSING 



( Ln 



Col ) 




-<r <-nSTATE-OF-THE-ART 
\X>* SS16K/IEEE 
16K STATIC RAM BOARD 

ONLY *179 95 

Expand your system beyond 
64K — add universal bank 
select option for only $20. 00 




New: SS16K/IEEE RAM 

It's everything you need in a 16K static RAM board 
— at the lowst price you've ever seen. The 
SS16K/IEEE conies with all the high performance 
features listed below. And unlike obsolete-design 
RAM's (without bank select) you can add-on our 
universal software bank-selector system anytime, 
now just $20.00. This makes the SS16K/IEEE capa- 
ble of addressing 2,048 different banks. You can add 
memory beyond the 64K limit. You can expand to a 
multi-terminal system. 

FEATURES OF SS16K/IEEE : 

• Low-power 2114's 

• All inputs and outputs meet the proposed IEEE 
standards for the SlOO bus. 

• 4.0 MHz operation. 

• Schmitt trigger buffer on all signals for maximum 
noise reduction. 

• Addressable on 16K boundaries, 0-64K, dip switch 
selectable. 

• Phantom option, dip switch selectable. 

• PWR/MWRITE option, dip switch selectable. 

• Glass epoxy PC board with gold-plated contacts 
and double-sided solder mask. 

• Fully socketed. 

• Four separate regulators, for maximum stability. 

WITH BANK SELECT OPTION (now just $20.00} 
YOU ADD THIS: 

• Software bank selector featuring a universal 
decoder works with Cromenco, Alpha Micro, 
Netronics, most other systems, or your design. 
On-board dip switches: Bank Select Enable, Reset 
Enable, Reset Disable, Port Address, Port Data. 

• LED Indicator to display status. 

10-DAY MONEY-BACK TRIAL: Try a fully wired 
and tested board for 10 days — then either keep 
it, return it for kit, or simply return it In working 
condition. 



Continental U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut: 

TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 800-243-7428 

From Connecticut or For Assistance: 
(203) 354-9375 
Please send the items checked helow: 



K5 



SS16K/IEEE without bank select: 

□ Kit $179.95* 

□ Fully assembled, wire & tested $199.95" 

SS16K/IEEE with bank select: 

□ Kit $199.95* 

□ Fully assembled, wired & tested $129.95* 

□ SS16K/IEEE bank select option $20.00* 

'Plus $2 puton tr insurance (SS.OOCunuda). Connecticut resi- 
dents add so/es fox. 

Total enclosed: $ 



D Personal Check D Money Order or Cashier's Check 

D VISA D Master Card (Bank No. 



Acct. No. 

Signature 
Print 
Name 



Exp. Date 



Address 



City 
State 



Zip 



I^NETRONICS R&D Ltd. 

jllkll 333 Litchfield Koad, New Milford, CT 06776 



). 



Microcomputing, May 1981 131 



COMPUTERS 




INTERTEC SuperBrain, 

64K Ram, List $3495 $2895 

64K Quad, List $3995 $3395 

NORTH STAR 
Horizon I 32K DD List $2695. $1989 

Horizon I QD List $2995 $2245 

Horizon 2 32K DD.List $3095 $2289 
Intersystem DPS -1 List $1 749 . $1495 







CROMEMCO Z-2H, List$9995. . $7945 

System 2, List $4695 $3749 

System 2, 64K, List $4695 $3749 

System 3, 64K, List $7995. . . . $6395 

DISK SYSTEMS 

THINKER TOYS Discus 2D ..$939 

Dual Discus 2D $1559 

Discus 2 + 2, List $1 549 $1259 

M26 Hard Disk, List $4995 . . $3949 

PRINTERS & TERMINALS 

PAPER TIGER IDS-445 $649 

With graphic option $719 

CENTRONICS 730-1, List $795 $595 

737-1 List $995 $789 

704-9 180 cps $1495 

703-9 180 cps $1569 

T I 810,List $1895 $1489 

NECSPINWRITER 5530 $2395 

NECSPINWRITER 5515 $2395 

DIABLO 630 List $2711 $2399 

Intertube IIIJLiSt $895 729 

Zenith Z-19 $719 

Televideo 912C. $679 

920C $799 

Hazeltine 1420 $789 

1500 $845 

Soroc 120, List $995 $689 

140 $994 

Computers 
Wholesale 

P.O. Box 144 Camillus, NY 13031 " 227 

S (315) 472-2582 Q$ 

Most items in stock for immediate delivery Factory sealed cartons, 
w/full factory warranty NYS residents add appropriate sales tax 
Prices do not include shipping VISA and Master Charge add 3% 
COD orders require 25% deposit Prices subiect to change without 
notice 



Listing 4 continued. 



02880 
02880 
02800 
02810 
02820 
02830 
02840 
02850 
02860 
02870 
02880 
02880 
03000 
03010 
03020 
03030 
03040 
03050 
03060 
03070 
03080 
03030 
03100 
03110 
03120 
03130 
03140 
03150 
03160 
03170 
03180 
03180 
03200 
03210 
03220 
03230 
03240 
03250 
03260 
03270 
03280 
03280 
03300 
03310 
03320 



C = 26 

PRINT CHR»<27) ;CHR*(88) ; CHR»< 32+L3 ) ;CHR*(32+C> ". 

RETURN 



REM CUR50R OFF/ON 

PRINT CHR$(27) ;CHR*< 120) ;CHR«(53> J 

RETURN 

REM 

PRINT CHRX27) ;CHR»(121 ) ;CHR«(53) ; 

RETURN 



REM ADVANCE PAGE 

IF VAL(RIGHT*(W»,1) )<R8(Y8)G0T0 3130 

G06UB 2560 

PRINT CHR*(12) 

PRINT TAB (28)" 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB(28)"N0 ADDITIONAL PAGES FOUND" 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB (28)" 

R3 = 88 

PRINT IPRINT "<CR>"; .'PAUSE IRETURN 

REM 

W5*W5+1 

W*="SY1 :"+LEFT*(V»,6)+MID*(STR*(W5) ,2,1) 

GOSUB 3180 

RETURN 



REM READ DATA 

OPEN W» FOR READ AS FILE #2 

LINE INPUT #2,;A*:LINE INPUT #2,;B»:LINE INPUT #2,,'C*:LINE INPUT #2,;d« 

line input #2.;e«:line input #2,;f*:line input #z,;g»:line input #2,;h* 
input #2,;i:line input #2, ; ji»:line input #2,;j2*:line input #2,;j3* 
line input #2.;j4*iline input #2 , ,* j5* .' l ine input #2,;j6* 
line input #2,;j7*:line input #2,;ki»:line INPUT #2,,'K2» 
line input #2,;k3*!line input #2,;k4*.'line input #2,;k5* 
line input #2,;k6»:line input #2,;k7»:line input #2,;k» 

, ;m»:line input #2,;n*:line input #2,;o* 



line input #2,;l*:line input #: 

CLOSE #2 
RETURN 



REM 



END 



Listing 5. Datalog program sample run. 



JOB # 1234P1 /STATUS 
Feb. 18, 1S80 



SAMPLE TITLE (Ma: 



35 characters) 



CATEGORY 
SALESMAN NAMfc 



THIS IS DESCRIPTION FIELD (mat. 40 char) 
CLIENT JOB # 



2-17-80 
2-18-80 



This is Line #1 of the TEXT FIELD. ^Ma.<. 50 char.) 
This is Line #2 of Text. There is a maximum of 
14 lines per paae for an-.' record. But each record 
miY have a total of ur to 8 raacs. If additional 
space is required for a record («orc than 126 
lines) then you ma'/ start another record number 
and continue on. There is no limit to this feature 
as Ions as disK space is still available. 



2-23-80 



It 



is not necessary to enter a date or a numeric 
entry. You ma/ sKiP entire lines by enterins all 
carrai3t returns.' The numeric entries will be 
summed at the bottom of each paae- unless the 
value is zero. This is the 14th and last line. 



123456 



!•■■■■■■■■■■■■! 

TOTAL AMOUNT 



000000 



123.45 



• 123578 



SAMPLE INDEX 



Title 



Job * 



■ s s a a a = i 



= a = = a : 



:s = = *»T-ss = : 



SAMPLE TITLE (Max. 35 characters) 1001P1 

SCIENTIFIC EQUATIONS 1001P1 

SCIENTIFIC EQUATIONS CONT. (Paae 2) 1001P2 

ASTRONOMY FACTS 1002P1 

MICRO-COMPUTING GLOSSARY 1003P1 

FAVORITE RECIPES 1004 PI 

AUTO MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE 1005P1 

HEATH COMPUTER BUGS 1006P1 

PHOTOGRAPHY NOTES 1007P1 

CHEMISTRY 1008P1 







DisK # 


1 


Paaes 


Date 


Status 


■■■■■■■ 


lltlltllll 


• ■■■■■■i 


•■■■■■■■ 


1 


Feb. 10. 


1880 


STATUS 


2 


Feb . 19. 


1980 


STATUS 


2 


Feb .18. 


1980 


STATUS 


1 


Feb. 22. 


1880 


STATUS 


1 


Feb. 23, 


1880 


STATUS 


2 


Feb. 27, 


1880 


STATUS 


1 


Feb. 28. 


1880 


STATUS 


1 


Mar .04 , 


1880 


STATUS 


1 


Mar. 16, 


1880 


STATUS 


1 


Mar. 20, 


1880 


STATUS 



132 Microcomputing, May 1981 




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133 



Recently introduced ICs novo simplify the process of giving voice to your computer. 



Advances in Speech Synthesis 



By Larry Nickel 



Until recently, speech synthesis 
was either costly, complicated or 
cumbersome. The methods of the 
past were either tape recorders or the 
use of huge memories to store con- 
ventionally digitized speech. Now 
the technology of large-scale integra- 
tion (LSI) and very large-scale inte- 
gration (VLSI), coupled with exten- 
sive research into the mechanics of 
speech, have allowed construction of 
solid-state speech synthesizers with 
only a few ICs. 

Various Approaches 

The tape recorder method was one 
of the first approaches. It allows stor- 
age of many words, but the maxi- 
mum access time for each word can 
be very long. The mechanical aspects 
of this system are not particularly re- 
liable either. 

The brute-force approach uses an 
eight-bit analog-to-digital converter 
with a clock rate of perhaps eight to 
ten kHz. The speech data is then 
stored in ROM (read only memory). 
For playback a digital-to-analog con- 
verter is used. Unfortunately, 
100,000 bits per second would re- 
quire an enormous memory just for 
ten or 15 words. Instead of using 
ROM, RAM (random access memory) 
could be used, with the vocabulary 
stored on disk and loaded as re- 
quired. This could impose a great 
deal of wear on the disk system if the 
device must speak often. 

Some years ago linguists developed 
a set of sounds called phonemes, 
which could be strung together to 
form words. Generally, you have to 
determine the phonemes needed for 
the particular words that you want to 



Larry Nickel (211 Sacred Heart Lane, Reisters- 
town, MD 21136) has published articles in 73 
Magazine, Electronics World, Ham Radio and 
other magazines. 



speak. This can be complicated, and 
sometimes the words do not sound 
exactly as you expect. The advan- 
tages are that only a few bytes are re- 
quired for each word, and virtually 
any word or sound can be synthe- 
sized. Phoneme word synthesizers 
have been priced at $225 and up. 
(One supplier is included in refer- 
ence 1.) 

New Product Advances 

A number of companies (mostly 
semiconductor firms) have recently 
announced voice synthesizer ICs. 
Usually, the manufacturer provides a 
ROM with speech data, and this 
ROM attaches to the synthesizer 
chip. The speech data contains com- 
plex pitch and amplitude information 
which is processed by the synthesiz- 
er. It is not possible for the customer 
to generate the data that goes into the 
ROM. The semiconductor manufac- 
turer records the human voice and 
uses sophisticated algorithms and 
some human intervention to arrive at 
the ROM code. The user must either 
be content with standard vocabu- 
laries that are offered or pay huge de- 
velopment costs for custom words. 

The good news is that inexpensive 
standard vocabularies are being de- 
veloped now, and several will be 
available at the time of this printing. 
Industry is looking forward to using 
this technology for clocks, appli- 
ances, test instruments, automobiles, 
scales, gasoline pumps and tele- 
phones. Within the next six months 
these voice synthesizers will be sold 
(in huge quantities) for less than $10, 
and many new electronic products 
will be talking. 

General Instrument 

General Instrument (see reference 
2) has several interesting products. 
The SP0256 is a synthesizer, micro- 
processor and enough ROM for about 



16 words, all rolled into one chip. To 
expand the capability, an SPR16, 
SPR32 or SPR128 ROM is added. The 
VSM2032 is a three-chip set intended 
for a talking calculator or clock and 
has a fixed vocabulary of 37 words/ 
phrases. 

Votrax 

The same company that started 
with phoneme synthesizers years ago 
is now offering some new products. 
Votrax (see reference 1) has an SC01 
speech synthesizer IC, an SC01 
speech pack which says 255 words/ 
phrases and an SC01 evaluation 
board which includes about 1000 
words/phrases, plus sound effects. 
Evidently some of this technology is 
included in a new portable product 
for the handicapped speechless per- 
son called the "Phonic Mirror Handy 
Voice." 

Texas Instruments 

Texas Instruments has two new 
voice synthesis ICs, using what TI re- 
fers to as linear predictive coding. A 
time-varying digital filter models the 
voice tract, and this filter is excited 
with "a digital representation of 
either glottal air impulses (voiced 
sounds) or the rush of air (unvoiced 
sounds)." 

The bottom line is that getting from 
voice to ROM code is a very complex 
process. The TMS5100 is a four-bit 
device including an on-chip 36 mW 
power amplifier and is intended for 
low-cost, high-volume applications. 
The TMS5200 is an eight-bit device 
and is for microprocessor and bus- 
oriented uses; it features slightly 
higher quality speech than the 5100 
(but requires a low pass filter and 
amplifier). The 5200 has a READY 
line and must be treated as a slow 
memory device by inserting appro- 
priate wait states. 

Both the 5100 and 5200 use the 



134 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Texas Instruments TMS6100 128K-bit 
ROM which stores the speech data. A 
demonstration vocabulary is avail- 
able, but don't buy it because it con- 
tains such phrases as "Leon thinks it 
abnormal for a giraffe to roll on the 
ground.' The product of most inter- 
est is a standard vocabulary being of- 
fered with approximately 200 words 
and is designated the VM61001. 

The custom linear predictive cod- 
ing speech is very good quality. Addi- 
tionally, TI is able to generate pho- 
nemes. One company, Street Elec- 
tronics Corporation (see reference 3), 
is already marketing a phoneme gen- 
erator based on the TMS5200. 

TI also has a technique using allo- 
phones. Allophones sound a lot like 
the Cylon warriors from Battlestar 
Gallactica— kind of a monotone but 
understandable. The phoneme or al- 
lophone approach allows the speech 
data to be much more compact. 

Before you invest in TI's technolo- 
gy, drop them a note and request lit- 
erature on the TMS5100, 5200 and 
6100 (see reference 4). Also inquire 
about their speech synthesis chip set, 
the TMSK201. Evidently the 
TMSK201 is available with the 
VM61001 standard vocabulary (but 
be sure you don't get the demo vo- 
cabulary). 

National Semiconductor 

National Semiconductor has re- 
cently introduced Digitalker, their 
speech synthesis chip, the MM54104. 
Like the TI TMS5200, the MM54104 
requires a ROM for storage. National 
makes a pair of ROMs designated 
MM52164-SSR1 and MM52164-SSR2, 
which are packaged with the 
MM54104 in a product called the 
DTI 050 Standard Vocabulary Kit. 
The kit costs $85, and the price trend 
should be down. Regardless, most of 
the other manufacturers are pricing 
their products somewhat higher than 
Digitalker. The ROMs contain 143 
letters/numbers and words (see Table 
1). I can think of a lot of other words 
that I would like to have, but these 
143 let you do a great deal. Additional 
standard vocabularies will be avail- 
able soon. Also, see my software tips 
below. 

Hardware Tips 

National doesn't have a fancy 
name for their digital word encoding 
technique, but the speech produced 
is high quality. The hardware inter- 
face to a microprocessor is simple. 
You simply treat the synthesizer just 



as you would a location in I/O or 
RAM. Use the CS (chip select) line 
and the WR (write) lines, which are 
active low. The MM54104 produces 
an INTR (interrupt) output when it is 
finished voicing each word. This can 
signal your processor to jam in the 
next word. The CMS (command se- 
lect) line can be kept low, or, if you 
would like to reset the INTR line 
without initiating the next speech 



word, lift CMS high and perform a 
WRITE. 

If you can easily control the time 
between words, the INTR line may 
not be needed. It does help to pro- 
duce uniform word spacing if INTR 
is used. To conserve power a ROM 
enable (ROMEM) pin is provided to 
shut off the ROM when it is not in 
use. 

The speech output from the 



WORD/PHRASE/LETTER 


HEX 


DECIMAL 


320MS SILENCE 
CENTI 


67 


71 








68 


72 


THIS IS DIGITALKER 


00 





CHECK 


69 


73 


ONE 


01 


1 


COMMA 


6A 


74 


TUO 


02 


2 


CONTROL 


6B 


75 


THREE 


03 


3 


DANGER- 


6C 


76 


FOUR 


04 


4 


DEGREE 


6D 


77 


FIVE 


05 


5 


DOLLAR 


6E 


78 


SIX 


06 


6 


D0UN 


6F 


79 


SEVEN 


07 


7 


EQUAL 


70 


80 


EIGHT 


08 


8 


ERROR 


71 


81 


NINE 


09 


9 


FEET 


72 


82 


TEN 


0A 


10 


FLOW 


73 


83 


ELEVEN 


0B 


11 


FUEL 


74 


84 


TUELVE 


OC 


12 


GALLON 


75 


85 


THIRTEEN 


0D 


13 


GO 


76 


86 


FOURTEEN 


0E 


14 


GRAM 


77 


87 


FIFTEEN 


OF 


15 


GREAT 


78 


88 


SIXTEEN 


10 


16 


GREATER 


79 


89 


SEVENTEEN 


11 


17 


HAVE 


7A 


90 


EIGHTEEN 


12 


18 


HIGH 


7B 


91 


NINETEEN 


13 


19 


HIGHER 


7C 


92 


TWENTY 


14 


20 


HOUR 


7D 


93 


THIRTY 


15 


21 


IN 


7E 


94 


FORTY 


16 


22 


INCHES 


7F 


95 


FIFTY 


17 


23 


IS 


80 


96 


SIXTY 


18 


24 


IT 


81 


97 


SEVENTY 


19 


25 


KILO 


82 


98 


EIGHTY 


1A 


26 


LEFT 


83 


99 


NINETY 


IB 


27 


LESS 


84 


100 


HUNDRED 


1C 


28 


LESSER 


85 


101 


THOUSAND 


ID 


29 


LIMIT 


86 


102 


MILLION 


IE 


30 


LOU 


87 


103 


ZERO 


IF 


31 


LOWER- 


88 


104 


A 


20 


32 


MARK 


89 


105 


1 


21 


33 


METER 


8A 


106 


C 


22 


34 


MILE 


8B 


107 


D 


23 


35 


MILLI 


8C 


108 


E 


24 


36 


MINUS 


8D 


109 


F 


25 


37 


MINUTE 


8E 


110 


G 


26 


38 


NEAR 


8F 


111 


H 


27 


39 


NUMBER 


9A 


112 


I 


28 


40 


OF 


9B 


113 


J 


29 


41 


OFF 


9C 


114 


K 


3A 


42 


ON 


9D 


115 


L 


3B 


43 


OUT 


9E 


116 


M 


3C 


44 


OVER 


9F 


117 


N 


3D 


45 


PARENTHESIS 


A0 


118 





3E 


46 


PERCENT 


Al 


119 


F 


3F 


47 


PLEASE 


A2 


120 


Q 


40 


48 


PLUS 


A3 


121 


R 


41 


49 


POINT 


A4 


122 


S 


42 


50 


POUND 


AS 


123 


T 


43 


51 


PULSES 


A6 


124 


U 


44 


52 


RATE 


A7 


125 


V 


45 


53 


RE 


A8 


126 


w 


46 


54 


READY 


A9 


127 


X 


47 


55 


RIGHT 


AA 


128 


Y 


48 


56 


SS< PLURAL ) 


AB 


129 


Z 


49 


57 


SECOND 


AC 


130 


AGAIN 


5A 


58 


SET 


AD 


131 


AMPERE 


5B 


59 


SPACE 


AE 


132 


AND 


5C 


60 


SPEED 


AF 


133 


AT 


5D 


61 


STAR 


B0 


134 


CANCEL 


5E 


62 


START 


Bl 


135 


CASE 


5F 


63 


STOP 


B2 


136 


CENT 


60 


64 


THAN 


B3 


137 


400 HERTZ TONE 


61 


65 


THE 


B4 


138 


80 HERTZ TONE 


62 


66 


TIME 


B5 


139 


20MS SILENCE 


63 


67 


TRY 


B6 


140 


40MS SILENCE 


64 


68 


UP 


B7 


141 


80hS SILENCE 


65 


69 


VOLT 


B8 


142 


160MS SILENCE 


66 


70 


WEIGHT 


B9 


143 




Table 1 


. The Digitalker vocabulary. 







Microcomputing, May 1981 135 



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Digitalker chips. (Photo courtesy National Semiconductor) 



MM54104 is buffered in a follower 
(gain of 1) stage. National recom- 
mends use of the programmable 
LM346 OPAMP, probably for low- 
power applications, but I substituted 
an LM741. The output of the OPAMP 
drives an LM386 power amplifier. 
More gain can be extracted from the 
LM386 if a 10 uF capacitor (or a cap 
in series with a resistor) is connected 
between pins 1 and 8. Be careful of 
the wiring layout if you do this, be- 
cause otherwise there could be some 
oscillation due to the high gain. 

I have connected this equipment to 
my TRS-80 Model I Level II, but it 
could run on virtually any system. 
The circuit of Fig. 1 is a good starting 
point. Fig. 2 shows the TRS-80 pin- 
outs for the expansion bus at the key- 
board and expansion interface. An 
expansion interface is not required. 
Be careful how you wire to the 
TRS-80. The edge connectors match 
the numbering, for instance, on Vik- 
ing wire-wrap connector P/N 3VH20/ 
1JND5 and many other edge connec- 
tors, except for flat cable insulation 
displacement types. These types are 
numbered differently. 

Note that in the schematic of Fig. 1 
the MM54104 is I/O mapped and that 
an OUT instruction to location will 
initiate speech and reset INTR. An 
OUT instruction to location 2 will on- 
ly reset INTR. In BASIC, for instance, 
OUT 0,127 would sound the word 
"ready." 

If you leave some extra space on 
the board when you fabricate this cir- 



cuitry, you can add some sockets lat- 
er for additional ROM. With a few 
TTL chips to manipulate the device 
selects for the MM52164s, more than 
two ROMs could be supported. Note 
that no bus drivers will be needed for 
the MM54104 regardless of the mi- 
croprocessor system that it is used 
with, since there is no way or need to 
read data from the MM54104. Since 
the MM54154 is NMOS, it also does 
not load the bus appreciably. You 
should write or call National Semi- 
conductor (see reference 5) for data 
sheets and application notes on the 
DTI 050. 

In wiring the DT1050, check and 
recheck your work with care. A mis- 
take could prematurely destroy the 
ICs. National recommends using 7-11 
V dc to power the MM54104 so the 
output of the LM78L05 has been ad- 
justed to approximately 9 V dc. I sug- 
gest that all power supplies be 
checked before inserting the synthe- 
sizer or ROMs. As with any MOS de- 
vice, be sure to avoid static dis- 
charges. 

Software Tips 

Any words or letters from the ROM 
can be chained together to make 
phrases or sentences. Not as obvious, 
pieces of words may be combined to 
make new words. For instance, if you 
start the word "comma" and jam in 
"pound" halfway through comma, 
you can get "compound." If you gate 
the audio buffer or amplifier, you 
could chop off the first part of a word 



136 Microcomputing, May 1981 




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Microcomputing, May 1981 137 



10 


'SYNTHESIZE ATTENTION 


» 1 


3UT12»58 


30 1 


3=50 


40 GOSUB 180 


50 0UT12»10 


60 1 


[1=110 


70 < 


;OSUB 180 


80 0UT12»73 


90 1 


[i=20 


100 


GOSUB 180 


110 


0UT12>58 


120 


d=io:gosubi8o 


130 


0UT12»111 


140 


D=25:G0SUB180 


150 


0UT12»71 


160 


D=500:G0SUB180 


170 


GOTO 20 


180 


FOR X=l TO D 


190 


NEXT X 


200 


RETURN 


Listing 


1. Synthesizing "attention." 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 



'SYNTHESIZE 

0UT12»74t 

D=30:GOSUB150 

0UT12»124t 

D=30:GOSUB150 

0UT12»52: 

D=70tGOS.UB150 

0UT12»139: 

D=20:GOSUB150 

0UT12»8i: 

D=30:G0SUB150 

0UT12»7i: 

D=500:G0SUB150 

GOTO 20 

FOR X= 1 TO D 

NEXT X 

RETURN 



COMPUTER 
'COM 



FROM COMMA 



P FROM PULSES 



'T FROM TIME 
'ER FROM ERROR 
'SILENCE 



Listing 2. Synthesizing "computer. " 



and use the last part. You can use let- 
ters as words such as "u" for "you" 
and "b" for "be," etc. I use "weight" 
for the word "wait." 

A phoneme-based system would be 
better for creating your own custom 
words, but I have found that many 
new words can be synthesized with 
only the sounds and syllables in the 
DTI 050. Some short programs are 
provided as food for thought. Re- 
member that the timing is very criti- 
cal when only pieces of words are 
used. If your computer is not a 
TRS-80, the timing will need to be al- 
tered slightly. If you have a TRS-80, 
then as a starting point type the pro- 
grams in exactly as they are listed. 
Note that my Digitalker is I/O mapped 
as location 12. Change this to suit 
your system. 

The first example (Listing 1) is for 
the word ATTENTION. The A from 
again (line 20) is followed by the TEN 
from the number 10 (line 50), fol- 
lowed by the CH from check (line 
80), followed by the A from again 
(line 110), followed finally by the N 
from near (line 130). This gives us 
A-TEN-CH-A-N. The A-N on the end 
is used to give an UN sound. The 
word is understandable but has a 
slight European accent. 

Other examples are COMPUTER, 



HELLO, YES and NO in Listings 2, 3, 
4 and 5, respectively. YES was partic- 
ularly difficult because the YE sound 
is not available and a U sound was 
substituted. 

It was certainly not National Semi- 
conductor's intention to use the 
DT1050 this way, but it does show 
what can be done with some extra ef- 
fort. The author would like to know 
of any other words that the readers 
may construct. 

Conclusion 

The possibilities for home use of 
this new technology are many. Com- 
puter voice response is especially 





TOP 


EXPANSION BUS 


ooo 

TAPE VIO PWR 


1 39 

1 1 

2 40 





BOTTOM 



TOP 





PRINTER PORT 




EXPANSION BUS 






33 | 
1 1 




1 39 

1 1 

2 40 




34 2 













FRONT 



BOTTOM 



Fig. 2. TRS-80 pin-outs. 



21 



30 
22 
32 
26 

18 
26 
24 
20 

12 
27 
25 
39 
29 
37 

6 



INT 



NC 



TRS-80 BUS 
(KEYBOARD OR 
EXPANSION INT ) 



50pF 



I 



♦ I2VDC 

t_ 



IN 



22 



IN 



LM78L05CZ 



LM340T-5 

OR 

LM7805CT 



£ 



0.1 

-3h 



lr 



OUT 



X 



820 



OUT 



6ND 



4 7K 
— wv— 



I 



O.I 



DO 


15 


Dl 


14 


02 


13 


03 


12 


D4 


II 


05 


10 


06 


9 


07 


6 


OUT 


4 


Al 


7 


AO 


3 



NC 
NC 



4MHz 



I 5K 
-wv— 



20pF 

-)r- 



i| IM 



40 



39 



DO 

Dl 

D2 

03 

04 

D5 

06 

07 

WR 

CMS 

CS 

INTR 

ROMEN 



AO 
Al 
A2 
A3 
A4 
A5 
A6 
A7 
A8 
A9 
AIO 
All 
AI2 
AI3 



MM54I04N 



DATA I 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
DATA 8 



~¥ 



25 



26 



27 



28 



29 



30 



31 



32 



33 



34 



35 



36 



37 



38 



16 



17 



18 



19 



21 



9VDC 



5VDC 




9 IK 

-wv- 



LM74ICN 




20 
10V 



-fr 



LM386N 



ilOfl 
•■pO.05 




SPEAKER 



12 



r 



20 



21 



18 



19 



22 



23 



8 



CS AI2 All AIO A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A I AO 

MM52I64-SSRI 
Dl 02 D3 04 OS 06 D7 D8 . 



1 



10 



II 



13 



14 



22 



23 



6 



24 



24 



;oi 



12 



<T 



20 



21 



18 



19 



22 



23 



8 



CS AI2 All AIO A9 A8 A7 A6 AS A4 A3 A2 Al AO 



MM52I64-SSR2 



01 02 D3 D4 05 06 07 08 



17 



10 



II 



13 



14 



15 



16 



24 



0.1 



17 



Fig. 1. National Semiconductor /TRS-80 hardware interface. 



138 Microcomputing, May 1981 



good where users have nontechnical 
backgrounds. Hams will now find it 
economical to provide speech synthe- 
sis for automatic station identifica- 
tion or for sophisticated repeater con- 
trol applications. ■ 

References 

1. Votrax Division, Federal Screw 
Works, 500 Stephenson Highway, 
Troy, MI 48084 (313-588-2050). 

2. General Instrument Corporation, 
600 W. John St., Hicksville, NY 11802 
(516-733-3107). 

3. Street Electronics Corporation, 
3152 E. La Palma Ave., Anaheim, CA 
92806 (714-632-9950). 

4. Texas Instruments, Inc., PO Box 
6448, Midland, TX 79701 (915-685- 
6500). 

5. National Semiconductor Corpora- 
tion, 2900 Semiconductor Drive, 
Santa Clara, CA 95051 (408-737-5000). 



'H FROM HAVE 



'L 



10 'SYNTHESIZE HELLO 
20 0UT12»?0: 

30 d=2o:gosubho 

40 0UT12»43t 

50 D=80JG0SUB110 

60 0UT12.103: 'LOU 

70 d=7o:gosubho 

80 0UT12»7i: 'SILENCE 

90 d=soo:gosubiio 

100 GOTO 10 
110 FOR X=l TO D 
120 NEXT X 
130 RETURN 



Listing 3. Synthesizing "hello." 



MICROMAIL HAS WHAT 
YOUR SYSTEM NEEDS. 



10 'SYNTHESIZE YES 

20 0UT12»52: 

30 D=25:GOSUB90 

40 0UT12»8i: 

50 d=--25:gosub?o 

60 0UT12»129t 
70 D=500:GOSUB90 
80 GOTO 20 
90 FOR X=l TO D 
LOA. NEXT. X. 
110 RETURN 



'U 

'E FROM ERROR 

'SS 



Listing 4. Synthesizing "yes. " 



10 'SYNTHESIZE NO 

20 0UT12»112: 

30 D=30:G0SUB90 

40 0UT12,46: 

50 H=60:GOSUB90 

60 0UT12»7i: 

70 P=500:G0SUB9O 

80 GOTO 10 

90 FOR X= 1 TO D 

100 NEXT X 

110 RETURN 



'N FROM NUMBER 

'0 

'SILENCE 



Listing 5. Synthesizing "no. " 




630 



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The Diablo Model 630 is a reliable, high quality, lull- 
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print quality at a low cost. This is the first Diablo printer to 
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user does not sacrifice print quality to obtain this versatility. 
Every aspect oi the Diablo 630 design has been focused on 
maintaining outstanding print quality. Terminals also 
have sell-test extensive internal diagnostics and 
automatic bidirectional printing. 

$1,999.00 

With Adjustable Forms Tractor add $200.00 



ANADEX 



DP-9500/9501 



The Anadex Models DP-9500 and DP-9501 Alphanumeric 
Line Printers are designed lor all printer applications. 
including those requiring high density graphics. Standard 
features include three standard interlaces (RS 232C. Cen- 
tronics Parallel and Current Loop), software selectable 
print sizes including compressed and expanded print, 
heavy-duty nine-wire printhead (permits true underlining 
and descending lower case letters), and last bi-directional 
printing. The model 9501 oilers slightly higher graphics 
resolution and a slightly slower print speed than the model 

9500 $1,299.00 




TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 

Fast, reliable, and widely supported the T.I 810 
has proven itsell to be a solid printer lor business 
or industry. 



$1,549.00 



SPECIAL 



T.I. P* |CES 



810/2 

(includes upper /lower case 
option) 

810/2VFC/CP 

(includes u/1 case, forms 
control & compressed print) 

Prices good through June 15, 1981 



$1,679.00 



PRINTERS 



CRT.'s 



ANADEX 



TeleVideo 



DP9000 $1199 

DP-9001 $1199 

Just like the 9500/9501. but 5 
inches narrower. Uses paper 
up to 9.5 inches wide. 



DIABLO 



912C $ 699 

920C $ 749 

950 $ 995 

NEW! Features a detachable 
keyboard & programmable 
function keys. 



1640RO $2469 

Uses plastic daisywheels. 
prints up to 45 c.ps. 

1650RO $2799 

Uses metal daisywheels, prints 
up to 40 c.ps. 



SOROC 



IGL120 $ 689 

IGL140 $1099 

IQ.135 $ 849 

NEW! Microprocessor 
controlled programmable 
function keys. 



NEC 



c.rroH 



High Quality. 55 c.ps. 

5510 $2595 

Serial Interlace 

5530 $2595 

Parallel Interlace 



crrioo 
DEC 



$1625 



VT-lOO 



$1650 



TELEPRINTERS 
DEC 

LA34 $ 969 

Dot-matrix, 30 c.p.t Adjustable 
character sizes & line spacing. 

LA34AA $1099 

Includes programmable forms 
length control. 

TELETYPE 

43 $ 999 

Very reliable 30 c.ps. 
teleprinter. Ideal lor use with 
3CO-baud acoustic couplers or 
modems. 

DIABLO 

1640KSR $2699 

Uses plastic daisywheels. 
prints up to 45 c.ps. 

1650KSR $2799 

Uses metal daisywheels, prints 
up to 40 c.ps. 



NIC and DIABLO prices include forms tractor. 



To Order: Send check to MICROMAIL. P.O. Box 3297, Santa Ana, CA 92703. Personal or company checks 
reauire two weeks to clear. Visa /MasterCard accepted. COD requires a 15% deposit Handling: Add J /o to 
orders less than $750, 2% to orders $751 - $2000. 1% to orders over $2,000 NOTE Handling charges are 
waived on orders prepaid in advance by check Shipping: We ship FREIGHT COLLECT via UPS or Motor 
Freight. Air and Express delivery is available 




See List ot Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 139 



Proven Favorites . . . 

These 10 Popular Games Offer 

Exciting New Challenges 

Here are 10 games that have never lost popularity. They've been played in many forms for many years. 
And now they're among the favorite software packages in the computerized home-entertainment field. 

Don't miss out on the excitement, challenge and downright fun of these programs. Take the word of 
thousands of satisfied players. They're still tops. Order yours today and play your kind of game. 

















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TRS-80 



OTHELLO 



* 



OTHELLO — Pit your strategic powers against a merciless, computerized op- 
ponent. You play on a board of 64 squares. When you capture your opponent's 
game disks (by bracketing them with your own disks), they immediately change 
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one time as long as they are in-line horizontally, vertically or diagonally. Major 
reversals of score are commonplace as whole blocks of men change side in an in- 
stant. (Tl)Order No. 0046R $9.95 



Beginner's 
Backgammon 
and Keno 




BEGINNER'S BACKGAMMON/KENO— Why sit alone when you can play 
these fascinating games: • BACKGAMMON: Play against the computer in a 
game that's sure to sharpen your skills; • KENO: Enjoy this popular Las Vegas 
gambling game— guess the right numbers and win big! (Tl) Order No. 0004R 
$7.95. 

CARDS — A one-player package to let you play, with your computer, these 
famous games: • DRAW AND STUD POKER: These programs will keep your 
game sharp; • NO-TRUMP BRIDGE: Develop your strategy and (hopefully) in- 
crease your skill. (Tl) Order No. 0063 R $7.95. 



Your Cribbage 
and 

Checkers 
Partner 




YOUR CRIBBAGE AND CHECKERS PARTNER— •CRIBBAGE is a two- 
person game that you are sure to enjoy. This is NOT a tutorial — it is a game 
worthy adversary. ©CHECKERS: An old favorite which follows international 
rules, including multiple jumps. (Tl) Order No. 0068R $9.95. 

(T1)=TRS-80 Model 1, Level II, 16K RAM 



CHESSMATE-80 — This versatile chess opponent gives you a choice of ten levels 
of play, from the "blitz" level (the computer has 3 seconds to move) to the infinity 
level (where the computer will consider every possible move — which could take 
years). This machine-language program is a conservative player and follows all the 
rules of international play. CHESSMATE-80 can teach you how to move and 
allow you to set up the board and play end games or special problems. CHESS- 
MATE-80 battled Sargon II to a draw at two minutes a move and beat Microchess 
1.5 in six moves. (Tl) Order No. 0057R $19.95. 

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pick up spares and get strikes. (Tl) Order No. 0033R $7.95. 



Apple 

GOLF 



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GOLF — Without leaving the comfort of your living room you can enjoy a 
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PET 



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CASINO I — Gamblers, gather round for: • BLACKJACK— a fun-to-play and 
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Order No. 0014P $7.95 

CASINO II— This is not simply a craps game, it is a tutorial program that will 
teach you the odds on every type of bet, so you can steer clear of the sucker bets 
that impoverish the unwary. Using the exact rules used at the MGM Grand 
Hotel in Las Vegas, you'll play under actual gambling house conditions. Get 
the edge you need to "get lucky." Order No. 0015P $7.95 

CHECKERS & BACCARAT— Using International Rules, you'll play 

• CHECKERS with your computer and the computer will keep score, time the 
moves and even tell you when to jump (it'll be so busy, you may have an edge!); 

• BACCARAT— gives you the choice of playing Las Vegas of Rtaakjpak tfcjfc 
and the computer will deal the cards, figure the payoff and keep track of your 
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* A trademark of Tandy Corporation 

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*** A trademark of Commodore Business Machines Inc. 



140 Microcomputing, May 1981 




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Technologies 



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C-488 IEEE PARALLEL "LISTEN ONLY" TO 
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• Input IEEE 488 GPIB, Hewlett Packard HPIB, or PET compatible 

• Switchable device address 

• Disable switch for address and parallel commands $125.00 



PSI PARALLEL SWITCH ALLOWING TWO 
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• Two parallel input ports - one parallel output port 

• Manual or remote switching control $125.00 




SDP-1 
A USER PROGRAMABLE SERIAL 
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• Z-80 Microprocessor - controlled 

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• Code, word structure and buad rate conversions 
Ex. ASCII to EBCID or ASCII to BAUDOT 

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phone orders and inquirys always welcome 



^208 




TRS 80 OWNERS 
BASIC SLOWIMG YOU DOWN? 

TAKE 



FAST RELIEF! 



Introducing SIMUTEKS ZBASIC, The truly interactive BASIC 
COMPILER for your TRS-80' FINALLY' People that don't have the time or 
the inclination to learn complicated assembly language, have a chance to 
write PROFESSIONAL QUALITY SOFTWARE in machine language using 
a subset of LEVEL II BASIC" 

What does interactive mean? It means you have ZBASIC and your 
BASIC program resident at the same tine 1 You may compile a BASIC 
program, run it or save it without destroying your resident BASIC program' 
In fact, jumping back and forth between the compiled code and the BASIC 
code is one of its finest features' 

ZBASIC allows saving your COMPILED PROGRAM as a system tape, 
(tape version), or as /CMD file, (disk version) THE COMPILED CODE IS 
VERY EFFICIENT Z80 OBJECT CODE THE LEVEL II ROMS ARE USED 
ONLY FOR I/O ROUTINES" 

FACTS ABOUT ZBASIC 

1 16K ZBASIC will compile a 4 8K program (tape only) 
32K ZBASIC will compile a 17K (tape), 10K (disk) pgm 
48K ZBASIC will compile a 17K program (disk only) 
(These are approximate values depending on program efficiency 
etc) 

2. ZBASIC DOES NOT support disk or tape files 

3 BASIC programs compiled with ZBASIC are between 10-200 times 
faster than interpreted BASIC" 

4. NO ROYALTIES ON ZBASIC COMPILED PROGRAMS" 

5 ZBASIC programs are only about 1 1 times larger than the average 
basic program 

6. ZBASIC programs may be used as USR routines from basic 

7. ZBASIC uses INTEGER MATH ONLY to increase speed and 
decrease compiled program size Use of Single or Double precision 
would destroy the beauty of the first "INTERACTIVE COMPILER" on 
the market' 

8 Limited variables: A-Z, A1-Z1, A2-Z2. A$-Z$ Arrays are not 
supported to decrease memory demands and speed up compiling of 
programs 

9. COMPILE TIMES ARE TYPICALLY 1 TO 10 SECONDS' THERE IS 
NO NEED TO USE COMPLICATED COMPILE TIME MODULES' 

10. ZBASIC comes with a HIGHLY DETAILED manual describing all 
important memory locations, commands, variables, warm/cold start 
entry points and many useful sub-routines for emulating unsupported 
commands" 

1 1 . Existing programs may be loaded from tape or disk and compiled as 
long as unsupported commands or variables are not used 



ALL COMMANDS DIRECTLY SUPPORTED BY ZBASIC 


FOR 


NEXT 


STEP 


IF 


THEN 


ELSE 


PEEK 


SFT 


RESET 


POINT 


CHR$ 


RANDOM 


RND 


POKE 


DATA 


READ 


RESTORE 


END 


GOTO 


GOSUB 


CLS 


INPUT 


INKEYS 


LET 


STOP 


OUT 


INP 


RETURN 


PRINT 


LPRINT 


PRINTS 


USR 


SGN 


INT 


ABS 


SOR 


LEN 


ASC 


VAL 


STR$ 


POS 


ON GOTO 


ON GOSUB 


REM 


NOT 


AND 


OR 






INTEGER MATH 


•MULTIPLY 


/DIVIDE -f 


ADD - 


SUBTRACT 


•f - 32767 




NOTE Somo commands do not act exactly 


as BASIC commands act 





TRS-80 MOD I and III or PMC-80 Computers. (Level II 
Only) NEW LOWER PRICES! 

ZBASIC 16K/32K LVII Tap* Version + Manual $7 9.93 

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•See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 141 



This program to add intra-line editing to Sorcerer BASIC is just what the doctor ordered. 



A Sure Cure for Those 

"?SN ERROR' ' Blues 



By Randy L. Henne 



In squeezing Microsoft BASIC into 
its 8K ROMPAC, Exidy sacrificed 
some nice features sometimes found 
in other BASICs. These include a sin- 
gle-character input command (GET), 
tape CLOAD* /CSAVE* for character 
arrays, renumbering, graphics com- 
mands and intra-line editing capa- 
bility. 
What Sorcerer lacks in BASIC, 



BASIC 
INTERPRETER 


1 
CALLS 


MONITOR 

KEYBRD 

ROUTINE 








1 









RETURNS 
CHARACTER 
ENTERED OR 



Fig. la (SET I =K). 



however, it makes up for to some ex- 
tent with its powerful Monitor ROM, 
which has a wealth of machine lan- 
guage subroutines. By taking advan- 
tage of these subroutines, the Z-80 as- 
sembler language programmer can 
write some fairly compact routines to 
overcome deficiencies such as those 
listed above. 

(To learn more about these subrou- 
tines and their use, refer to the Soft- 
ware Internals Manual for the Sorcerer 
from Quality Software, or the Sorcer- 
er Software Manual from Exidy.) 

An excellent example of this tech- 
nique appeared in the April 1980 is- 
sue of Microcomputing ("Conjure Up 



CTRL-E 

UP-arrow 

DOWN-arrow 

RIGHT-arrow 

LEFT-arrow 

(or SHIFT/RUB) 

CTRL-D 

REPEAT 

CTRL-I 

CTRL-N 
RETURN 

(or '©') 

Any other Character 



—Enter EDIT mode, establish dual cursors 

—Move EDIT cursor to beginning of preceding line 

—Move EDIT cursor to beginning of following line 

—Copy character under EDIT cursor to BASIC command line 

—Backspace EDIT cursor, and RUBOUT last character in 

BASIC command line 

—"Delete" by moving the EDIT cursor one character to the 

right without moving the BASIC cursor 

—May be used after any cursor command to allow rapid cursor 

movement, copying, deletion, etc. 

— "Insert" any characters following CTRL-I and before CTRL-N 

into the BASIC command line, but do not move EDIT cursor 

—Return to "Normal" (cancel Insert Mode) 

—Leave EDIT mode, and pass BASIC command line to BASIC 

interpreter f@' causes BASIC to ignore the command line) 

—Add the character typed to the BASIC command line, and 

move both cursors one position to the right (character typed 

replaces character at EDIT cursor position) 

Table 1. EDITIN command summary. 



a GET Command for Sorcerer" by C. 
Kevin McCabe, April 1980, p.46). 
Similarly, I have used this technique 
to implement intra-line editing, the 
topic of this article. 

The Intra-Line Editing Problem 

As a programmer accustomed to 
working with powerful text editors 
on large computer systems, I was an- 
noyed to discover that to change a 
line of BASIC code on my Sorcerer I 
had to retype the entire line. I pro- 
duced some rather inefficient code as 
a result, since I tended to avoid exces- 
sively long statements and frequently 
added small changes as separate lines 
rather than retype existing ones. 

I soon discovered that the Radio 
Shack TRS-80 and the Apple II both 
featured some intra-line editing capa- 
bilities, but since I had by that time 
received my Development PAC, I 
was developing most of my software 
in Z-80 assembler language and had 
temporarily forgotten the inconve- 
niences of BASIC. 

Then a few weeks ago, a friend pur- 
chased an Apple II, and I had an op- 
portunity to read through one of Ap- 
ple computer's excellent manuals. 

The Applesoft Solution 

The Apple's editing method uses 
the LIST command to display the line 
to be edited and four escape/key se- 
quences to move the cursor to the be- 

Address correspondence to Randy L. Henne, 5870 
Wood Flower Court, Burke, VA 22015. 



142 Microcomputing, May 1981 





1 
CALLS 






2 






BASIC 
INTERPRETER 


EDITIN 


CALLS 


MONITOR 

KEYBRD 

ROUTINE 












I 













RETURNS CHARACTER 
(NOT NECESSARILY AS 
RECEIVED BY KEYBRD) 
OR 0. AND MAY PERFORM 
OTHER ACTIONS 



3 

RETURNS 
CHARACTER 
ENTERED OR 



Fig. lb. (SET I = 3000). 



ginning of that line. Then, the retype 
key is used to reenter characters into 
BASIC, making needed changes by 
overtyping. Although no provision is 
made for directly inserting characters 
within a line, this is usually possible 
due to the fact that Applesoft inserts 
extra spaces between words when 
the LIST command is executed. 

Applying the Applesoft 
Technique to Sorcerer 

Obviously, most of us do not have 
the equipment required to add these 
features to the BASIC ROMPAC. 
However, the Monitor SET I = xxxx 
command can be used to force BASIC 
to request its input from a user soft- 
ware routine. This routine can inter- 
cept keyboard entries and either pass 
them on to BASIC or take other ac- 
tions directly. This is the philosophy 
behind the EDITIN program— it is an 
editing input driver. 

Fig. 1 shows block diagrams of the 
calling structures. In Fig. la, the nor- 
mal mode (SET I = K), the BASIC in- 
terpreter repetitively calls the Moni- 
tor KEYBRD routine until a character 
is actually typed. At this point, BASIC 
either adds the character to its input 
command string or performs the re- 
quested operation (e.g., return to the 
READY state on CTRL-C). 

Fig. lb shows the calling structure 
when EDITIN is loaded at location 
3000 hex and SET I = 3000 is entered 
to the Monitor. BASIC calls EDITIN, 
which in turn calls KEYBRD, looping 

until a key is pressed. If EDIT mode 
is in effect, EDITIN can take actions 
on its own to set flags, move the cur- 
sor) s) and return to BASIC with the 
character entered, no character at all 
(causing BASIC to immediately call 
EDITIN again) or some other charac- 
ter (causing BASIC to take other ac- 
tion). 

Essentially, EDITIN' s function is to 
maintain two separate cursor loca- 
tions, called for convenience the BA- 
SIC cursor (in the BASIC command 
line) and the EDIT cursor. When 
EDIT mode is not in effect, the BASIC 





RODR 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


8 


8 


B 


C 


D 


E F 




3000: 


DS 


E5 


FD 


E5 


CD 


82 


El 


FD 


5E 


68 


FD 


56 


69 


ED 


53 32 




3010 


31 


FD 


5E 


6fl 


16 


00 


ED 


53 


34 


31 


38 


38 


31 


B7 


28 18 




3020 


CD 


E8 


E9 


ED 


5B 


36 


31 


FD 


73 


68 


FD 


72 


69 


ED 


5B 38 




3030 


: 31 


FD 


73 


68 


FD 


72 


6B 


CD 


CC 


E9 


CD 


18 


E0 


28 


FB F5 




3040 


FE 


05 


20 


18 


ED 


5B 


32 


31 


ED 


53 


36 


31 


ED 


5B 


34 31 




3050 


ED 


53 


38 


31 


3E 


01 


32 


38 


31 


Fl 


18 


09 


38 


38 


31 B7 




3060 


20 


2C 


Fl 


18 


01 


flF 


B7 


F5 


CD 


E8 


E9 


ED 


5B 


32 


31 FD 




3070: 


73 


68 


FD 


72 


69 


ED 


5B 


34 


31 


FD 


73 


68 


FD 


72 


6B F5 




3080 


7B 


32 


8E 


01 


Fl 


CD 


CC 


E9 


Fl 


FD 


El 


El 


Dl 


C9 


38 3B 




3090 


31 


B7 


28 


0B 


Fl 


FE 


0E 


20 


CD 


8F 


32 


3B 


31 


18 


C6 Fl 




3080 


F5 


FE 


09 


20 


08 


3E 


01 


32 


3B 


31 


Fl 


18 


B8 


FE 


17 28 




30B0 


0B 


CD 


18 


31 


3E 


0D 


CD 


18 


31 


Fl 


18 


83 


FE 


18 


20 0D 




30C0 


I 3E 


0D 


CD 


18 


31 


3E 


18 


CD 


18 


31 


Fl 


18 


98 


FE 


13 20 




30D0 


0D 


Fl 


FD 


7E 


67 


F5 


3E 


13 


CD 


18 


31 


Fl 


18 


88 


FE 01 




30E0 


28 


04 


FE 


7F 


20 


0B 


Fl 


3E 


01 


CD 


18 


31 


3E 


7F 


C3 66 




30F0 


30 


FE 


04 


20 


09 


3E 


13 


CD 


18 


31 


Fl 


C3 


65 


30 


FE 40 




RDDR 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


8 


B 


C 


D 


E F 




3100 


: 28 


04 


FE 


0D 


20 


09 


3E 


00 


32 


38 


31 


Fl 


C3 


66 


30 3E 




3110 


I 13 


CD 


18 


31 


Fl 


C3 


66 


30 


CD 


IB 


E0 


FD 


5E 


68 


FD 56 




3120 


: 69 


ED 


53 


36 


31 


FD 


5E 


68 


FD 


56 


6B 


ED 


53 


38 


31 C9 




3130 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


20 


20 


20 20 










EDITIN 1 


fl monitor dump format. 









cursor is displayed and all operations 
proceed as if EDITIN did not exist. 
When EDIT mode is activated (by 
typing CTRL-E), the edit cursor is 
displayed and can be moved about 
the screen as desired, with or without 
transferring characters to the BASIC 
command line, until RETURN or @ is 
entered, terminating EDIT mode and 
allowing BASIC to process its com- 
mand appropriately. See Table 1 for a 
complete summary of EDITIN com- 
mand characters. (Note: UP-arrow, 
DOWN-arrow, etc., are entered by 
holding down either CTRL or SHIFT 
and pressing the appropriate key on 
the numeric pad.) 

An Editing Example 

Let's step through an example of 
the use of EDITIN to edit a BASIC 
program line. 

Assuming EDITIN is already load- 
ed and the proper SET command has 
been issued, LIST your BASIC pro- 
gram, stopping the list with CTRL-C 



when the line you wish to change is 
displayed on the screen. Next, type 
CTRL-E to enter EDIT mode and use 
the UP-arrow to move the EDIT cur- 
sor to the line to be edited. 

Now, typing RIGHT-arrow will 
cause the character under the EDIT 
cursor to appear in the BASIC com- 
mand line. Continue to type RIGHT- 
arrow, or use the repeat key, to move 
the edit cursor to the area where 
changes are needed. 

Then, to replace the character cur- 
rently under the edit cursor, simply 
type the new character. To delete the 
character under the cursor, type 
CTRL-D. 

To insert characters in front of the 
edit cursor position, type CTRL-I, the 
character) s) to be inserted, then 
CTRL-N. Then proceed with any oth- 
er changes necessary. 

If a typographical error is made, 
RUBOUT (SHIFT-RUB) will back- 
space as usual (LEFT-arrow also per- 
forms the same function). 



0001 

0002 
0003 
0004 
0005 
0006 
0007 
0008 
0009 
0010 
0011 
0012 
0013 
0014 
0015 
0016 



Program listing. 



EDITIN - 8 Keyboard Input Driver Which 

Rdds Intra-Line Editing Capability 
to Exidy Sorcerer B8SIC 



PSECT 
ORG 



RBS 
3000H 



; Relocate as Necessary 



Use the Monitor 'ENTER' command to enter the OBJECT 
data at the addresses indicated in the RDDR column. 

If desired, relocation of EDITIN to another even 4K 
boundary ( ' x000' ) can be easily accompl ished by 
replacing the ' 30' s and ' 31' s in the rightmost-byte 
of instructions with ' x0' s and 'xl's, respectively 




Microcomputing, May 1981 143 



Listing continued. 














0017 


• 
• 










0018 


1 






3000 


D5 


0019 


EDITIN 


PUSH 


DE ;Saue Reg is tors 


3001 


E5 


0020 




PUSH 


HL 


3002 


FDE5 


0021 
0022 


• 


PUSH 


IY 


3004 


CDftZEl 


0023 
0024 


• 
• 


CftLL 


SETUP ; Point IY to MWfl 


3007 


FD5E68 


0025 




LD 


E,(IY+68H) ;Save BftSIC Cursor 


300R 


FD5669 


0026 




LD 


D,(IY+69H) 


300D 


ED533231 


0027 




LD 


(RBftSIC).DE 


3011 


FD5E6ft 


0028 




LD 


E,(IY+6ftH) 


3014 


1600 


0029 




LD 


D,0 


3016 


ED533431 


0030 
0031 


t 


LD 


CCBftSIO.DE 


301ft 


3ft3ft31 


0032 




LD 


ft.(EDITMOD) ;Edit Mode ON? 


301D 


B7 


0033 




OR 


ft 


301C 


281ft 


0034 
0035 


• 


JR 


Z,GETCHR-» ;No, Gat Character 


3020 


CDE8E9 


0036 




CftLL 


RESTOR ;Yqs, Sot Cursor to 


3023 


ED5B3631 


0037 




LD 


DE, CREDIT) ; EDIT Location 


3027 


FD7368 


0038 




LD 


<IY+68H),E 


302ft 


FB7269 


0039 




LD 


(IY+69H),D 


302D 


ED5B3831 


0040 




LD 


DE,(CEDIT) 


3031 


FD736R 


0041 




LD 


(IY+6ftH),E 


3034 


FD726B 


0042 




LD 


<IY+6BH),D 


3037 


CDCCE9 


0043 
0044 
0045 


1 
1 


CftLL 


MOUCUR ; Execute Cursor Move 


303ft 


CD18E0 


0046 


GETCHR 


CftLL 


KEYBRD ;Loop until character 


303D 


28FB 


0047 
0048 


• 


JR 


Z.GETCHR-S ; Received 


303F 


F5 


0049 




PUSH 


ftF ;Saue Character 


3040 


FE05 


0050 




CP 


CTRLE ;Is it Control -E7 


3042 


2018 


0051 




JR 


NZ, CHKMOD -S ; No , See if EDIT 






0052 


• 




; Mode is ON 


3044 


ED5B3231 


e053 




LD 


DE,(RBflSIC) ;Yes, copy BftSIC 


3048 


ED533631 


0054 




LD 


CREDIT ),DE ; Cursor Location 


304C 


ED5B3431 


0055 




LD 


DE.(CBftSIC) ; to EDIT Cursor 


3050 


ED533831 


0056 




LD 


(CEDIT).DE ; Location 


3054 


3E01 


0057 




LD 


ft,l ;Turn EDIT Mode ON 


3056 


323ft31 


0058 




LD 


(EDITMOD).ft 


3059 


Fl 


0059 




POP 


ftF ; CI ear Stack 


305ft 


1809 


0060 
0061 


1 


JR 


NOCF-S ; Return w/o Character 


305C 


3ft3ft31 


0062 


CHKMOD 


LD 


ft.(EDITMOD) ;EDIT Mode in Effect? 


30SF 


B7 


0063 




OR 


ft 


3060 


202C 


0064 




JR 


NZ,CHKINS-» ;Yes, Check Insert 


3062 


Fl 


0065 




POP 


ftF ;No, Return with 


3063 


1801 


0066 
0067 
0068 


t 
1 


JR 


CF0N-» ; Character Found 


3065 


ftF 


0069 


NOCF 


XOR 


ft ;Here if Character Not 






0070 


t 




; to be Passed to BftSIC 






0071 


f 






3066 


B7 


0072 


CFON 


OR 


ft ;Here to Return with 






0073 






; Character to BftSIC 


3067 


F5 


0074 




PUSH 


ftF ;Save For Now 


3068 


CDE8E9 


0075 




CftLL 


RESTOR ; Restore Character Under 






0076 


I 




; EDIT Cursor 


306B 


ED5B3231 


0077 




LD 


DE,(RBftSIC) 


306F 


FD7368 


0078 




LD 


( IY+68H ) , E 


3072 


FD7269 


0079 




LD 


(IY+69H),D 


3075 


ED5B3431 


0080 




LD 


DE.(CBftSIC) 


3079 


FD736ft 


0081 




LD 


( IY+6RH ) , E 


307C 


FD726B 


0082 




LD 


(IY+6BH),D 


307F 


F5 


0083 




PUSH 


ftF 


3080 


7B 


0084 




LD 


ft.E 


3081 


328E01 


0085 




LD 


(818EH),ft 


3084 


Fl 


0086 




POP 


ftF 


3085 


CDCCE9 


0087 
0088 


1 


CftLL 


MOUCUR ; Restore BftSIC Cursor 


3088 


Fl 


0069 




POP 


ftF 


3089 


FDE1 


0090 




POP 


IY 


308B 


El 


0091 




POP 


HL 


308C 


01 


0092 




POP 


DE 


308D 


C9 


0093 




RET 


; Return to BftSIC 






0094 


! 




; Interpreter 






0095 


J 






308E 


3A3B31 


0096 


CHKINS 


LD 


fi.(INSRTMD) ; Insert Mode Off? 


3091 


B7 


0097 




OR 


ft 


3092 


280B 


0098 




JR 


Z, CKCTLI -9 ;No, Check for CTRL-I 


3094 


Fl 


0099 




POP 


ftF ;Yes, is this CTRL-N7 


3095 


FE0E 


0100 




CP 


CTRLN 


3097 


20CD 


0101 




JR 


NZ,CFON-« ;No, Insert Character 


3099 


ftF 


0102 




XOR 


ft ;Yes, Clear Insert 


309ft 


323B31 


0103 




LD 


( INSRTMD ) , ft ; Mode and Return 


309D 


18C6 


0104 
0105 


• 
t 


JR 


NOCF-S ; w/o Character 


309F 


Fl 


0106 


CKCTLI 


POP 


ftF ; Is this CTRL- 17 


30ft0 


F5 


0107 




PUSH 


ftF S *N 


30ft 1 


FE09 


0108 




CP 


CTRL I 0^* » 



When all the necessary changes 
have been made to that line, press 
return to exit from EDIT mode and 
pass the edited line to BASIC. 

More complex operations, such as 
combining multiple BASIC state- 
ments into a single line, can be per- 
formed by using the UP- and DOWN- 
arrow keys prior to entering RE- 
TURN. Bear in mind that BASIC will 
only replace the line with the same 
line number as the new line— any 
other lines no longer needed must be 
deleted individually. 

Application Notes 

With the editing abilities provided 
by EDITIN, BASIC programs can be 
compressed for more efficient use of 
memory by deleting REM state- 
ments, deleting all but the first two 
characters of variable names, delet- 
ing unnecessary spaces and combin- 
ing short statements where possible. 
Program execution can be speeded 
up by all the above, by replacing con- 
stant values with predefined vari- 
ables and by moving frequently-used 
subroutines to the top of the pro- 
gram. 

While EDITIN was designed for 
use with BASIC, it can also prove 
very useful when working in the 
Monitor. For example, if you have 
entered the EDITIN program using 
the monitor ENTER command and 
wish to save several copies on cas- 
sette, the detailed SAVE command 
need be typed only once: 

'SAVE EDIT 3000 313F' 

Then, the following keystroke se- 
quence will re-issue the SAVE com- 
mand: 

'UP, UP, CTRL-D, RIGHT, REPEAT..., 
RETURN' 

This sequence can be performed as 
many times as desired. 

Other uses for EDITIN are left to 
the imagination of the reader. ■ 

References 

"Software Internals Manual for the 
Sorcerer," by Vic Tolomei, published 
by Quality Software, 6660 Reseda 
Blvd., Suite 103, Reseda, CA 91335. 

"Conjure Up a GET Command for 
Sorcerer," by C. Kevin McCabe, in 
Kilobaud Microcomputing, April 1980, 
p. 46. 

"Applesoft II BASIC Programming 
Reference Manual," published by 
Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, 
CA 95014. 



144 Microcomputing, May 1981 





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Listing continued. 










30A3 


2008 


0109 


JR 


N2.CKUP-* ; 


No, try UP-arrow 




30A5 


3E01 


0110 


LD 


A.l 






30A7 


323B31 


0111 


LD 


( INSRTMD ) , 


A ;Yo«, sot Insert Mode 




30AA 


Fl 


0112 


POP 


AF 


; Flag and Return 




30AB 


18B8 


0113 
0114 ; 


JR 


NOCF-» 


; w/o Character 




30RD 


FE17 


0115 CKUP 


CP 


UPARW 


Sis this UP-arrow? 




30RF 


200B 


0116 


JR 


NZ.CKDN-* 


; No, try DOWN-arrow 




30B1 


CD1831 


0117 


CRLL 


EDITEXEC 


; Yos, nova EDIT Cursor 




38B4 


3E0D 


0118 


LD 


fl.CRET 


; to Start of Preceding 




30B6 


CD1831 


0119 


CALL 


EDITEXEC 


i Lino 




30B9 


Fl 


0120 


POP 


AF 


; Clear Stack 




30BR 


18R9 


0121 
0122 ; 


JR 


N0CF-» 


; Return w/o Character 




30BC 


FElft 


0123 CKDN 


CP 


DNRRW 


;Is this DOWN-arrow? 




30BE 


200D 


0124 


JR 


NZ,CKRT-« 


; No, try RIGHT-orrow 




30C0 


3E0D 


0125 


LD 


A.CRET 


Yes, Move EDIT Cursor 




30C2 


C01831 


0126 


CRLL 


EDITEXEC 


; to Start of Next Line 




30C5 


3E1R 


0127 


LD 


A.DNARW 






30C7 


CD1831 


0128 


CRLL 


EDITEXEC 






30CR 


Fl 


0129 


POP 


AF 


; Clear Stack 




30CB 


1898 


0130 
0131 ; 


JR 


NOCF-S 


; Return w/o Character 




30CD 


FE13 


0132 CKRT 


CP 


RTARW 


lis this RIGHT-orrow7 




30CF 


200D 


0133 


JR 


NZ.CKLT-S 


; No, try LEFT-arrow 




3001 


Fl 


0134 


POP 


AF 






30D2 


FD7E67 


0135 
0136 ; 


LD 


A,<IY-M57H) 


;Yes, get Character 
» Under Cursor 




30D5 


F5 


0137 


PUSH 


AF 






30D6 


3E13 


0138 


LD 


A, RTARW 


i Execute Right Move 




30D8 


CD1831 


0139 


CRLL 


EDITEXEC 






30DB 


Fl 


0140 


POP 


AF ; 


Then Return with 




30DC 


1888 


0141 

0142 ; 

0143 ; 


JR 


CF0N-S 


Character that was 
Under the Cursor 




30DE 


FE01 


0144 CKLT 


CP 


LTARW i 


Is this LEFT-arrow? 




30E0 


2804 


0145 


JR 


Z.LEFT-S 






30E2 


FE7F 


0146 


CP 


RUBOUT J 


Or RUBOUT? 




30E4 


200B 


0147 


JR 


NZ, CKCTLD -» 


30E6 


Fl 


0148 LEFT 


POP 


AF | 


Yes, Execute Left 




30E7 


3E01 


0149 


LD 


A .LTARW l 


Cursor Move 




30E9 


CD1831 


0150 


CALL 


EDITEXEC 






30EC 


3E7F 


0151 


LD 


A, RUBOUT ; 


and Return with 




30EE 


C36630 


0152 
0153 ; 


JP 


CF0N ; 


RUBOUT 




30F1 


FE04 


0154 CKCTLD 


CP 


CTRLD ; 


Is this CTRL-D? 


30F3 


2009 


0155 


JR 


NZ,CKATS-f 






30F5 


3E13 


0156 


LD 


A, RTARW ; 


Yes, Execute Right 




30F7 


CD1831 


0157 


CALL 


EDITEXEC ; 


Cursor Move 




30FR 


Fl 


0158 


POP 


AF ; 


and Return w/o 




30FB 


C36530 


0159 
0160 ; 


JP 


NOCF ; 


Character 




30FE 


FE40 


0161 CKRTS 


CP 


ATSIGN 


Is this '•' 7 




3100 


2804 


0162 


JR 


Z,EXIT-f 






3102 


FE0D 


0163 


CP 


CRET ; 


or Carriage Return? 




3104 


2009 


0164 


JR 


NZ, NORMCHR - 


S 




3106 


3E00 


0165 EXIT 


LD 


A,0 ; 


Yes, Turn EDIT Mode 




3108 


323R31 


0166 


LD 


( EDITMOD ),R 


; Flag OFF 




310B 


Fl 


0167 


POP 


AF 






310C 


C36630 


0168 
0169 ; 


JP 


CFON ; 


Return with Character 




310F 


3E13 


0170 NORMCHR 


LD 


R, RTARW ; 


[f Other Character, 




3111 


C01831 


0171 


CALL 


EDITEXEC ; 


Execute Right Cursor 




3114 


Fl 


0172 


POP 


RF ; 


Move and Return 




3115 


C36630 


0173 
0174 ; 


JP 


CFON ; 


with Character 




3118 


CD1BE0 


0175 EDITEXE 


CALL 


UIDEO ;Send Control Character 




311B 


FB5E68 


0176 


LD 


E,( IY+68H) 






311E 


FD5669 


0177 


LD 


D,( IY+69H) 






3121 


ED533631 


0178 


LD 


(REDIT ),DE 


; Save New Cursor 




3125 


FD5E6R 


0179 


LD 


E,(IY+6AH) 






3128 


FD566B 


0180 


LD 


D,(IY+6BH) 






312B 


ED533831 


0181 


LD 


( CEDIT ),DE 






312F 


C9 


0182 
0183 ; 


RET 


> 


and Return 




3130 


0000 


0184 


DEFW 









3132 


0000 


0185 RBflSIC 


DEFVJ 


;BfiSIC CURSOR ROW 




3134 


0000 


0186 CBRSIC 


DEFW 


; BASIC CURSOR COL 




3136 


0000 


0187 REDIT 


DEFW 


;EDIT CURSOR ROW 




3138 


0000 


0188 CEDIT 


DEFW 


;EDIT CURSOR COL 








0109 ; 










313R 


00 


0198 EDITMOD 


DEFB 


;EDIT MODE FLAG 




313B 


00 


0191 INSRTMD 


DEFB 


; INSERT MODE FLAG 








0192 ; 










>E1R2 




0193 SETUP 


EQU 


0E1A2H ; MONITOR SUBROUTINES 




>E9E8 




0194 REST0R 


EQU 


0E9EBH 






>E9CC 




0195 MOUCUR 


EQU 


0E9CCH 






>E018 




0196 KEYBRD 


EQU 


0E018H 






>E01B 




0197 VIDEO 

0198 ; 


EQU 


0E01BH 






>007F 




0199 RUBOUT 


EQU 


127 


s* "\ 




>0004 




0200 CTRLD 


EQU 


4 


\More_ v 





146 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Listing continued. 












>0040 




0201 


RTSIGN 


EQU 


64 




>000D 




0202 


CRET 


EQU 


13 




>000i 




0203 


LTRRW 


EQU 


1 




>0013 




0204 


RTRRW 


EQU 


19 




>00ift 




0205 


DNRRW 


EQU 


26 




>0017 




0206 


UPRRW 


EQU 


23 




>0005 




0207 


CTRLE 


EQU 


5 




>0009 




0208 


CTRLI 


EQU 


9 




>000E 




0209 
0210 


CTRLN 

• 


EQU 


14 




ERRORS-0000 














ATSIGN 


0040 


CBRSIC 




3134 


CEDIT 


3138 


CFON 


3066 


CHKINS 




308E 


CHKMOD 


305C 


CKftTS 


30FE 


CKCTLE 




30F1 


CKCTLI 


309F 


CKDN 


30BC 


CKLT 




30DE 


CKRT 


30CD 


CKVJP 


30RD 


CRET 




000D 


CTRLD 


0004 


CTRLE 


0005 


CTRLI 




0009 


CTRLN 


000E 


DNRRW 


001R 


ED I TEX 




3118 


EDITIN 


3000 


EDITMO 


313fi 


EXIT 




3106 


GETCHR 


303R 


INSRTM 


313B 


KEYBRE 




E018 


LEFT 


30E6 


LTRRW 


0001 


MOYCUR 




E9CC 


NOCF 


3065 


NORMCH 


310F 


RBRSIC 




3132 


REDIT 


3136 


RESTOR 


E9E8 


RTRRW 




0013 


RUBOUT 


007F 


SETUP 


E1R2 


UPRRW 




0017 


UIDEO 


E01B 



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Kilobaud Microcomputing is 
looking for business articles! 

Businessmen in all fields are be- 
ginning to take notice of the micro- 
computer. They are eager to know 
which computers, peripheral equip- 
ment and applications software will 
let them take full advantage of this 
new tool. What knowledge do you 
have to share? 

Here are the kinds of articles that 
we want you to write for us: 

• Are you a businessman with a 
system up and running? We want to 
know how it works. What were your 
expectations? Have they been ful- 
filled? Did you find the software that 
you wanted? What problems have 
you had? How did you overcome 
them? What recommendations do 
you have for other businessmen? 

• We want reviews from a busi- 
nessman's perspective of specific 
hardware and software. If you've re- 
cently bought a new product and 
want to tell others how great — or 
poor— it is, Microcomputing will 
provide you with a forum. 

• What programs have you written 
to meet your specific needs? Per- 
haps another businessman can use 
them, too. Even if he can't, your pro- 
gram may serve as a springboard 
for other ideas. 

• Perhaps you aren't using your mi- 
cro for business, but know a com- 
pany that is. Trot on down with your 
pencil and notebook, and find out 
what they're up to. While they might 
not have the time to write up their 
experiences, they might be more 
than willing to tell somebody else 
about them. And an outside obser- 
ver will often be able to see things 
with a unique and valuable perspec- 
tive. 

Don't worry if you're not a profes- 
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are here for. And we'll be more than 
happy to send you a copy of our 
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Send your manuscripts and cor- 
respondence to: 
Kilobaud Microcomputing 
Pine St. 
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.^See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 147 



Interfacing a keyboard to your computer will put you right on key in your songwriting endeavors. 



Name That Tune 



By Cary N. Davids 



1 recently built an eight- voice S-100 
music board to help me write ar- 
rangements for a 17-piece jazz band. 
The board is controlled by my SD 
Systems Z-80 Starter Kit (see my arti- 
cle JazZ-80,' Microcomputing, May 
1980, p. 148, for a complete descrip- 
tion). To play a song you must first 
enter the notes and durations for each 
voice into tables in RAM. Every note 
in the four-octave range of the board 
has its own one-byte designation, and 
the durations, which vary from trip- 
let thirty-second notes on up, take an- 
other byte. 

After using this board for a while, I 
found that entering music one hexa- 
decimal character at a time is quite 



tedious, and I began looking for a less 
painful method. 

It soon became clear that adding a 
piano keyboard would offer many 
advantages. I'm not much of a pian- 
ist, but I felt I could reasonably play 
in real time the notes belonging to a 
single voice, leaving to the computer 
the task of producing the correct song 
table in RAM. 

At the same time, the computer 
would need to cause the appropriate 
notes to be played by the music board 
as they were being entered on the 
keyboard. Details like rests, articula- 
tion between notes and obtaining a 
'swing" feel should all be taken care 
of if the software transferred faithful- 




Photo 1. Top view of the piano keyboard. The lower five keys have been removed to show how the 
switches are positioned under the keys. 



ly to the song table the time intervals 
involved in each keypress and rest. 
Since each voice would still have to 
be entered separately, a common 
tempo would have to be established, 
and the computer would need to 
know where in RAM the notes were 
to be stored. 

My Z-80 Starter Kit has two parallel 
I/O ports (Z-80-PIO) and four count- 
er-timer channels (Z-80-CTC), so it 
was natural to consider a parallel port 
for the interface between computer 
and keyboard. The software that I 
previously developed for playing the 
music uses two cascaded channels of 
the Z-80-CTC as a real-time clock, 
and I expected to be able to create a 
similar program that would read the 
keyboard. As it turned out, this 
proved to be quite simple. 

Hardware 

The hardware requirements in- 
clude some kind of piano keyboard 
and a way to encode it to match the 
existing note scheme, if possible. I 
first checked with local piano stores 
for broken electronic organs with sal- 
vageable keyboards. Some were 
available, but were too expensive. 
Various manufacturers sell three- and 
four-octave keyboards, but again 
they are a bit steep. 

A musician friend finally gave me 
the three-octave keyboard from a 
broken Magnus Chord Organ. A sim- 



Address correspondence to Cary N. Davids, 6000 
Puffer Road, Downers Grove, IL 60516. 



148 Microcomputing, May 1981 







GNO 


♦ 5 


Ul 


74LS04 


7 


14 


U2.U8 


74LS08 


7 


14 


U3.U4 


74LS93 


10 


5 


U5 


74LSI5I 


e 


16 


U6 


74LSI22 


7 


14 


U7 


74154 


12 


24 




,6 18 111 

A4 A5 KEYPRESS 



Fig. 1. Schematic of encoder for the three-octave piano keyboard. 



ilar item is available from Meshna 
(PO Box 62, E. Lynn, MA 01904) for 
less than $15. Since the keyboard is 
not electrical, Meshna offers a pack- 
age of 48 microswitches for $4. These 
are actually switches made for an 
ASCII keyboard; when mounted un- 
der the piano keys and secured to the 
base with some epoxy, they give the 
keys about the right tension. I used a 
small piece of self-adhesive weather- 
stripping under the white keys to 
give the correct spacing between 
switch and key, and some brass tub- 
ing under the black keys. Photo 1 
shows the mounting of the switches. 

Keyboard Encoder 

The encoding scheme for the key- 
board depends on how the individual 
notes are identified. In my configura- 
tion the 12 notes of each octave use 
the four least-significant bits of an 
eight-bit hexadecimal word, and the 
upper four bits are used to denote the 
octave. For example, the lowest note, 
C# two octaves below middle C, is 
denoted by the number 80H. Middle 
C is 9BH, and the highest note, C two 
octaves above middle C, is OBBH. 
This grouping of the notes into oc- 
taves, rather than numbering them 
sequentially, simplifies the keyboard 
encoder circuitry. 

Not only must the encoder make 
available to the computer the hexa- 
decimal equivalent of the note that 



has been played, but the data must al- 
so be present as long as the key is ac- 
tually being pressed. This enables the 
duration of that note to be calculated 
by the software. When no key is 
pressed, I wanted the encoder output 
to be zero, denoting a rest. 

My keyboard has 37 keys, and a 
simple calculation shows that six bits 
should be sufficient to describe all 
the notes. However, the no-keypress 
requirement of all zeros on the output 
means that one more bit must be 
used as a keypress signal. Thus, the 
encoder needs a nine-conductor ca- 
ble between it and the computer (sev- 
en data lines, ground and +5Vdc). 

For this application I assembled a 
simple scanning encoder from TTL 
logic, and the schematic is shown in 
Fig. 1. In this circuit, the clock gener- 
ator, consisting of the inverters 
Ula-c, produces a square wave with 
a period of about 20 us. These pulses 
are counted in the four-bit note count- 
er U3 and the two-bit octave counter 
U4, the outputs of which are sent to 
(normally closed) AND gates U8a-d 
and U2b,c. One complete scan of the 
keyboard takes slightly more than 
one ms. 

The key switches are wired in a 
12x4 note-octave matrix. When a 
key is pressed and the counters have 
cycled to the corresponding code for 
that key, a signal emerges from mul- 
tiplexer U5 to trigger one-shot U6. 



Since U6 is constantly being re- 
triggered by clock pulses on pins 1 
and 2, its Q output (pin 8) stays high 
for the entire duration of the key- 
press, and Q (pin 6) stays low. Q is 
used to shut off the input to the count- 
ers, and Q opens the AND gates to 
pass the desired note code to the com- 
puter. The signal Q is also provided 
as the keypress output. 

When the depressed key is released, 
all outputs return to zero, and key- 
board scanning is resumed. Key- 
switch bounce is eliminated by the 22 
ms time constant associated with 
one- shot U6. 

The encoder was wire-wrapped on 
a small prototype board. Photo 2 
shows the underside of the keyboard, 
including the encoder board and 
some of the switches. 

Computer Interface 

The keyboard encoder output is 
suitable for direct connection to a 
parallel I/O port. Normally, when in- 
terfacing a parallel keyboard, a data 
available pulse or level is generated 
when a key is pressed, and is con- 
nected to one bit of a separate status 
port. I find this extra port unneces- 
sary, even for an ASCII keyboard. 
Only six bits are used for data in the 
present case (seven for an ASCII key- 
board), and thus the input port's most 
significant bit can be used to receive 
the data available signal. Of course, 



Microcomputing, May 1981 149 



FROM KEYBOARD 
AO Al A2 A3 A4 A5 KEYPRESS 

\^ \^ \^ s^ \^ \^ \^ 



V V V V V V 



15 



AO 



14 



13 



12 



10 



Al 



A2 A3 A4 AS 



A6 



A7 



8- BIT PARALLEL INPUT PORT 
(Z80-PI0 PORT A IN THIS 
APPLICATION) 



Fig. 2. Connections between the keyboard outputs 
and the parallel input port. Pin numbers refer to 
I/O port A of the Z-80-PIO chip. 



I/O 


Ports u 


sed: 










80 






PIO A 


data register (Keybo 
data register (Sense 


ard) 




81 






PIO B 


switche 


s) 


82 






PIO A 


control register 






83 






PIO B 


control register 






84 






CTC/O 


control register 






87 






CTC/3 


control register 






AO 






Music 


board voice 1 






A1 






Music 


board voice 2 








Note: 


CTC/O 


and CTC/3 are cascaded by means of a 


jumper 






between pins 7 


and 20. 








■ 




Photo 2. Underside view of the piano keyboard. 




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the input software must be written to 
respond correctly to this situation. 

For the present encoder, the six 
data bits are connected to the lowest 
six bits of the I/O port. The unused 
next bit of the port is held low for 
noise considerations, and the key- 
press line (pin 1 1 of U2) is connected 
to the most significant bit of the port. 
I used DB25 connectors at the com- 
puter end. The I/O port is initialized 
as an input port by the software. A 
connection schematic is shown in 
Fig. 2. 

Software 

The music entry software has three 
tasks: to set the tempo for playing the 
notes on the keyboard, to read the 



keyboard and arrange for the music 
board to play the notes as they are be- 
ing entered and to organize the song 
tables in RAM. 

The tempo is determined by the 
real-time clock. At regular intervals 
the computer is interrupted, and 
these interrupts are counted in one of 
the CPU registers, which serves as 
the beat counter. A quarter note is as- 
signed a duration of 12 counts (OCH), 
the same as in the playing software. 
At the beginning of each beat a short 
note is sounded by one of the voices 
of the music board, letting the player 
hear the tempo. 

During program initialization, the 
address of the song table is calculated 
with the help of the first three sense 
switches (port 81H). If these switches 
are off, the address is that of the first 
voice— in this case, 4000H. Each bi- 
nary switch increment of 1 adds 
400H to the base address. Sense 
switch 7 is used to lower all the notes 
for a particular voice by one octave. 
The default range is the upper three 
octaves. 

The sense switches are not essen- 
tial to the operation of the music sys- 
tem, but are used simply as a conve- 
nient way of entering data into the 
computer. Other means, such as the 
hex keyboard, could be used to enter 
the necessary numbers before the 
program is executed. A simple sche- 
matic for eight sense switches is 
found in my May 1980 article. 

The program spends most of its 



Listing 1. Piano interface program. 



Initialization Routine 



2500 D9 




EXX 


01 08 




EX AF,AF» 


02 11 00 


oc 


LD DE.0C00H 


05 01 A1 


BB 


LD BC, 0BBA1H 


08 2E 01 




LD L,01H 


OA AF 




XOR A 


OB ED 41 




OUT (C),B 


OD D9 




EXX 


OE 08 




EX AF,AF» 


OF 3E 25 




LD A,35H 



Initialize beat timer 



Output first beat note 
Initialize ports 

CTC/O control word 




More 



150 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 151 



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Listing 1 continued. 



11 D3 
13 3E 
15 D3 
17 3E 
19 ED 
1B 3E 
1D D3 
1F 3E 
21 D3 
23 3E 
25 D3 
27 3E 
29 D3 
2B D3 
2D 3E 
2F D3 
31 D3 
33 21 
36 DB 
38 CB 
3A CB 
3C 38 
3E 36 
40 18 
42 36 
44 C6 

46 67 

47 AF 

48 57 

49 4F 
4A 6F 
4B 77 
4C ED 
4E FB 



84 
20 
84 
25 
47 
86 
84 
D5 
87 
14 
87 
CF 
82 
83 
FF 
82 
83 
56 
81 
27 
27 
04 
OO 
02 
10 
40 



254F 

51 
52 
54 
55 
57 
59 
5A 
5C 
5D 
5E 
60 
62 
63 
64 
65 
67 
68 



256A 
6B 
6C 
6D 
6E 
6F 

71 
72 

74 
76 
78 

79 
7B 

7C 
7D 
7E 



5E 



25 



SUB: 
CONT: 



OUT (84H),A 
LD A.20H 
OUT (84H),A 
LD A,25H 
LD I, A 
LD A.86H 
OUT (84H),A 
LD A.OD5H 
OUT (87H),A 
LD A.14H 
OUT (87H),A 
LD A.OCFH 
OUT (82H),A 
OUT (83H) ,A 
LD A.OFFH 
OUT (82H),A 
OUT (83H),A 
LD HL.2556H 
IN A,(81H) 
SLA A 
SLA A 

JR C,SUB-$ 
LD (HL),DEC 
JR CONT-I 
LD (HL),DEC 
ADD A.40H 
LD H f A 
XOR A 
LD D,A 

C t A 

L,A 

(HL),A 

2 



LD 
LD 
LD 
IM 
EI 



CTC/O time constant 

Interrupt vector hi byte 

Interrupt vector lo byte 

CTC/3 control word 

CTC/3 time constant 

Initialize keyboard and 
sense switch ports as 
input ports 



Address of octave decrement 

Input sense switches 

Multiply by 2 

Multiply by 2 f carry if sv. 7 on 

DEC=0 for no octave shift 

DEC=10H for 1 octave lower 
Song table address hi byte 
Put in H 
Clear registers 



Send rest to memory 
Interrupt mode 2 
Enable interrupts 



Keyboard Processing Routine 



DB 80 

B9 
28 FB 

4F 

D6 00 (or 

30 01 

AF 

D3 AO 

5F 

7A 

FE 00 

28 05 

23 

72 

23 

16 00 

73 
18 E5 



08 
14 
D9 
3C 
BA 

28 07 
BD 

38 05 
ED 59 
18 03 
AF 

ED 41 
D9 
08 
FB 
ED 4D 



INP: IN A,(80H) 

CP C 

JR Z,INP-$ 

LD C,A 
10) SUB DEC 

JR NC,0UT-$ 

XOR A 
OUT: OUT (OAOH),A 

LD E,A 

LD A,D 

CP 

JR Z,FIX-$ 

INC HL 

LD (HL),D 

INC HL 

LD D,0 
FIX: LD (HL),E 

JR INP-$ 



Input keyboard 

Same as previous character? 

If yes, go back for more 

If no, store in C 

DEC has been loaded previously 

Continue unless carry flag set 

Clear for rest shifted 1 octave 

Send note to music board 

Store A temporarily 

Bring duration counter to A 

Is it 0? 

If so, send note to table 

Point to duration location 

Send duration to table 

Point to next note location 

Clear duration counter 

Send note to table 

Go back for more 



Interrupt Service Routine 



REIN: 
OUTN: 
EXIT: 



EX AF,AF» 

INC D 

EXX 

INC A 

CP D 

JR Z,REIN-$ 

CP L 

JR C,0UTN-$ 

OUT (C),E 

JR EXIT 

XOR A 

OUT (C),B 

EXX 

EX AF,AF» 

EI 

RETI 



counter 



Save flags 

Increment duration 

Change registers 

Increment beat counter 

Is it 12D? 

If so, start again 

Is it 1 or greater? 

If not, output beat note 

If so, output rest to board 

Prepare return to program 

Clear beat counter 

Output beat note 

Change registers back 

Enable interrupts 
Return from interrupt 



2586 6A 25 Interrupt vector 
Song table area: 



4000-43FF 


Voice 


1 


4400-47FF 


Voice 


2 


4800-4BFF 


Voice 


3 


4COO-4FFF 


Voice 


4 


5000-53FF 


Voice 


5 


5400-57FF 


Voice 


6 


5800-5BFF 


Voice 


7 


5COO-5FFF 


Voice 


8 



152 Microcomputing, May 1981 



INITIALIZE REGISTERS. 
PORTS. TIMER. READ 
SENSE SWITCHES, AND 
DETERMINE BASE 
ADDRESS FOR SONG 
TABLE, AND OCTAVE 
RANGE. 



INTERRUPT 



SEND REST TO MEMORY 
AND MUSIC BOARD. SOUND 
FIRST BEAT NOTE 
ENABLE INTERRUPTS. 



READ KEYBOARD 




YES 



SAVE IN C SEND 
NOTE TO BOARD 




INCREMENT DURATION 
COUNTER 



INCREMENT BEAT 
COUNTER, SEND SHORT 
NOTE TO BOARD IF 
FIRST COUNT OF A 
BEAT. 



YES 



SEND NEW NOTE 
TO SONG TABLE 



INCREMENT PTR..SEND 
DURATION TO SONG 
TABLE INCREMENT PTR. 
SEND NEW NOTE TO 
SONG TABLE CLEAR 
DURATION COUNTER 



Fig. 3. Flowchart for the music entry program. 



time in a loop that reads the keyboard 
port. Nothing is done if no change 
from the previous value found there 
has occurred. Periodically, the real- 
time clock interrupts the main pro- 
gram, and when this happens, the 
duration register is incremented and 
the tempo bookkeeping is done. 

When the keyboard output changes 
to a new note or a rest, the appropri- 
ate information is stored in the song 
table, and the new note or rest is sent 
to the music board. 

A flow diagram for the program is 
shown in Fig. 3, and the program in 
its entirety is given in Listing 1. All 
variables except the song tables are 
stored in the CPU registers, with one 
set of registers dealing only with 
playing the notes and constructing 
\Vre song tables, while the other set is 
used to take care of sounding the beat 
notes to set the tempo. 

Conclusion 

A piano keyboard has been electri- 
fied, encoded and interfaced to the 
music system described in "JazZ-80." 
The keyboard is used in conjunction 
with a program that constructs song 
tables in RAM from notes played in 
real time on the keyboard. This has 
made the operation of entering multi- 
voice music into the computer much 
more convenient and pleasant. Fu- 
ture plans include the addition of a 
video display facility and an ASCII 



keyboard in order to provide the ca- 
pability of editing the song tables af- 
ter they have been created. ■ 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 153 




The Newest In 



Apple Fun 



We've taken five of our most popular programs and 
combined them into one tremendous package full of 
fun and excitement. This disk-based package now of- 
fers you these great games: 

Mimic — How good is your memory? Here's a chance 
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Trilogy — This contest has its origins in the simple 
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With the price of fossil fuels rising astronomically, solar space-heating systems are starting to become very 
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Order No. 0235AD (disk-based version) $34.95 



Math Fun 



Paddle Fun 



This new Apple disk package requires a steady eye and a quick hand at the game paddles! It includes: 
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drop. Your bomb shelters will help you — for a while. Our version of a well known arcade game! Requires Ap- 
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Howitzer— This is a one or two person game in which you must fire upon another howitzer position. This pro- 
gram is written in HIGH-RESOLUTION graphics using different terrain and wind conditions each round to 
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plesoft in ROM. 

Space Wars — This program has three parts: (1) Two flying saucers meet in laser combat — for two players, (2) 
two saucers compete to see which can shoot out the most stars — for two players, and (3) one saucer shoots the 
stars in order to get a higher rank — for one player only. Requires Applesoft. 

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The minimum system requirement for this package is an Apple 11 or Apple II Plus computer with 32K of 
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Order No. 0163AD $19.95 



The Math Fun package uses the techniques of immediate feedback and positive reinforcement so that 
students can improve their math skills while playing these games: 

Hanging — A little man is walking up the steps to the hangman's noose. But YOU can save him by answering 
the decimal math problems posed by the computer. Correct answers will move the man down the steps and 
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other magic spells on him, you must correctly answer problems involving fractions. 

Whole Space— Pilot your space craft to attack the enemy planet. Each time you give a correct answer to the 
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chance to fire at you. 

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car must jump over. These problems involve calculating the areas of different geometric figures. 
Robot Duel — Fire your laser at the computer's robot. If you give the correct answer to problems on calculat- 
ing volumes, your robot can shoot at his opponent. If you give the wrong answer, your shield power will be 
depleted and the computer's robot can shoot at yours. 

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move your sub and fire at the enemy fleet. 

All of these programs run in Applesoft BASIC, except Whole Space, which requires Integer BASIC. 
Order No. 0160AD $19.95 



Skybombers 

Two nations, seperated by The Big Green Moun- 
tain, are in mortal combat! Because of the terrain, 
their's is an aerial war— a war of SKYBOMBERS! 

In this two-player game, you and your opponent 
command opposing fleets of fighter-bombers armed 
with bombs and missiles. Your orders? Fly over the 
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Flying a bombing mission over that innocent look- 
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can fire missiles at you or you may even be destroyed 
by the bombs as they drop. Desperate pilots may even 
ram your plane or plunge into your blockhouse, sui- 
cidally. 

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from badly damaged aircraft. As they float helplessly 
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The sounds of battle, from exploding bombs to the 
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On, SKYBOMBERS— Press On! 

Minimum system requirements: An Apple II or Ap- 
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paddles. 
Order No. 0271AD (disk-based version) $19.95 




1234567890% 



Instant Software 




*A trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



154 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Apple 



* 



Software 

From Instant Software 



Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio 



Buon giorno, signore! 

Welcome to the province of Santa Paravia. 
As your steward, I hope you will enjoy your 
reign here. I feel sure that you will find it, shall 
we say, profitable. 



Perhaps I should acquaint you with our little domain. It is not a 
wealthy area, signore, but riches and glory are possible for one who 
is aware of political realities. These realities include your serfs. They 
constantly request more food from your grain reserves, grain that 
could be sold instead for gold florins. And should your justice 
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Yet another concern is the weather. If it is good, so is the harvest. 
But the rats may eat much of our surplus and we have had years of 
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Certainly, the administration of a growing city-state will require 
tax revenues. And where better to gather such funds than the local 
marketplaces and mills? You may find it necessary to increase custom duties or tax 
the incomes of the merchants and nobles. Whatever you do, there will be far- 
reaching consequences. . .and, perhaps, an elevation of your noble title. 

Your standing will surely be enhanced by building a new palace or a magnificent 
cattedrale. You will do well to increase your landholdings, if you also equip a few 
units of soldiers. There is, alas, no small need for soldiery here, for the unscrupulous 
Baron Peppone may invade you at any time. 

To measure your progress, the official cartographer will draw you a mappa. From 




it, you can see how much land you hold, how much of it is under the plow and how 
adequate your defenses are. We are unique in that here, the map IS the territory. 
1 trust that I have been of help, signore. 1 look forward to the day when 1 may ad- 
dress you as His Royal Highness, King of Santa Paravia. Buona fort una or, as you 
say, "Good luck". For the Apple 48K. 
Order No. 0174A $9.95 (cassette version). 
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• See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 155 



Tune in to several dozen functions with this multichannel AID converter. 



Multiple Control 
With the Multifaceted H8 



By Larry T. Wier 



In order for a digital computer to 
control or understand the results of 
any analog function, a conversion 
from analog to digital (A to D) or digi- 
tal to analog (D to A) must be accom- 
plished. This article describes the A 
to D conversion (ADC), with the 
Heath H8 as the digital computer. 

One of the features of the Heath H8 
is the versatile H8-2 parallel inter- 
face. It is a three-channel (port) de- 
vice that has independently address- 
able input and output lines along 
with the required handshaking. 
Combined with the Heath software, 
it is a versatile I/O device. 

By combining one port of the H8-2 
with a multichannel ADC and some 
simple software, up to several dozen 
different functions can be controlled 
from a single port. Fig. 1 provides an 
overview of how this system would 
be attached to the H8-2. The ADC is 
remote to the H8-2 (up to ten feet), 
and the source of signals to the ADC 
is remote (up to 100 feet) to the 
ADC. 

Introduction 

Before a detailed explanation of the 
system is possible, a few terms must 
be defined. For the software de- 
scribed herein to function correctly, 
the hardware control must be dupli- 
cated. 

The software is Heath Extended 
B.H. BASIC, version 10.05. The com- 
mand structure for version 10.02 is 
the same as version 10.05, although I 
have not tried version 10.02. In the 
hardware, I used port addresses 0, 
the control address, and 1, the data 
I/O address. 

I omitted details of assembly and 

Larry T. Wier, 1068 149 Place, S.E., Bellevue, WA 
98007. 



printed circuit layout because each 
installation could demand a different 
card layout. None of the parts is 
unique or expensive, and layout is 
not critical. Parts cost will depend on 
sources, but should not exceed $10. 
Provision for a ± 15 V regulated pow- 
er source is required. Depending on 
parts used, the ADC will operate 
from °C to 50 °C at full accuracy. 

Hardware Description 

The obvious function of the ADC is 
to convert analog signals to their digi- 
tal counterparts. In this instance, an- 
other purpose is to control several 
functions using a single H8-2 port 
(see Fig. 2). 

The output data lines (D -D 7 ) are 
buffered and passed through the 
ADC enclosure. Three lines (D , Di 
and D 2 ) are tapped and used as ad- 
dress lines (DAo, DAi and DA 2 ) as de- 
fined in Fig. 3. PI is a 25-pin connec- 
tor used to mate with the enclosure 
connector. 

The handshaking lines of PI (pins 
10 through 16) must be connected as 



H8~2 

CHANNEL 

A 



OUTPUT PINS 1-9 



O 



c 



HANDSHAKING PINS 10-16 



3 



c 



INPUT PINS 17-25 



shown in Figs. 2 and 3, or the soft- 
ware will not work correctly. No plug 
types or pin numbers other than the 
H8-2 are defined, since they will be 
determined by printed circuit board 
layout and function. 

If long analog lines are required, 
they should be shielded types such as 
coax or microphone cable. Connec- 
tors would then depend on the type 
of wire used. Output lines are digital 
(on/off) lines. U 7 and U 8 are capable 
of driving lines up to approximately 
100 feet, depending on data rate and 
wire type. The maximum voltage on 
any of the output lines should not ex- 
ceed + 5 V. 

Hardware Design 

Design of the ADC is a combination 
of proven circuits. The ADC has five 
basic parts combined to form the sys- 
tem: 

1. U 7 and U 8 are 4050B CMOS de- 
vices used to increase drive for long 
line conditions. They could be omit- 
ted if desired. 

2. U 5 and U 6 are the same as U 7 



BUFFERED OUTPUT 



:> 



ANALOG 

TO 

DIGITAL 

CONVERTER 

(ADC) 



DEVICE 
TO BE 

CONTROLLED 



C 



ANALOG INPUTS 



DATA 
SOURCES 



Fig. 1. H8-2 interface block diagram. 



156 Microcomputing, May 1981 





<■ 


PI 




1 




* 


2 




» 


3 


DATA i 
OUT \ 


* 


4 


* 


5 




» 


6 




» 


7 




* 


8 

9 




* 




' m 


10 
II 

12 
13 










HAND- j 
SHAKE > 








•> 


14 
15 




'- 

* 


16 
17 
18 


DATA 


* 


19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


IN 


•* 

m 




•* 

.•* 


24 
25 



± 



♦ 5V 



LINE 
DRIVER 

U7 8 U8 



£ 



LOGIC AND 
CONTROL 
Q4 THRU Q7 



<7 



LINE 
DRIVER 

U5 8 U6 



ADC 

ui, u? 
a U4 



+ 10 REF 



ONE OF 
EIGHT 
ANALOG 
SWITCH 

U3 



t 



Fig. 2. Signal flow diagram. 



^buffered 
/out 



ANALOG 
IN 



and U 8 and are used as line drivers as 
well as level (CMOS to TTL) shifters. 

3. U 3 is a 405 IB CMOS multiplex- 
er/demultiplexer used as an eight- 
line-to-one-line analog switch. 

4. Q2 through Q 7 are general-pur- 
pose NPN (2N2222) transistors used 
for the interface control logic and lev- 
el shift from TTL to CMOS. 

5. Ui, U 2 and U 4 , along with Q x 
and Ci, form the ADC, which can be 
further divided into four parts. Ui is 
an LM 311 voltage comparator. Qi 
and Ri form the constant current 
source to charge Ci. U 4 is a 400 IB 
CMOS NOR gate wired to form a 1 
MHz clock. U 2 is a 4040B CMOS 
12-bit binary counter used to count 
the clock pulses from U 4 . 

ADC Circuit Function 

In Fig. 3 r if an assumed input (0 to 
13 V) to U 3 has been selected by an 
output from the H8-2, then the fol- 
lowing process illustrates the method 
used to convert the analog voltage to 
a digital form: 

A convert command is sent via PI, 
pin 15. Qa inverts and level-shifts this 
signal, which sets the binary counter 
U 2 to zero. It also prevents the clock 
U 4 from false-counting by turning Q3 
on (shorting out the input pin 10 of 
U 2 ). Q2 is also turned on, shorting out 
C, and causing it to discharge. Since 
the voltage on Ui, pin 2, is less than 
that on Ui, pin 3, Ui, pin 7, goes low. 
As long as the convert command (PI, 
pin 15} is low, the ADC does nothing. 
As soon as the convert command goes 
high, both Q3 and Q4 are turned on. 
U 2 starts counting clock pulses until 



the voltage across Ci is equal to the 
input voltage, at which time Ui, pin 
7, goes high. This effectively shuts off 
the counter U 2 . The count remains in 
U 2 until the convert command again 
resets it, and the process begins 
again. 

A timing diagram is shown in Fig. 4 
for those who wish to use a different 
method of control. The convert com- 
mand must remain low for a mini- 
mum of 2 ^s to allow the complete 
discharge of Ci . The other devices are 
controlled in under 1 ps. The mini- 
mum conversion for an input of 13 V 
is approximately 130 fis, and conver- 
sions cannot exceed approximately 
7000 per second. Since BASIC is be- 
ing used to control the ADC, speed is 
software limited to approximately 
ten ms per sample, or 100 samples 
per second. 

Circuit Considerations 

In dealing with CMOS devices, you 
must take some precautions. Never 
place any CMOS device in a plastic 
box or bag unless all pins are shorted 
together with conductive foam. Al- 
ways disconnect power before in- 
stalling or removing any device. All 
unused inputs should be grounded. 
Remember: static charges are CMOS 
killers. 

The circuit design allows for all but 
the most unusual fault condition. 
Analog inputs are protected from ex- 
cessive current by input resistors 
should signal voltage be applied 
while power is removed from the 
ADC. 

U 3 address logic DAo, DAi and DA 2 



DA 2 


DA, 


DAo 


U 3 Pin 


Defined 
as 











13 


7 








1 


14 


6 





1 





15 


5 





1 


1 


12 


4 


1 








1 


3 


1 





1 


5 


2 


1 


1 





2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 







Table 1. Input channels defined. 



is inverted from the normal truth ta- 
ble of the 405 IB because of the level 
shift of Q5, Qe and Q 7 . Input channels 
are shown in Fig. 3 and defined in Ta- 
ble 1. 

Theory of Operation 

Operation of the hardware de- 
scribed earlier is controlled entirely 
by the computer. The majority of this 
control involves the handshaking 
lines between the ADC and the H8-2. 
Therefore the H8-2 must have jump- 
ers Ai/A 2 and B!/B 2 removed. For 
control or addressing to the ADC to 
be complete, Jl, pin 10, must be held 
low. This line is the data taken line, 
and output data will only be trans- 
ferred from the H8-2 when it is low. 
For data to be read into the H8-2, Jl, 
pin 16, must change from high to 
low. This is the data sent line, and in- 
put data will only be transferred into 
the H8-2 when it goes from high to 
low. This line is controlled by soft- 
ware when connected to the device 



Microcomputing, May 1981 157 



control (PI, pin 14). This combina- 
tion is used as a data valid indication. 

PI, pin 13 (device ready), is used to 
test the ADC to make sure power is 
turned on. If power is removed, the 
ADC device ready line will be low, 
and a software status warns of this 
condition. All other handshaking 
lines are unused. 

There are several other methods 
that would control the ADC; how- 
ever, the one used here seems to be 
the simplest. Any method that satis- 



fies both the H8-2 and ADC timing 
requirements may be used as long as 
the software is changed accordingly. 
You can use the timing diagram of 
Fig. 4 to determine the control meth- 
od. 

Setup 

The first step in ADC operation is 
the preliminary calibration. Apply 
±15 V to the ADC and verify that 
pins 1 of U 5 through U 8 are +5 V. 
Check pin 8 of Ui and pin 16 of U 2 



c, 


.033 uF Polycarbonate or low drift silvered mica. Ui. LM311 


Ri 


Ik ten turn. Bourns 260P type U 2 4040B 


R 2 


10k ten turn. Bourns 260P type U 3 4051B 


R 3 


5k ten turn. Bourns 260P type U 4 4001B 


Qi 


2N2907 U 5 -U 8 4050B 


02 -07 


2N2222 


All resistors, l A W. Small value capacitors are silvered mica types. Zeners are 400 mW 


general 


purpose. 




Parts list. 



and U 3 for + 15 V. Pin 14 of U 4 should 
also be + 15 V. Verify that - 15 V is 
available at R 2 (10k). 

If the LED is lit, adjust R 2 (10k) un- 
til it dims (all inputs should be short- 
ed together). It will never go com- 
pletely off. Adjust R 3 (5k) to mid- 
range. Adjust R t (Ik) for approxi- 
mately 14.5 V across Ci, with PI, pin 
15, high or open. 

ADC Accuracy 

Accurate operation of the ADC de- 
pends on several factors. If quality 
components are used, the best accu- 
racy obtainable is .1 V out of 13.0 V, 
or .769 percent of full scale (FS). The 
best obtainable accuracy of an eight- 
bit computer is 1 bit out of 255 1 , or 
.392 percent FS. 

The reason for the difference is the 
method of conversion used. If an as- 
sumed 10 V were applied to the ADC 
input and the output scaled (by Ri) to 
provide 144 octal (100 decimal) 
counts, then an accuracy of 1 percent 




iov 



<6N0 



Fig. 3. Schematic diagram. 



158 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 159 



SINGLE BOARD 

COMPUTER 

$49.95 




The MASTER CONTROLLER 
BOARD contains: 

Z-80 Microprocessor: will run 
8080/8085 and Z-80 programs. 
72 - Parallel I/O lines; three 8255s 
Keyboard controller: 8279 
(also can control a 16 digit 
seven segment display) 
12K - EPROM: three sockets for 
2708,2716,2732, 
2K-RAM: 2114s 

8 - Sixteen bit counter timer 
channels: one 8253 and one 
AMD 9513 

2 - Serial I/O ports; one Z-80 SIO 
chip. One port has an RS-232 
interface and connector. 

1 - High speed arithmetic 
processor: AMD 951 1 or 
AMD 9512 

All the I/O chips are memory 
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Only three LSI chips (Z-80, 8255, 

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working controller. 

BARE BOARD $49.95 
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MINIMUM KIT $99.95 Includes bare 
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ADDRESS 



J 



L 



CONVERT 
PI PIN 15 



-J t- 



Cl 



IX 



V^^lf 



DAT 
VAL 



fc _n 



PI PIN 16 



-t h- 



rs^j] 



Fig. 4. Relative ADC timing. 

(1 count out of 100) would result. 
Since the maximum input to the ADC 
is 13 V, the result is .769 percent. 
Note that the full eight bits are not 
used. (100 decimal = 01 100100 bina- 
ry, and 130 decimal = 10000010 bina- 
ry- 
Software Description 

To evaluate and calibrate the ADC, 
connect it to the H8-2 as shown in 
Figs. 2 and 3. Use the process in Ta- 
ble 2 to check the operation of the 
ADC. In the software command 
mode, t is defined as a carriage re- 
turn. 

The H8-2 is now ready to send and 
receive data. The ADC is set to read 
the internal reference (10 V). 

♦PRINT PIN (0) t 

As soon as the carriage return (t) is 
hit, the ADC is reset and then reads 
the internal 10-volt reference. The 
value read by the H8-2 will be print- 
ed on the system terminal. The value 
read will be a random value between 
and 255. Again type: 

* PRINT PIN(0) t 

* OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 t 

The value printed on the terminal 
should be close to 100. The Heath 
software automatically returns the 
binary value from the H8-2 in deci- 
mal form. Because of this, the full 
eight bits, i.e., 11111111, are not 
used, and no further mathematical 
conversions are required. To read 10 
V on the terminal, use the following: 

* PRINT PIN(0)/10 

* OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 t 

The value printed on the terminal 
should be the same as before, but 
with a decimal point. 

Software Calibration 

With the preliminaries out of the 
way, the ADC is ready to calibrate. 
For the best linearity and accuracy, 
you should use a frequency counter 
to adjust the clock. R 3 (5k) should be 
adjusted for 1 MHz, ± 1 kHz. If no 



counter is available, adjust R 3 to cen- 
ter range. Unless component values 
greatly deviate from those specified, 
an approximately + 3 percent FS ac- 
curacy will result. For calibration 
purposes, short all of the inputs to- 
gether and to ground. Use the soft- 
ware program in Listing 1 to adjust 
the ADC. 

As soon as the program starts run- 
ning, two values will appear on the 
terminal. Adjust the first number to 
zero using R 2 and adjust the second 
number to 10.0 using Ri . If the LED is 
brightly lit, the ADC is not adjusted 
correctly. Readjust R 2 until the LED 
dims. Carefully adjust R 2 further un- 
til the first number reads zero. Read- 
just Ri (10 V) if necessary. 

The ADC is now calibrated to the 
internal 10-V reference. If greater ac- 
curacy is required, use a variable pre- 
cision 10-V power source on one of 
the unused channels or measure the 
actual value of the internal 10 V and 
adjust Ri to read that value on the ter- 
minal. 

Linearity can be checked using an 
external variable voltage source. You 
can make a spot check by connecting 



Program listing. 



* 



LL 



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IT. 



M 

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X 

LU 

X 



u o 

t~« li 

ij'l ** 

'X o 



IX 



LL 






.-, = Ll 

(N * 

H 

••-• ll' Z 

¥f LU *-> 

X -■■ ui 

••_•• »-f |JL 

X IX' •• 

LU 5 "•■ 

_l ** 

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H Q •-•■ 

Z 'X ** 



h- U'i 

.r -. r 

X 

I- U'i o 

l/l f- 

Q LU 

Z ix d 

X £ LU 

£ 1 J 

> X z 

_i 'X 

h- K X 

U ix O 

LU O 

IX IX LU 

iX Cu 

P LU 

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P D 

LU L- Z 

IX' »--. 

5 •/' 

*"•• ■ z 

U. - Lu 

z - z 

O "-" LU 

U K 

Ci <L 

L0 Z h- 

t-i ix ij'i 



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l/l ••-•' 

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160 Microcomputing, May 1981 



* OUT 1,64 t 

* OUT 1,78 t 

* OUT 1,53 t 

* OUT 0,0 t 

* OUT 1,21 t 

* OUT 1,53 t 



Resets the H8-2 
H8-2 in the command mode. 
Turns on xmtr and rcvr 2 . 
Select ADC channel 0. 
Sets H8-2 pin 12 high. 
Resets H8-2 pin 12 low. 



* PRINT PIN(O) t 



* PRINT PIN(O) t 

* OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 t 



♦PRINT PIN(0)/10t 
♦OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 t 



Read internal 10 V ref. 



4000 REM * * * CALIBRATION ROUTINE * * * 

4010 OUT 1,64 

4015 OUT 1,78 

4020 OUT 1,53 

4030 OUT 0,1 

4040 OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 

4050 A = PIN(0) .PRINT A/10 

4060 OUT 0,0 

4070 OUT 1,2 LOUT 1,53 

4080 A = PIN(0):PRINT A/10 

4090 FOR I = 1 TO 300:NEXT I 

5000 GOTO 4030 

Listing 1. Calibration routine. 



Table 2. 



one of the inputs to the +5Vat pin 1 
of U 5 or U 6 . If an external voltage 
source is to be used, connect it to one 
of the seven input lines. Change line 
4060 to reflect the correct port ad- 
dress, i.e., 4060 OUT 0,#, where # is 
the port number (1 to 7). Port is in- 
ternally connected to the 10-V refer- 
ence. 



Adjust the output of the precision 
source to + 10 V. If the terminal does 
not read 10.0, adjust Ri until it does. 
Set the precision source to 0.1 V. If 
the terminal does not read 0.1, adjust 
R 2 until it does. Check linearity by 
plotting input voltage versus the out- 
put printed on the terminal. The val- 
ues should not be different by more 



than ±0.1 V (±1 bit). 

Program Development 

The main object of the ADC is to 
freely select any analog input port at 
any given time and have the ADC au- 
tomatically complete an A to D con- 
version. This is similar to the way 
random access memory functions. In 
the case of the ADC, D through D 2 
(data output) becomes the address 
(DAo-DA 2 ) of the ADC port selection. 

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Microcomputing, May 1981 161 



1 OUT 0,0 

2 PIN(O) 

3 OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 

4 OUT 0,1 

5 PIN(O) 

6 0UT1,21:0UT 1,53 

7 OUT 0,2 

8 PIN(O) 

9 OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 

10 OUT 0,3 

11 PIN(0) 

12 OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 



7000 PRINT TAB(27)"ADC POLLING TEST" 

7005 PRINT:PRINT 

7010 DIM D(7) 

7020 REM * * * SET-UP H8-2 PARALLEL I/O * * * 

7030 OUT l,64:OUT l,78:OUT 1,53 

7040 FORX = 0to7 

7050 GOSUB 8000 

7060 NEXTX 

7070 FORX = 0to7 

7080 PRINT'CHAN. NO. ";X;" ";D(X) 

7090 NEXT X 

7100 PAUSE 10 

71 10 PRINT:PRINT:GOTO 7040 

7120 STOP 

8000 OUT0.X 

8010 A = PIN(0):OUT l,21:OUT 1,53:A = PIN(1):IF A <> 151 THEN 8050 

8020 D(X) = PIN(0)/10:OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 

8030 IF D(X)>= 13.3THEN PRINT'CHAN. NO. ";X; 'OVER RANGE !!":PRINT 

8040 RETURN 

8050 PRINT CHR$(7)"OUTPUT DEVICE NOT POWERED!!!" 

8060 STOP 

Note: Line 7100 is used only for visual delay. It probably would not be necessary in an actual 
program. 

Listing 2. ADC polling test. 



Select port 

Read data (previous valid data) 

Data valid (line 1) 

Select port 1 

Read data (from line 1) 

Data valid (line 4) 

Select port 2 

Read data (from line 4) 

Data valid (line 7) 

Select port 3 

Read data (from line 7) 

Data valid (line 10) 



Table 3. 



to read; software program timing 
tells the H8-2 when data is valid; and 
when this is complete, the data out- 



put lines are then free to control some 
other device based on the data just 
read. In light of this process, the actu- 



al ADC control function could be a 
subroutine with only the port select 
and the data value contained in the 
body of the program. 

For example, assume the ADC 
were to be used in a polling mode, 
i.e., select channel 1 through 7 in se- 
quence. The program to produce this 
function is shown in Listing 2. If you 
want a true random access port selec- 
tion, use Listing 3. 

Many different possibilities exist in 
the random access mode. It is not 
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162 Microcomputing, May 1981 



***** ******************* *** * * * * ******************* ** 

4MHZ, DOUBLE DENSITY,COLOR&B/W 
GRAPHICS . .THE LNW80 COMPUTER 



COMPARE THE FEATURES AND PERFORMANCE 
FEATURES LNW80 PMC-80** 




When you've compared the features of an LNW80 Computer, you'll quickly 
understand why the LNW80 is the ultimate TRS80 software compatible system. 
LNW RESEARCH offers the most complete microcomputer system at an outstand- 
ing low price. 

We back up our product with an unconventional 6 month warranty and a 10 
days full refund policy, less shipping charges. 

LNW80 Computer $1,200.00 

LNW80 Computer w/B&W Monitor & one 5" Drive $1,664.00 

All orders must be prepaid, CA residents please include 6% sales tax. 
Shipping and handling charge of $15.00 must be included with ewery order. 
* TRS80 Product of Tandy Corporation. 
** PMC Product of Personal Microcomputer, Inc. 



TRS-80* 
MODEL III 



PROCESSOR 




4.0 MHZ 


1 ,8 MHZ 


2.0 MHZ 


LEVEL II BASIC INTERP. 




YES 


YES 


LEVEL III 
BASIC 


TRS30 MODEL 1 LEVEL II COMPATIBLE 


YES 


YES 


NO 


48K BYTES RAM 




YES 


YES 


YES 


CASSETTE BAUD RATE 




500/1000 


500 


500/1500 


FLOPPY DISK CONTROLLER 




SINGLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SINGLE 


SINGLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SERIAL RS232 PORT 




YES 


YES 


YES 


PRINTER PORT 




YES 


YES 


YES 


REAL TIME CLOCK 




YES 


YES 


YES 


24 X 80 CHARACTERS 




YES 


NO 


NO 


VIDEO MONITOR 




YES 


YES 


YES 


UPPER AND LOWER CASE 




YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


REVERSE VIDEO 




YES 


NO 


NO 


KEYBOARD 




63 KEY 


53 KEY 


53 KEY 


NUMERIC KEY PAD 




YES 


NO 


YES 


B/W GRAPHICS, 128 X 48 




YES 


YES 


YES 


HI-RESOLUTION B/W GRAPHICS, - 


180 X 192 


YES 


NO 


NO 


HI-RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS 
128 X 192 IN 8 COLORS 


(NTSC), 


YES 


NO 


NO 


HI-RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS 
384 X 192 IN 8 COLORS 


(RGB), 


OPTIONAL 


NO 


NO 


WARRANTY 




6 MONTHS 


90 DAYS 


90 DAYS 


TOTAL SYSTEM PRICE 




$1,664.00 


$1,840.00 


$2,187.00 



LESS MONITOR AND DISK DRIVE 



$1,200.00 



$1,375.00 



LNW80 

- BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD & MANUAL $89.95 



The LNW80 - 
the TRS-80*. 
computation 
tion. With 
formance of 
means you' 1 1 
expensive mi 
most popular 
ware base. 

FEATURES: 



A high-speed color computer totally compatible with 
The LNW80 gives you the edge in satisfying your 
needs in business, scientific and personal computa- 
performance of 4 MHz, Z80A CPU, you'll achieve per- 
over twice the processing speed of a TRS-80*. This 

get the performance that is comparable to the most 
crocomputer with the compatibility to the world's 

computer (TRS-80*) resulting in the widest soft- 



TRS-80 Model 1 Level II Software Compatible 

High Resolution Graphics 

. RGB Output - 384 x 192 in 8 Colors 

. NTSC Video or RF MOD - 128 x 192 in 8 Colors 

. Black and White - 480 x 192 

4 MHz CPU 

500/1000 Baud Cassette 

Upper and Lower Case 

16K Bytes RAM, 12K Bytes ROM 

Solder Masked and Silkscreened 

LNW SYSTEM EXPANSION 

BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD 

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ming sequences; the only important 
point in programming is to allow 
enough time for the switch U 3 to set- 
tle before reading. The best sequence 
is shown in Table 3. 

Note that the data read into the 
CPU is always the previous channel 
valid data (OUT l,21:OUT 1,53). The 
reason for this is that data is loaded 
into a hardware buffer before being 
sent to the CPU. Because of this, it ap- 
pears that the data is always one ADC 
channel delayed. It is not delayed as 
far as the ADC is concerned, but one 
additional PIN(O) command must be 
made to clear out the buffer before a 
new data value is loaded. 

The subroutine in Listing 4 auto- 
matically aligns (clears out) all data 
read by the ADC/H8-2 combination. 
By using the subroutine, data will al- 
ways be aligned with the channel 
when using either polling or random 
addressing schemes. 

Summary 

Although the ADC described here 
requires many components, it is still 
less expensive than the newer, so- 
called single ADC ICs being devel- 



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oped today. Some of these new de- 
vices cost around $15. A multichan- 
nel ADC using these devices costs be- 
tween $30 and $40 and occupies 
about half the space. Software re- 
quirements are approximately the 
same. 



Even though this ADC is limited to 
input values from to 13 V dc, almost 
any function can be "signal-condi- 
tioned" to a value between and 10 
V. The examples used in the software 
section are part of an experimental 
control system. ■ 



References 

1. Heath software section 0, Appendix E, number conversion. 

2. H8-2 operation manual, 8251 operation. 



10 PRINT TAB(15)"A TEST PROGRAM FOR RANDOM ADC ACCESS" 

20 DIM D (7) 

30 REM * * * SET-UP H8-2 * * * 

40 OUT l,64:OUT l,78:OUT 1,53 

50 OUT 0,0:GOSUB 500 

60 D1=A 

70 IF Dl <9.9 OR Dl > 10.1 THEN PRINT "10 VOLT REF NEEDS ADJUSTMENT" 

80 REM * * * ADDITIONAL OR DIFFERENT PROGRAMS CAN BE 

90 REM * * * PUT INTO THESE LOCATIONS 

100 REM*** 

1 10 OUT 0, 1 :GOSUB 500 

120 D2 = A:IF D2 < = 5.5 THEN 600 

130 REM * * * ADDITIONAL OR DIFFERENT PROGRAMS CAN 

140 REM * * * BE PUT INTO THESE LOCATIONS 

150 OUT 0,7:GOSUB 500 

160 D3 = A:IF D3 >= 9.9 THEN GOSUB 700 



500 REM * * * ADC READ SUBROUTINE * * * 

510 A = PIN(0):OUT l,21:OUT 1,53:A = PIN(1):IF A 0151 THEN 800 

520 A = PIN(0)/10:OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 

530 IF A > 13.3 THEN PRINT CHR$(7)"WARNING-OVER RANGE" :PRINT:PRINT 

540 RETURN 



REM * * * ROUTINE FOR TURNING ON AND CHECKING YARD LIGHTS * * * 

N = 

620 OUT0,201:N = N+l 
630 OUT 0,1:GOSUB 500:IF A<5.5 OR N<3 THEN 620 

IF N>3 THEN PRINT'YARD LIGHT NOT WORKING" :N = 0:GOTO 130 



600 
610 



640 



700 REM * * * SUBROUTINE FOR HOUSE HEATING * * * 

710 OUT 0,207 

720 OUT 0,6:GOSUB 500 

730 IF AO3.0 THEN PRINT CHR$(7)"CHECK FURNACE" 

740 RETURN 



800 REM * * * ROUTINE FOR H8-2 STATUS CHECKING * * * 

810 IF A= 133 THEN PRINT CHR$(7)"DEVICE NOT READY":STOP 

820 IF A = 5 THEN PRINT CHR$(7)"I/0 NOT READY":STOP 



Listing 3. Random ADC access test. 



8000 REM * * * ADC READ SUBROUTINE * * * See line 8000, Listing 2 

8010 A = PIN(0):OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 

8020 A = PIN(0)/10:OUT l,21:OUT 1,53 

8030 IF A>13.3 THEN PRINT'OVER RANGE'iPRINT 

8040 RETURN 

Listing 4. ADC Read subroutine. 



164 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Get the jump on faulty memory components before they cause problems. 



Hippity^Hop Memory Test 



By Jim Work 



One day at work, I received a fran- 
tic phone call from one of our 
programmers. She was trying to cre- 
ate a FORTRAN source file with the 
CP/M editor, and was having prob- 
lems. In the blank area to the left of 
one of the lines there was a control-® 
instead of a space. She killed the line, 
entered it again, and the same control 
character showed up in the same 
place. When the line was killed and 
we looked at the surrounding state- 
ments, we found that the offending 
character had moved down to the 
next line. 

The problem was obviously a bad 
memory bit. A space is 20 hex and a 
control-® is a null or hex. The sixth 
bit was being changed from a one to a 
zero. I had installed a repertoire of 
seven memory tests on the system. I 
tried all of these tests to find the bad 
bug, but not one of them would lo- 
cate the problem. 

As it turned out, the problem was 
due to a pattern sensitivity rather 
than a hard failure. To locate the 
problem, I had to swap boards 
around to different address locations 
to find the bad board, and then I had 
to swap bugs around to find the bad 
one. Since this is a frustrating way to 
fix a computer, I needed a better 
memory test. 

Memory is one of the weakest parts 
of most computer systems. In critical 
industrial environments, memory 
tests are routinely run at least once a 
week, and in some cases, every 
morning. These tests will hopefully 
detect faulty memory components 
before they cause problems. 

Most memory chips are designed 



so that the cells, or individual bit stor- 
age locations, are arranged in a ma- 
trix. For example, the 2102A is a one- 
bit- wide-by- 1024- words-deep static 
RAM. Since this chip holds 1024 
words, it has ten address lines, and 
these address lines are broken up into 
two groups of five. The lower group 
of five bits is used to select the row in 
the matrix, and the higher group of 
five bits is used to select the column. 
The intersection of row and column 
defines the physical location of the 
given address. Assuming the chip has 
been selected, the data bit is either 
written to or read from that location, 
depending on whether the read/write 
line is high or low. 

There is little doubt that static 
memory is more reliable than dy- 
namic memory. But static memory, 
which costs more and uses more 
power, has its share of problems. 

Environment, Circuitry, Chips 

Memory problems can be due to a 
poor environment, faulty support cir- 
cuitry or bad memory chips. 

Environment— If a memory chip has 
marginal speed characteristics, a low 
supply voltage can slow it down 
enough to cause problems. If a mem- 
ory chip is running hot, it may slow 
down or develop lead-bonding prob- 
lems. Noise on supply, ground, data, 
control or address lines may result in 
bad data. 

Support circuits— Bad line drivers 
and receivers will result in bad data. 
Bad address decoders may result in 
the data for two words being written 
to and read from the same location, 
one word being written to more than 



one location, or, at least, the inability 
to address all of the memory. Prob- 
lems in the complex circuitry re- 
quired for the support of dynamic 
memory can cause timing problems 
that may be difficult to locate. 

Memory chips— Most memory chip 
problems can be divided into the 
following categories. 

First is pattern sensitivity. All 
memory cells in a memory chip are 
arranged in a matrix. If there is leak- 
age between adjacent cells, the data 
in one cell may affect the data in its 
neighbor. Pattern errors are general- 
ly associated with dynamic mem- 
ories, but they can crop up in static 
memory chips as well. 

This type of error is difficult to de- 
tect with most memory tests. Two 
good examples of dynamic memory 
chips are two one-bit-by-8 192- word 
RAMs— the 2108 and the 2109. The 
former has four 32 by 128 bit ma- 
trices, and the latter has two 64 by 
128 bit matrices. A given address in 
the 2108 may not have the same 
neighbors (in terms of address) as the 
2109. 

Since pattern sensitivity is caused 
by the interaction of neighbors, it is 
impossible for a test that is optimized 
for one chip to run successfully on 
one of a different configuration. The 
test presented in this article is de- 
signed to run on any memory chip. 
Since nothing is free, the cost is time. 

Second is soft errors. The most frus- 
trating and expensive problem for 

Address correspondence to Jim Work, Syntex 
Corp., 3401 Hilhiew Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. 



166 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Word 

N 

. 
» 

5 

4 
3 
2 

1 



Checkerboard and 
Reverse Checkerboar 

».».♦.. 
• »..... 

10 10 10 

10 10 10 1 

10 10 10 

10 10 10 1 

10 10 10 

10 10 10 1 


d 

. 
l 



1 



1 




. 









Column Bars 

..... 
..... 

10 10 1 

10 10 1 

10 10 1 

10 10 1 

10 10 1 

10 10 1 


. 









. 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


bit 


7 


6 5 4 3 2 1 
hemory Pattern 





7 


6 5 4 3 2 1 
Memory Pattern 










10 1 ... 1 


l 







♦ ♦ . 














10 1 ... 1 
1 1 ... 1 
10 1 ... 1 


l 
l 
l 









. . . 
... 000 
••• 











] 


E«it 1 RAM Matrix 






Bit 1 RAM Matrix 








1 


1 ... 1 1 







1 


1 1 1 ... 1 1 1 


1 






1 
1 
1 


1 ... 1 1 
1 ... 1 1 
1 ... 1 1 









1 
1 

1 


1 1 1 ... 1 1 1 

1 1 1 ... 1 1 1 
1 1 1 ... 1 1 1 


1 
1 
1 






] 


&it RAM Matrix 






Bit RAM Matrix 








Fig. 


1. Mapping from memory to one-bit-word-width RAMs. 







memory chip manufacturers is the al- 
pha particle. Despite extraordinary 
efforts, much of the materials used in 
the production of semiconductor cir- 
cuits is subject to very slight radio- 
active contamination. This is not a 
problem with bipolar circuits, but a 
stray alpha particle (a helium nucle- 
us) can change the state of an MOS 
memory cell, data line or sense am- 
plifier. The greater the circuit density 
on the chip, the greater the probabili- 
ty that an alpha particle will cause a 
problem. 

This error is a random event. That 
is, it will occur once and then go 
away. As a result, there is no test that 
can be used to detect or predict such a 
problem. As greater circuit densities 
are achieved, on-chip error detecting 
and correcting circuits will have to be 
provided by the semiconductor man- 
ufacturers. 

Third are shorts and opens, which 
generally result in a stuck bit or series 
of bits. This is the most common 
memory problem, and almost any 
memory test will find the offending 
bit or bits. 

Fourth is speed. A memory cell 
may not quickly settle down after a 
write operation, and, as a result, a 
read in the next cycle may produce 
bad data. When a read is performed, 
a sense amplifier may be slow to re- 
spond to the change in data, thus 
causing a bad read. 

Fifth is sleeping sickness. Dynamic 
memory cells have a specified time 
for which they are supposed to re- 



member what has been written to 
them before refresh becomes neces- 
sary. It is possible for the data to leak 
away before the specified hold time. 
A test for this problem requires spe- 



cial equipment to control the length 
of the refresh cycle. 

Common Memory Tests 

You can use one of a seemingly un- 
limited number of memory tests. The 
problem is to pick the right one. 

The most common is the all ones- 
all zeros test. This first fills memory 
with all ones, and then checks to 
make sure that the data is still all 
ones. If an error is noted the address 
of the bad word and the bad bit infor- 
mation is printed out or displayed on 
the terminal. This procedure is then 
repeated with zeros. The only error 
that this test will find is a stuck bit. 

Another common test is the nonde- 
structive fast complement and check 
test. A word is read from memory. It 
is complemented, and the comple- 
ment is written back into memory 
and stored in one of the CPU's regis- 
ters. The complemented data is then 
read from memory and compared to 
the complemented word in the regis- 
ter. Any errors are noted and printed 
out as above. This process is then re- 
peated to reconstruct the original 
word. The address pointer is then in- 
cremented and the process is repeat- 



Hippity-Hop memory test. 



ooo D 
OOOA 
0400' 



**************************************** 
* * 

* HIPPITY-HOP MEMORY TEST * 

* VERSION 1.1 * 

* # 

* BY JIM WORK * 

**************************************** 



THIS IS A MEMORY TEST THAT WILL TEST ALL BITS 
AND THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE BITS AS WELL 
AS ADDRESSING PROBLEMS. 

ALL NUMERICAL DATA ENTERED FROM THE KEYBOARD IS IN 
HEXADECIMAL. THE RANGE OF THE TEST IS ENTERED AS 
CLOW ADDRESS DfC HIGH ADDRESS D. ONE DELAY PERIOD IS 
ABOUT ONE MILLISECONDf USING A Z-80 WITH A 4 MHZ 
CLOCK AND NO WAIT STATES. THE GREATEST NUMBER OF 
DELAY PERIODS IS FFFF (64K>. THE GREATEST CHIP 
DEPTH IS FFFF ( 64K ) WORDS. 

AS THE TEST PROGRESSES » THE BACKGROUND HALF BYTE 
WILL BE PRINTED EVERY SO OFTEN. THIS WILL LET YOU 
KNOW THAT THE SYSTEM IS STILL ALIVE. 

A CONTROL-C WILL STOP THE TEST AND REBOOT THE 
SYSTEM. 

WHEN AN ERROR IS ENCOUNTERED* THE FOLLOWING 
ARE PRINTED OUT. 

1. THE ADDRESS OF THE BAD BYTE. 

2. THE TEST BYTE. 

3. IN THE BAD BYTE, THE GOOD BITS ARE 
REPRESENTED BY "G" AND THE BAD ONES 
BY "B" . 



«< CONSTANTS » 



CR= ODH i CARRIAGE RETURN 

LF= OAH JLINE FEED 

RAM= 0'+400H f START OF TEMPORARY STORAGE 

i 

?THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF CONSTANTS USED 

?BY THE NORTH STAR HORIZON. IF YOU HAVE 

rANOTHER COMPUTER, YOU MAY HAVE TO CHANGE 




Microcomputing, May 1981 167 



ed. This test is very good for speed 
and stuck bit problems, but the 
chance of it detecting a pattern prob- 
lem is scant at best. 

The sequential number test is very 
good for detecting address decoding 
problems, but its ability to check for 
pattern problems is limited. 

There are many test patterns that 
work well in testing chips when the 
specified pattern is written into the 
chip. But frequently, these patterns 
will not be retained when they are 
generated at the word level and then 
written into the chips. This results in 
the loss of the original test pattern. 

For example, a test that was origi- 
nally designed for core memories is 
the bar column test. This test is limit- 
ed in that it only checks for column- 
to-column leakage and refresh prob- 
lems in memories that are greater 
than one bit wide, but they are of lit- 
tle use with the RAM most frequently 
used in microcomputers: the one-bit- 
wide RAM. When the bar column 
pattern is mapped into one-bit-wide 
RAMs, it becomes an all ones-all 
zeros test (see Fig. 1). 

Another common test, designed for 



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Listing continued. 



JTHESE CONSTANTS 



0003 






C0NSP= 


3 


t CONSOLE 


STATUS PORT 


0001 






CTBNE= 


l 


i CONSOLE 


TRANS. BUFF. NOT EMPTY 


0002 






C0NDP= 




JCONSOLE 


DATA PORT 


0002 






CIDE= 


2 


fCONSOLE 


INPUT BUFFER EMPTY 


0005 






PRNSP= 


5 


fPRINTER 


STATUS PORT 


0001 






PTBNE= 


1 


fPRINTER 


BUFFER NOT EMPTY 


0004 






PRNDP= 


4 


fPRINTER 


DATA PORT 


E800 






D00T= 

r 


0E800H 


JSYSTEM 


BOOT-UP ADDRESS 








i 

* 


<« pseudo-ops > 


» 








9 

.PREL 




fTHIS IS 


1 A RELOCATABLE FILE. 








.18080 




J 8080 CODE ONLY SO WE CAN RUN 
»THE TEST ON AN 8080» AN 8085» 








i 




?0R A Z- 


80. 








<« PROGRAM BEGINS HERE >» 


0000' 






init: 


» THESE 


NEXT 12 LINES OF CODE ARE NEEDED 










J IF THE 


PROGRAM 


IS TO BE PUT IN ROM. 


0000' 


21 


0400' 




LXI 


HtRAM 


UNITIALIZE THE STORAGE 


0003' 


3665 




MVI 


Mf 101 


J ONLY 100 ERRORS PRINTED 


0005' 


23 






INX 


H 




0006' 


3655 




MVI 


Mf55H 


t BACKGROUND PATTERN 


0008' 


23 






INX 


H 




0009' 


3601 




HVI 


Mf 1 


JFLAG 


000B' 


23 






INX 


H 




OOOC 


3640 




MVI 


M,64 


J LINE LENGTH COUNTER 


000E' 


23 






INX 


H 




00OF' 


3600 




MVI 


MrO 


J ERROR HEADING FLAG 


0011' 


23 






INX 


H 




0012' 


3600 




MVI 


MfO 


{PRINTER FLAG 


0014' 


21 


02C1' 


HRUEGO: 


LXI 


HfMSGl 


fSAY HELLO. 


0017' 


CD 


0259' 




CALL 


TYPE 




001A' 


CD 


029D' 




CALL 


KBD 




001 D' 


FE59 




CPI 


'V 




001F' 


C2 


0027' 




JNZ 


. .NP 


fJUMP IF NO PRINTER. 


0022' 


21 


0405' 




LXI 


HfPRNT 




0025' 


36FF 




MVI 


M»0FFH 




0027' 


CD 


023C 


. . np : 


CALL 


CRLF 




002 A' 


31 


0422' 


start: 


LXI 


SPfSTACK 


[J SET UP THE STACK. 


002D' 


21 


0306' 




LXI 


H»MSG2 


fSIGN ON MESSAGE. 


0030' 


CD 


0259' 




CALL 


TYPE 




0033' 


0602 


get add: 


MVI 


Bf2 


JGET THE LIMITS OF THE TEST. 


0035' 


21 


0000 


. .ga: 


LXI 


HtO 




0038' 


CD 


0170' 




CALL 


GETHEX 




003B' 


79 






MOV 


fttC 




003C 


CD 


0246' 




CALL 


CHK 




003F' 


EB 






XCHG 






0040' 


05 






DCR 


B 


fTWO ADDRESSES YET? 


0041' 


C2 


0035' 




JNZ 


..GA 


fSTART=>DE END=>HL 


0044' 


E5 




getdel: 


PUSH 


H 




0045' 


21 


0312' 


• •COS 


LXI 


HfMSG3 


JGET DELAY. 


0048' 


CD 


0259' 




CALL 


TYPE 




004B' 


21 


0000 




LXI 


HtO 




004E' 


CD 


0170' 




CALL 


GETHEX 


JGET HEX CHARACTER 


0051' 


79 






MOV 


A»C 


fPUT NON-HEX CHAR IN ACC 


0052' 


FE0D 




CPI 


CR 


f IS IT A CARRIAGE RETURN? 


0054' 


C2 


0045' 




JNZ 


. .CD 


fIF NOTf TRY AGAIN. 


0057' 


CD 


023C 




CALL 


CRLF 




005A' 


22 


040A' 




SHLD 


DEL 


f(DEL)=* OF DELAY PERIODS. 


005 D' 


21 


0336' 


getdep: 


LXI 


HfMSG4 


JGET CHIP DEPTH. 


0060' 


CD 


0259' 




CALL 


TYPE 


fTHIS IS JUST LIKE GETDEL: 


0063' 


21 


0000 




LXI 


HfO 




0066' 


CD 


0170' 




CALL 


GETHEX 




0069' 


79 






MOV 


AfC 




006A' 


FE0D 




CPI 


CR 




006C 


C2 


005D' 




JNZ 


GETDEP 




006F' 


CD 


023C 




CALL 


CRLF 




0072' 


44 






MOV 


BfH 




0073' 


4D 






MOV 


CfL 




0074' 


22 


0408' 




SHLD 


INC 


f( INC)=CHIP DEPTH. 


0077' 


EB 






XCHG 






0078' 


22 


0406' 




SHLD 


END 


f(END)=UPPER LIMIT OF TEST. 


007B' 


EB 






XCHG 






007C 


El 






POP 


H 




007 D' 


3E4F 




MVI 


A,'0' 


JREASSURE THE FOLKS. 


007F' 


CD 


0277' 




CALL 


SEND 




0082' 


3E4B 




MVI 


Ar'K' 




0084' 


CD 


0277' 




CALL 


SEND 




0087' 


CD 


0166' 




CALL 


SETUP 


fSET LIMITS FOR THIS PART. 


008 A' 


E5 




soft: 


PUSH 


H 




008B' 


21 


0403' 




LXI 


H, TEMPO 




008E' 


3640 




MVI 


M»64 


fRESTORE LINE LENGTH. 


0090' 


21 


0362' 




LXI 


HfMSGS 




0093' 


CD 


0259' 




CALL 


TYPE 




0096' 


El 






POP 


H 




0097' 


E5 






PUSH 


H 




0098' 


7C 






MOV 


AfH 




0099' 


CD 


0266' 




CALL 


URIT2 


fSEND 'FROM' ADDRESS. 


009C 


7D 






MOV 


AfL 




009 D' 


CD 


0266' 




CALL 


URIT2 




00AO' 


21 


036F' 




LXI 


H»MSG6 


^ >\ 


00A3' 


CD 


0259' 




CALL 


TYPE 


(More v 



168 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Listing continued. 



00A6' 
00A7' 
OOAA' 
OOAB' 
OOAE' 
OOB1' 
00B2' 
00B3' 
OOEH' 
OOB5' 
00B6' 
00B9' 

OOBD' 

OOBE' 

OOC1' 

O0C2' 

00C3' 

00C6' 

00C7' 

00C8' 

00C9' 

OOCA' 

OOCD' 

OOCE' 

OOCF' 

OODO' 

OODl' 

00D4' 

O0D5' 

00D6' 

00D9' 

OODA' 

OODD' 

OOEO' 

OOE1' 

00E4' 

00E5' 

OOE6' 

00E9' 

OOEA' 

OOED' 

OOFO' 

00F3' 

00F6' 

00F7' 

OOF A' 

OOFD' 

OOFE' 

OOFF' 

OlOO' 

0103' 

0104' 

0105' 

0106' 

0107' 

010A' 

010B' 

010E' 

010F' 

0112' 

0115' 

0118' 

011B' 

011C 

011F' 

0122' 

0124' 

0125' 

0126' 

0129' 

012C 

012D' 

0130' 

0132' 

0135' 

0138' 

013B' 

013C 

013D' 

013E' 

0141' 

0142' 

0145' 

0146' 

0147' 

014A' 

014D' 

0150' 

0153' 



0156' 
0157' 
0158' 
0159' 



7A 

CD 

7B 

CD 

CD 

El 

44 

4D 

C5 

E5 

CD 

CD 

fc\ 

E5 

CD 

El 

CI 

CD 

E5 

E5 

60 

69 

3A 

2F 

77 

E5 

C5 

CD 

CI 

El 

CD 

El 

CD 

CA 

C5 

3A 

46 

B8 

C4 

CI 

CD 

CD 



0266' 

0266' 
023C 



0191' 
01B1' 



019C 



02B2' 



0401 



01B1' 



0156' 

01AB' 
OOEA' 

0401' 



01D9' 



D2 



01D3' 
0129' 



040 



r> ' 



0156' 
01CD' 
OODA' 
040C 

El 

CD 

CA 

E5 

60 

69 

3A 0401' 

77 

El 

E5 

C5 

CD 019C 

CI 

21 

35 

C2 

21 

3A 

CD 

34 

FC 023A' 

21 

3620 

El 

03 

C3 

3A 

2F 

32 0401' 

FE55 

C2 00B2' 

2A 040C 

CD 0166' 

E5 

D5 

EB 

2A 

EB 

CD 

Dl 

El 

DA 

C3 

21 

CD 

C3 



E5 
C5 
60 
69 



0124' 
0403' 
0401' 
026F' 



0402' 



00C3' 
0401' 



0406' 



01 CD' 



014D' 
008A' 
0374' 
0259' 
E800 



strtst: 
bckgnd: 



test: 



. .inlp: 



♦ ♦ Sh • 



inspec: 



. .ntk: 



cmpit: 



..end: 



f 
i 
I 
chkohp: 



CALL 

MOV 

CALL 

CALL 

POP 

MOV 

MOV 

PUSH 

PUSH 

CALL 

CALL 

POP 

PUSH 

CALL 

POP 

POP 

CALL 

PUSH 

PUSH 

MOV 

MOV 

LDA 

CMA 

MOV 

PUSH 

PUSH 

CALL 

POP 

POP 

CALL 

POP 

CALL 

JZ 

PUSH 

LDA 

MOV 

CMP 

CNZ 

POP 

CALL 

CALL 

JNC 

SHLD 

POP 

CALL 

JZ 

PUSH 

MOV 

MOV 

LDA 

MOV 

POP 

PUSH 

PUSH 

CALL 

POP 

LXI 

DCR 

•JNZ 

LXI 

LDA 

CALL 

INR 

CM 

LXI 

MVI 

POP 

I NX 

J MP 

LDA 

CMA 

STA 

CPI 

JNZ 

LHLD 

CALL 

PUSH 

PUSH 

XCHG 

LHLD 

XCHG 

CALL 

POP 

POP 

JC 

JMP 

LXI 

CALL 

JMP 



AfD 

WRIT2 

AfE 

WRIT2 

CRLF 

H 

BfH 

C,L 

B 

H 

FILLIT 

DELAY 

H 

H 

CHKIT 

H 

B 

STOP 

H 

H 

HfB 

L»C 

REF 

MrA 

H 

B 

DELAY 

B 

H 

CHKOMP 

H 

SAME 

. .SM 

B 

REF 

BfM 

B 

ERROR 

B 

CHKOMP 

HILO 

. .INLP 

BGN 

H 

TOP 

CMPIT 

H 

HfB 

L»C 

REF 

MfA 

H 

H 

B 

CHKIT 

B 

HfFLAG 

M 

. .NTK 

H»TEMPO 

REF 

PTBYT 

M 

LINE 

HfFLAG 

Mf32 

H 

B 

TEST 

REF 

REF 

55H 

STRTST 

BGN 

SETUP 

H 

D 

END 

HILO 

D 

H 

. .END 

SOFT 

HfMSGE 

TYPE 

BOOT 



<« SUBROUTINES 

PUSH H 

PUSH B 

MOV HfB 

MOV LfC 



J SEND 'TO' ADDRESS. 



fPUT IN BACKGROUND PATTERN, 
f ( BACKGROUND=REFERENCE BYTE ) 

fIS THE BACKGROUND STILL OK? 
fDO WE WANT TO QUIT? 

?MOVE TEST POINTER TO HL. 

fGET BACKGROUND BYTE. 

^COMPLEMENT IT 

J WRITE IT AS THE TEST BYTE 

J WAIT FOR LEAKAGE. 

J CHECK IT. 

f LOOKING AT THE COMP WORD? 
fIF SOf LETS CHECK IT. 
fSAVE THE WRITING POINTER. 

fCHECKIT 

JGET THAT POINTER BACK, 
f CHECK THE TEST WORD. 

fA NEW BEGINNING! 

fHAVE WE TESTED THE TOP WORD? 
fIF SOf LETS MOVE ON. 



Tl 820 KSR PACKAGE 



? RESTORE TEST WORD TO BCKGND. 
f BACKGROUND STILL CLEAN? 



JPRINT EVERY 1/32 TICK. 
J COUNT DOWN. 



JPRINT BCKGND 1/2 BYTE. 

? RESTORE COUNTER 
fFOR THE NEXT ROUND. 

fMOVE WRITE POINTER UP ONE 
JGO BACK FOR THE NEXT ROUND. 
fGET BACKGROUND f 
fCOMPLEMENT ITf 
JAND PUT IT BACK. 

^COMPLEMENT TEST THIS CHIP. 

JSET UP LIMITS FOR NEXT CHIP. 



fBRING IN THE UPPER LIMIT 
JIS THE TOP OF THE LAST CHIP? 



JIF SOf THAT'S ALL FOLKS. 
JIF NOTf GO BACK FOR ANOTHER. 



?END OF TEST SO REBOOT. 




FULL 
OPTIONS 




NEW 
$1737 



BRAND NEW IN BOX WITH 112 PAGE MANUAL 

Large OEM overstock results in a limited quantity offer of this super 
reliable, feature packed terminal at a below wholesale price 

FULL (Tl item #101) OPTION "PACKAGE" Device forms control, 
compressed & expanded print. 18 key numeric pad. full ASCII We count 
more than 100 user selectable options & features. This virtually assures 
compatibility with your application. 

PARTIAL LIST OF FEATURES 

PRINTER: 150 CPS. 9X7 dot matrix; 128 ASCII characters including 
control chars (great for debug); forms control; double-width and 
normal, compressed and standard prts. (4 styles) to 218 chars. /line; 
bidirectional. 1280 char buffer; V & H tabs. 3 "-15" tractor feed: 6 & 8 
lines per inch, sgl/dbl spacing; last char visibility; skip pert ; auto. CR- 
LF; programmable new-line response. 

KEYBOARD: Full ASCII; 18 key num pad; prog. CR and ENTER keys; 
control panel with numeric display; auto repeat: N-key rollover, pull-out 
operator's reference cards, deep dish keys 

GENERAL: Full blown RS-232; 110-9600 baud; EIA & DC3/DC1 busy; 
Bell 103, 113. 202 & 212A modes, local/standby/off-line modes: non- 
volatile option, forms/ 21 char, prog answerback memory; parity select 
6' EIA cable. FOX/HDX/HDX w/reverse channel 

PRICING: List price for this configuration is $2420 Our price, brand new 
in original box. guaranteed working to full specifications. $1737 FOB 
Morris Plains. NJ COD and credit cards on approval NJ add sales tax 
Call or write for full specifications. 



ELECTROVALUE INDUSTRIAL INC. 

PO BOX 157-K fV7 

MORRIS PLAINS. NJ 07950 CfflS, 

Formerly Elactravalu* Indutlnal r X \ 



Phone reservations and 
questions are welcome 

201/267-1117 



UNIDEP 
Asset Management Program 

Designed for you. Adapts to your 
accounting system & hardware. You 
choose: 

• depreciation type 

• length of term 

• reporting period 

• when to print reports 

• when to update values 

Change any value any time. 
Includes investment credit, bonus 
depr. $99 for Apple II (32K) or TRS 
80 Mod 1 1 (64 K), 1 Disk 



Another UNIFACE® product from 

Natural Language Systems. Inc 

411 Barber Ave 

Ann Arbor, Mich 48103 

(313)668-1806 



^378 



Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc 
TRS 80 is a registered trademark of Radio Shack 




t 



t 



TONE SIGNALING 

Generators 
For Any Rotary Phone 

Soft-Touch Porta-Touch 

$39.95 $59.95 

Add $1 00 tor shipping. Tex. Res. add 5% Sales Tax. 

Replaces mouth piece on For use with GTE where Soft- 
most phones for direct con- Touch will not fit. Held over 
nection with Soft-Touch mouthpiece to amplify signal 
tone. FCC Approved. tones. 9 volt battery powered. 

• Phone Banking* Mobile Radio • Central Dictation* Paging* 

Check Verification • WATS extender • Order Entry • Call 

Diverters • SPC Sprint. MCI Execunet. ITT City-Call • 

Micro Products, Unlimited 

P.O. Box 120005 Arlington. Tex. 76012 
817/277-4198 ^ 338 



sSee List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 169 



SURPLUS ELECTRONICS 



gBT mmmmmmm WRMk 


ascii flpBBHB^k ascii 


i * H \ 

TRS-80* COMPATIBLE, 

IBM SELECTRIC" -BASED 

I/O TERMINAL with 

ASCII conversion installed: $645.00 

Many Other Items Available: 

Tape Drives; Cable; 

Cassette Drives Wire: Power Supplies (5 volt 35 

amp. others): Displays; Cabinets; Transformers; 

Heat Sinks; Printers Components. 

Send for free catalog. 
WORLDWIDE ELECT. INC. 
130 Northeastern Blvd. 
Nashua, NH 03062 <- 122 

Phone orders accepted using 
VISA or Master Charge 

TOLL FREE 603-889-7661 • 1-800-258-1036 

TRS HO is a trademark <»t tht* Ra<i <>\ Tandy Corporation 



6800 Family 
Software 




SOFTWARE: WIZRD multitasking DOS, editor, 
assembler, C, PL/W, PASCAL, FORTRAN, 12K BASIC 

FIRMWARE: FANTOM monitor/debugger, MATH 
long integer and floating point, 4K industrial 
BASIC 

CROSS SOFTWARE: Assembler, PL/W. linker, 
math/science, simulator 



win 11:1; 



Wintek Corp 



^163 



1801 South Street 
Lafayette. IN 47904 
317-742 8428 



16K UPGRADE 



$39 



95 



TRS80 — 

KEYBOARD 
APPLE II 
TRS8 III 



TRS80 — 

EXP. INTERFACE 
SORCERER 
TANDY COLOR 
COMPUTER 
FACTORY FRESH 200 ns 16K RAMS FOR 
MEMORY UPGRADE. KIT INCLUDES FULL IN- 
STRUCTIONS AND COMPONENTS TO ALLOW 
EASY 16K CONVERSION IN MINUTES. WHY 
PAY DOUBLE FOR THE SAME PARTS THE 
MANUFACTURERS USE? 

ALL PARTS CARRY A FULL 12 MONTH WAR- 
RANTY. ADD $2.00 POST AND PACKAGING; 
TEXAS RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX. 
CHECK OR MONEY ORDER ACCEPTED. 

IAN ELECTRONICS .209 
P.O. BOX 14079 
AUSTIN, TEXAS 78761 



Listing continued. 



015A' 


3A 


0401' 




LDA 


REF 


015D' 


2F 






CMA 




015E' 


46 






MOV 


BfM 


015F' 


B8 






CMP 


B 


0160' 


C4 


01D9' 




CNZ 


ERROR 


0163' 


CI 






POP 


B 


0164' 


El 






POP 


H 


0165' 


C9 






RET 

* 




0166' 


E5 




setup: 


» 

PUSH 


H 


0167' 


EB 






XCHG 




0168' 


2A 


0408' 




LHLD 


INC 


016B' 


EB 






XCHG 




016C 


19 






DAD 


D 


016D' 


EB 






XCHG 




016E' 


El 






POP 


H 


016F' 


C9 






RET 




0170' 


CD 


029D' 


GETHEXt 


i 
CALL 


KBD 


0173' 


4F 






MOV 


C»A 


0174' 


CD 


0181' 




CALL 


NIBBLE 


0177' 


D8 






RC 




0178' 


29 






DAD 


H 


0179' 


29 






DAD 


H 


017A' 


29 






DAD 


H 


017B' 


29 






DAD 


H 


017C 


B5 






ORA 


L 


017D' 


6F 






MOV 


LrA 


017E' 


C3 


0170' 




J MP 


GETHEX 


0181' 


D630 


nibble: 


SUI 


30H 


0183' 


D8 






RC 




0184' 


FE17 




CPI 


17H 


0186' 


3F 






CMC 




0187' 


D8 






RC 




0188' 


FEOA 




CPI 


10 


018A' 


3F 






CMC 




0188' 


DO 






RNC 




018C 


D607 




SUI 


07 


018E' 


FEOA 




CPI 


10 


0190' 


C9 






RET 

* 




0191' 


3A 


0401' 


fillit: 


9 

LDA 


REF 


0194' 


77 






MOV 


Mf A 


0195' 


CD 


OICD' 




CALL 


HILO 


0198' 


D2 


0191' 




JNC 


FILLIT 


019B' 


C9 






RET 

* 




019C 


3A 


0401' 


chkit: 


f 
LDA 


REF 


019F' 


46 






MOV 


BfM 


01A0' 


B8 






CMP 


B 


01A1' 


C4 


01 D9' 




CNZ 


ERROR 


01A4' 


CD 


OICD' 




CALL 


HILO 


01A7' 


D2 


019C 




JNC 


CHKIT 


01AA' 


C9 






RET 

* 




01AB' 


79 




same: 


t 

MOV 


AfC 


01AC 


AD 






XRA 


L 


01AD' 


CO 






RNZ 




01AE' 


78 






MOV 


Arl 


01AF' 


AC 






XRA 


H 


01B0' 


C9 






RET 

* 




01B1' 


21 


040A' 


delay: 


f 
LXI 


HfDEL 


01B4' 


4E 






MOV 


CfM 


01B5' 


23 






INX 


H 


01B6' 


46 






MOV 


BfM 


01B7' 


CD 


02B2' 


. .loop: 


CALL 


STOP 


01BA' 


78 






MOV 


AfB 


01BB' 


Bl 






ORA 


C 


01BC 


C8 






RZ 




01BD' 


261B 




MVI 


Hi 1BH 


01BF' 


2E09 


..inlp: 


MVI 


Lf9 


01C1' 


2D 






DCR 


L 


01C2' 


C2 


01C1' 




JNZ 


.-1 


01C5' 


25 






DCR 


H 


01C6' 


C2 


01BF' 




JNZ 


..INLP 


01C9' 


OB 






DCX 


B 


01CA' 


C3 


01B7' 




J MP 

* 


. .LOOP 


OICD' 


23 




hilo: 


INX 


H 


01CE' 


7B 






MOV 


AfE 


01CF' 


95 






SUB 


L 


01D0' 


7A 






MOV 


AfD 


01D1' 


9C 






SBB 


H 


01 D2' 


C9 






RET 

* 




01D3' 


7B 




top: 


f 

MOV 


AfE 


01D4' 


A9 






XRA 


C 


01D5' 


CO 






RNZ 




01 D6' 


7A 






MOV 


AfD 


01D7' 


A8 






XRA 


B 


01D8' 


C9 






RET 

* 




01D9' 


F5 




error: 


9 

PUSH 


PSW 


01 DA' 


E5 






PUSH 


H 


01DB' 


21 


0400' 




LXI 


HfERCN 



fGET THE REFERENCE BYTEf 
^COMPLEMENT IT? AND THENf 
fGET THE BYTE FROM MEMORY 
fARE THEY THE SAME? 
fIF NOTf LET'S TELL ABOUT IT. 



fTHE OLD SHELL GAME. 

JGET CHIP SIZE. 

fADD IT TO LOWER LIMIT. 
rWE HAVE A NEW UPPER LIMIT 
JIN THE DE REG. PAIR. 

fGET THE CHARACTER. 



JDID WE BLOW IT? 
fSHIFT 'EM LEFT 4 BITS. 



fPUT THE TWO NIBBLES TOGETHER 
fPUT THEM IN L. 

f ASCI I BYTE TO HEX NIBBLE. 
fGO BACK IF ITS LESS THAN A 
?IS IT BIGGER THAN AN F? 

fIF SOf GO BACK. 
JIS IT LESS THAN A? 

fIF SOf GO BACK, 
f 10-15 BECOME A-F. 



JFILL MEMORY WITH BACKGROUND. 
fINC HL. ARE WE OVER THE TOP? 



JGET THE REFERENCE BYTE. 
fGET THE BYTE FROM MEMORY. 
fARE THEY THE SAME? 
fIF NOTf TELL ABOUT IT. 

fGO BACK FOR THE NEXT ONE 



fIS BC=HL? 

fGO BACK IF LOC. 



fGET THE # OF DELAY PERIODS. 



J RETURN AT END OF THE DELAY. 
?ONE DELAY PERIOD 



fGO BACK FOR THE NEXT PERIOD 



i ADVANCE HL. HL>DE? 



>IS DE=BC? 

fGO BACK IF EOC. 



fSAVE THE TEST BYTE. 



HfERCNT fLOOK AT ERROR COUNTER. 




170 Microcomputing, May 1981 



core memory, is the checkerboard 
and reverse checkerboard test, de- 
signed to find row- to- row and col- 
umn-to-column leakage and refresh 
problems. This test will work just 
fine with RAMs in which the number 
of columns is equal to the number of 
bits in the computer's word, but 
when the bits from the computer's 
memory are mapped into a memory 
chip in which the number of columns 
does not equal the number of bits per 
word, the pattern becomes the bar 
column test, or a variation of the bar 
column test (see Fig. 1). 

For example, the pattern written in 
the checkerboard test is 55H, AAH, 
55H, AAH, . . . , in an eight-bit ma- 
chine. If this is mapped into one-bit- 
wide RAMs, it becomes 55H, 55H, 
. . . , or AAH, AAH, . . . , depending 
on which RAM has which bit of the 
word. In a two-bit-wide chip, it be- 
comes 99H, 99H, .... In a four-bit- 
wide chip, it becomes A5H, A5H, 

/\Oll, .... 

Hippity-Hop Memory Test 

A test that will permit the testing of 
all the memory bits and the interac- 
tion between the bits, as well as ad- 
dressing and refresh problems, is the 

Hippity-Hop memory test. The first 
step of the test is to fill the memory 
with a background of 55 hex. After a 
delay to allow for leakage, the back- 
ground is checked for any bad bits. 
The complement of the background 
is then written into the first location. 

Another delay is implemented to 
allow for leakage, and then the first 
word is checked. Then the second 
word (background) is checked. The 
first word is checked again, and then 
the third word (background) is 
checked. This process continues until 
the last background word is checked. 
At this point, the background pattern 
is written into the first word, and 
then the background is checked for 
errors. 

Now, the complement of the back- 
ground is written to the second word. 
There is a delay, and the second word 
is then checked. The first word is 
read to make sure that it still has the 
background pattern in it, and then 
the second word is read to make sure 
that the complement of the back- 
ground is still in it. The third word 
(background) is checked, and then 
the second word (complement of the 
background) is checked. 

This continues as above until the 
last word is checked. This process is 
continued until the highest word con- 



IV J2 



V 



FIRST SEQUENCE £ 



<5==pTT^..O 



2N*i 



2N + 2 




N -WORD 



SECOND SEQUENCE 



?C 



"1 n e f U x B • * X B *" \ = 

^ > ' X ^ ■>* .7 J> , .... > 



-WORD 



THIRD SEQUENCE q 



. < ,' T CZS > c > <T7^~>1 ;;" > 



WORD 



LAST SEQUENCE: o 




B 
I 




» « r ^ ♦ 

B x" .. 7 B <X P 2N + | : ^ a, Sc 

4 ^ * V 6 . N°.<^ 2N , -~^ N 



-WORD 



B» BACKGROUND 

C-COMPLEMENT OF THE BACKGROUND 



Fig. 2. Read and check sequence of the Hippity-Hop memory test. 



Uord 

N 

» 

5 

4 
3 
2 

1 




10 10 10 1 



10 10 10 1 









1 









1 









1 











Bit 7 6 



4 3 



1 0* 



1 






1 






1 
1 



1 
1 






1 






1 
1 



1 
1 



1 1 






1 










1 







1 

1 

0* 

1 
1 
1 



7 6 



4 3 



1 



Memory Pet tern During 
The First Seouence 

t=Co»Fle*ent of Background 



Hemory Pattern During 
The Fourth Seouence 



1 1 



» ♦ » 
♦ » » 



11111 

» ♦ ♦ • ♦ 
» ♦ * ♦ ♦ 

1 1 ... 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 ... 1 1 1 1 

Bit RAM Pattern 
During the First 
Seouence 

... 00000 

..... .. ... 

... 00000 

... 1 

Bit 1 RAM Pattern 
During the First 
Seouence 



1 1 ... 1 1 1 1 1 






... 
... 



.... 
.... 



1 1 ... 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 ... 1 1 1 1 

Bit RAM Pattern 
During the Fourth 
Seouence 

... 
.......... 

... 00000 
... 1 

Bit 1 RAM Pattern 
During the Fourth 
Seouence 



Bit Mapping From Memory Pattern to One Bit Word Width RAM Chips 





GENERALIZED BIT PATTERNS AND LEAKAGE PATHS IN ONE BIT 
WORD WIDTH RAMS USING THE HIPPITY-HOP MEMORY TEST 



I .. 



xx.x.x X xx 

XX] _!_!_!\X.. 

I ! IXX 



XXI I l 

x'x x:x x:xx 



BIT PATTERN AND LEAKAGE PATHS FOR THE NTH SEQUENCE 
MEMORY PATTERN IN A FOUR BIT WORD WIDTH MEMORY 
CHIP MATRIX 

Fig. 3. Mapping of memory data to RAM and cell-to-cell leakage paths when using the Hippity- 
Hop memory test. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 171 



Listing 


continued. 










01DE' 


35 






DCR 


M 


fONLY 100 ERRORS PLEASE. 


OlDF' 


7E 






MOV 


AfM 




OlEO' 


FEOO 




CPI 







01E2' 


CA 


E800 




JZ 


BOOT 


JHOLD THAT TIGER! 


01E5' 


El 






POP 


H 




01E6' 


3A 


0404' 




LDA 


SENT 


fSEND ERROR HEADING? 


01E9' 


B7 






ORA 


A 




OlEA' 


C2 


01F9' 




JNZ 


. .NO 


JIT ALREADY HAS BEEN SENT. 


OlED' 


2F 






CMA 






OlEE' 


32 


0404' 




STA 


SENT 


J SEND IT ONLY ONCE. 


01F1' 


E5 






PUSH 


H 




01F2' 


21 


0386' 




LXI 


HfMSG 




01F5' 


CD 


0259' 




CALL 


TYPE 


I SEND THE HEADING. 


01F8' 


El 






POP 


H 




01F9' 


7C 




. .no: 


MOV 


AfH 


fSEND THE HIGH BYTE OF THE 


OlFA' 


CD 


0266' 




CALL 


WRIT2 




OlFD' 


7D 






MOV 


ArL 


»ADD.» AND THEN THE LOW BYTE. 


OlFE' 


CD 


0266' 




CALL 


WRIT2 




0201' 


CD 


0232' 




CALL 


BLK 


fSPACE OVERf 


0204' 


Fl 






POP 


PSU 


?GET TEST BYTEt 


0205' 


F5 






PUSH 


PSW 


rSAVE AGAIN f AND 


0206' 


CD 


0266' 




CALL 


WRIT2 


JPRINT IT. 


0209' 


CD 


0232' 




CALL 


BLK 




020C 


Fl 






POP 


PSW 


J GET THE BYTE BACK. 


020 D' 


A8 






XRA 


B 


J GET BAD BIT LOC. 


020E' 


0608 




MVI 


Bf8 


JNUMBER OF BITS/BYTE. 


0210' 


17 




..bit: 


RAL 




fSET/RESET CARRY. 


0211' 


F5 






PUSH 


PSU 


J SAVE THE BAD BITS. 


0212' 


3E18 




MVI 


Afl8H 




0214' 


8F 






ADC 


A 


?MAKE '0' OR ' 1' 


0215' 


C611 




AD I 


11H 




0217' 


FE42 




CPI 


42H 


J IS IT A 'B' FOR BAD? 


0219' 


CA 


021E' 




JZ 


. .SEN 


rlF IT IS LETS PUT IT OUT. 


021C 


C606 




AD I 


6 


»ELSE» MAKE A 'G' FOR GOOD. 


021E' 


F5 




..sen: 


PUSH 


PSW 




021F' 


CD 


0232' 




CALL 


BLK 




0222' 


Fl 






POP 


PSW 




0223' 


CD 


0277' 




CALL 


SEND 




0226' 


Fl 






POP 


PSW 


JGET BAD BYTE. 


0227' 


05 






DCR 


B 




0228' 


C2 


0210' 




JNZ 


. .BIT 


i THERE MUST BE MORE. 


022B' 


CD 


023C 




CALL 


CRLF 




022E' 


77 






MOV 


MfA 




022F' 


C3 


02B2' 




JMP 

* 


STOP 




0232' 


3E20 


dlk: 


9 

MVI 


Ar' ' 


J SEND A BLANK. 


0234' 


CD 


0277' 




CALL 


SEND 




0237' 


C3 


0277' 




JMP 


SEND 




023A' 


3640 


line: 


MVI 


M»40H 


J RESET TEST COUNTER. 


023C 


3E0D 


crlf: 


MVI 


AfCR 


JCRLF ON CONSOLE. 


023E' 


CD 


0277' 




CALL 


SEND 




0241' 


3E0A 




MVI 


AfLF 




0243' 


C3 


0277' 




JMP 

* 


SEND 




0246' 


FE2C 


chk: 


9 

CPI 


' ,' 


*A COMMA BETWEEN ADDRESSES? 


0248' 


C8 






RZ 






0249' 


fe: 


!0 




CPI 


/ / 


JOR IS IT A SPACE? 


024B' 


C8 






RZ 






024C 


FEOD 




CPI 


CR 


r INPUT FINISHED? 


024E' 


C2 


002A' 




JNZ 


START 


rMUST HAVE BLOWN IT=>RESTART 


0251' 


78 






MOV 


AfB 




0252' 


3D 






DCR 


A 




0253' 


C2 


002A' 




JNZ 


START 


J TOO MANY OR TOO FEW PARAMS. 


0256' 


C3 


023C 




JMP 

* 


CRLF 




0259' 


CD 


02B2' 


type: 


9 

CALL 


STOP 


fTEST FOR AN ABORT. 


025C 


7E 






MOV 


AfM 


i MESSAGE SENDER ROUTINE. 


025D' 


B7 






ORA 


A 




025E' 


C8 






RZ 




JLOOK FOR END OF MESSAGE. 


025F ' 


CD 


0277' 




CALL 


SEND 




0262' 


23 






INX 


H 




0263' 


C3 


0259' 




JMP 

* 


TYPE 




0266' 


F5 




WRIT2: 


PUSH 


PSW 


J BINARY TO ASCII HEX 


0267' 


OF 






RRC 






0268' 


OF 






RRC 






0269' 


OF 






RRC 






026A' 


OF 






RRC 






026B' 


CD 


026F' 




CALL 


PTBYT 




026E' 


Fl 






POP 


PSW 




026F' 


E60F 


ptbyt: 


ANI 


OFH 




0271' 


C690 




AD I 


90H 




0273' 


27 






DAA 






0274' 


CE40 




AC I 


40H 




0276' 


27 




i 
i 

• 


DAA 












«< I/O 


ROUTINES »> 


0277' 


F5 




f 

send: 


PUSH 


PSW 


? CONSOLE OUTPUT ROUTINE 


0278' 


DD03 


. » s . 


IN 


CONSP 




027A' 


E601 




ANI 


CTBNE 


i BUFFER EMPTY? 


027C 


CA 


0278' 




JZ 


..S 


JIF NOTf GO BACK. 


027F' 


Fl 






POP 


PSW 




0280' 


D30 


2 




OUT 


CONDP 


J PUT OUT THE CHARACTER. 


0282' 


E5 






PUSH 


H 




0283' 


F5 






PUSH 


PSW 




0284' 


21 


0405' 




LXI 


HrPRNT 


(More v 



tains the complement of the back- 
ground, and all the background has 
been tested. (See Fig. 2.) After the 
above sequence is completed, the 
background is complemented and 
the process is started all over again. If 
an error is encountered, the bad ad- 
dress and the bad bit information will 
be displayed on the console, and if 
one is available, typed on the printer. 

The manner in which the memory 
pattern maps into RAMs ioi leakage 
tests is shown in Fig. 3. The pattern 
for the four-bit-wide RAM can be 
generalized for any RAM with a 
width greater than one bit. 

The test has been written in 8080 
code so that it can be run on an 8080, 
8085 or Z-80. The test was written to 
be run on a North Star Horizon. The 
code is ROMable as long as there is a 
little RAM on top for temporary stor- 
age and the stack. The test has its 
own I/O drivers so that the test can be 
run in the areas that are normally oc- 
cupied by DOS and BIOS. The I/O 
routines are clearly marked, so that 
they can be changed as necessary. 

The test is divided into segments. 
For example, say you are testing a 
16K board that consists of 4K chips, 
and it occupies the addresses from 
to 3FFFH. The range of the test is en- 
tered as 0,3FFF, and the chip depth is 
FFF (4K). The test will first test the 
area from to FFFH, then it will test 
1000H to 1FFFH, then 2000H to 
2FFFH and finally 3000H to 3FFFH. 

In Table 1, you will see that the 
time of the test (with zero delay) is 
proportional to the square of the size 
of the chip. So, be sure to check the 
memory in the smallest possible seg- 
ments (chip depth); otherwise, the 
test will take longer than is neces- 
sary. It should be emphasized that 
this is a very slow test (see Table 1). 
There are not too many users who 
would be willing to spend ten days 
checking a group of 64K RAMs using 
a 1000 ms delay. 

When running the program, you 
will be asked if you have a printer. 
You should respond with Y for yes or 
N for no. When the limits of the test 
are requested, the chip address 
boundaries are the only boundaries 
that can be given for the test, and this 
information must be given in hexa- 
decimal. You may check as many 
chips as you like in a sequence. You 
will then be asked for the delay peri- 
od. One delay period is about one ms. 
The minimum delay is 0, and the 
maximum delay is FFFFH (64K) ms. 
The depth of the chip (also given in 



172 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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The Controller 525 

Apple Post (Mailing List Program) 40 

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The Cashier 210 

Apple Writer 65 

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CCA Data Management System 90 

Full Screen Mapping for CCA DMS 59 

Pascal Interactive Terminal Software (PITS) 29 

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Apple Plot 55 

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Microcomputing, May 1981 173 



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hexadecimal) is a very important 
piece of information for the test. If 
either the address or chip depth infor- 
mation is incorrect, the test will not 
function properly. 

An example of the printer, or con- 
sole, output is shown in the sample 
run. The test was set up to test the 
16K block of memory from 4000H to 
7FFFH. The depth of the chip was 
FFFH (4096 words), and a delay of 
1FH (31) ms was specified. The test 
ran just fine for the first two 4K 
blocks of memory. Note that the test 
prints out the background pattern 
while it is running. This is to reassure 
the user by letting her/him know that 
the test is progressing. As soon as the 
program started to test the third 4K 



block, errors started to occur. When 
errors are encountered, the bell on 
the console rings and the error infor- 
mation is printed. In this case, the 
chip for bit number two was bad. 

This is an example of the output for 
a hard error. In the case of pattern 
sensitivity errors or most speed prob- 
lems, the addresses of the bad mem- 
ory locations would not occupy se- 
quential addresses for an entire 
block. Rather, they would appear to 
be random and nonrepeating. ■ 

References 

Breuer, Melvin A., and Arthur D. 
Friedman, Diagnosis and Reliable De- 
sign of Digital Systems. Potomac, MD: 
Computer Science Press. 



Chip Depth 



— Delay Tifte in Milliseconds 

10 <0AH) 100 <64H> 1000 ( 3E8H ) 



512 (iffh) 0:00:12 

1024 (3FFH) 0:03M3 

2048 <7FFH) 0:i2t54 

4096 (FFFH) OtSltSf 

8192 (1FFFH) 3:26:39 

16384 < 3FFFH) 13J46J38 

32768 ( 7FFFH) 55106:35 

65536 (FFFFH) 220126120 



o:oo:58 

0:03J34 

0:13:35 

0:53:01 

3:29:23 

13:52:02 

55J17J30 

220J48:il 



0:02:31 

0:06:38 

0:19:44 

1:05:19 

3:53:58 

14:41:15 

56:55:49 

224:04:48 



0:17:54 
0:37:23 
1:21:12 

3:08: 13 

7:59:45 

22:52:48 

73:18:53 

256J 50: 54 



10000 (2710H) 

2:51:48 

5U4:53 

11:35:54 

23:37:19 

48:57:39 

104:48:18 
237:09:35 
584:32:00 



Table 1. Approximate run time (hours.minutes: seconds) of the Hippity-Hop memory test for a sin- 
gle chip (chip depth vs delay time). (Run on a 4 MHz Z-80 with no wait states.) 



Range — 4000»7FFF 

In HEXf how many delay periods? IF 

In HEX» how deep are your ihemory chips? FFF 



55555555555555555555555555555555555 



Testing 4000 to 4FFF 
55555555555555555555555555555 

5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555 
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 

Testing 5000 to 5FFF 

5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555 
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555 
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 



Testing 6000 to 6FFF 



M 

D => 
ADDR TEST 
6000 
6001 
6002 
6003 
6004 
6005 
6006 
6007 
6008 
6009 
600A 
600B 



ERRORS ENCOUNTERED ** 
DAD DIT G => GOOD BIT 



1 - PITS 



55 



55 



55 



55 



55 



55 
55 
55 
55 



GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 
GGGGGDGG 



Sample printer output. 



174 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Listing continued. 



0287' 
0288' 
028A' 
028D' 
028F' 
0291' 
0294' 
0295' 
0297' 
029A' 
029B' 
029C 

029D' 
029F' 
02A1' 
02A4' 
02A6' 

02AA' 
02AD' 
02AF' 

02B2' 
02B4' 
02B6' 
02B7' 
02B9' 
02BB' 
02BD' 
02BE' 



02C1' 

02EA' 
0306' 
0306' 
0312' 
0312' 
0336' 
0336' 
0362' 
0362' 
0364' 
036F' 
0374' 
0374' 
0383' 
0386' 

0387' 
03A8' 
03CB' 
03F6' 



0400' 



7E 

FEFF 

C2 029A' 

DB05 

E601 

CA 028D' 

Fl 

D304 

C3 029B' 

Fl 

El 

C9 

DB03 

E602 

CA 029D' 

HP02 

E6/F 

FE60 

HA 0277' 

D620 

C3 0277' 

DB03 

E602 

C8 

DB02 

E67F 

FE03 

CO 

C3 E800 



3C3C20486970 

0D0A446F2079 

0D0A52616E67 

0D0A496E2048 

0D0A496E2048 

ODOA 

0D0A54657374 

20746F2000 

0D0A54455354 

OHOAOO 

07 

0D0A20202020 
0D0A20202020 
0D0A41444452 
ODOAOO 



0400' 


65 


0401' 


55 


0402' 


01 


0403' 


40 


0404' 


00 


0405' 


00 


0406' 


0000 


0408' 


0000 


040A' 


0000 


040C 


0000 


0422' 





..p: 



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r 









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See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 175 






WORDPROPACK and JINSAM are trademarks of 

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WordPro is a trademark of Professional \^ APpfo 

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And, WORDPROPACK 
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FMG CORPORATION NOW CARRIES GRAHAM-DORIAN & PEACHTREE SOFTWARE 




0M (T) 



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Fort Worth, Texas 

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^70 (817) 294-2510 



(T) 



NEW 

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® 





CONTROL PROGRAM 

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ENABLING YOU TO RUN 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHED 

FOR CP/M 1.4 ON THE 

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CP M is considered the industry stand- 
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It features an enhanced upward com- 
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Available in Format A, B, C,G only $200 $25 

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Best of all, it's CP/M compatible 
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(Format B) $450 $35 

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ZSO is a trademark ol Zilog. Inc 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp 
Pascal/M is a trademark o» Sorcim 



SOFTWARE / 

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WORD STAR 



All FMG Software Products Include All Neces 
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SOfTWAIC 

WITH /MANUAL 
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SUPER-SORT I Sort merge, extract utility as abso- 

I M\ !«« !™, a « e , Pr< ? 9fa . m ° f " nkable module * M 'CO- 
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SUPER-SORT III - As II without SELECT EXCLUDE 

$125 $25 
Menu driven visual word processing 
system or use with standard term.nals Text format 
tmg performed on screen Facilities for text paqmate 
page number, justify center and underscore User 
can print one document while simultaneously editing 
a second Edit facilities include global search and 
replace Read Write to other text files, block move 
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positioning $495/$40 

WORD-STAR Customization Notes For sophisticated 
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W ? RD ^* STER Te *' Ed,,or - ln one m °de "as super- 
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serial addressable-cursor terminal $150 $25 



FLOPPY SAVER - Protection for center holes of 5" 
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contains centering post, pressure tool and tough 

7 mil mylar reinforcing rings for 25 diskettes 

fr £• ...$14.t5 

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HEAD CLEANING DISKETTE -Cleans the drive Read/ 
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oxide particles, fingerprints, and other foreign parti- 
cles that might hinder the performance of the drive 
head Lasts at least 3 months with daily use 

f" •., $32.00 

5/4 $30.00 



PEACHTREE SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 
GENERAL LEDGER - Records details of all financial 
transactions Generates a balance sheet and an in- 
come statement Flexible and adaptable design for 
both small businesses and firms performing client 
writeup services Produces reports as follows Trial 
Balance. Transaction Registers. Balance Sheet Prior 
Year Comparative Balance Sheet. Income Statement. 
Prior Year Comparative Income Statement and De- 
partment Income Statements. Interactive with other 
PEACHTREE accounting packages Supplied in 
source code for Microsoft BASIC . . $990/$60 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE - Tracks current and aged 
payables and incorporates a check writing feature 
Maintains a complete vendor file with information on 
purchase orders and discount terms as well as active 
account status Produces reports as follows Open 
Voucher Report. Accounts Payable Aging Report and 
Cash Reguirements Provides input to PEACHTREE 
General Ledger Supplied in source code for Micro- 

$990/960 

— Generates invoice regis 
. statements Tracks current 
and aged receivables Maintains customer file includ- 
ing credit information and account status The cur- 
rent status of any customer account is instantly avail- 
able Produces reports as follows Aged Accounts 
Receivable. Invoice Register. Payment and Adjust- 
ment Register and Customer Account Status Report 
Provides input to PEACHTREE General Ledger Suo 
plied in source code for Microsoft BASIC $990/$60 

(T) PAVROLL - Prepares payroll for hourly, salaried and 
1 I commissioned employees Generates monthly, quar- 
terly and annual returns Prepares employee W-2's 
Includes tables for federal withholding and FICA as 
well as withholding for all 50 states plus up to 20 
cities from pre-computed or user generated tables. 
Will print checks. Payroll Register. Montlily Summary 
and Unemployment Tax Report Provides input to 
PEACHTREE General Ledger Supplied in source 
code for Microsoft BASIC $990/$60 

INVENTORY - Maintains detailed information on 
each inventory item including part number, descrip- 
tion, unit of measure, vendor and reorder data, item 
activity and complete information on current item 
costs, pricing and sales Produces reports as follows 
Physical Inventory Worksheet. Inventory Price List. 
Departmental Summary Report, Inventory Status Re- 
port. The Reorder Report and the Penod-to-Dale and 
Year-to Date reports Supplied in source code for 

Microsoft BASIC $1.190/$60 

MAILING ADDRESS Keeps track of name and ad- 
dress information and allows the selective printing of 
this information in the form of mailing lists or ad- 
dress labels Allows the user to tailor the system to 
his own particular requirements User-defme,d for- 
mat and print-out system uses a special format file 
which tells programs how to print the mailing list or 
address labels Standard format files are included 
with system Automatic sorting of data uses indexed 
file management routines which allow the name and 
address information to be sequentially retrieved and 
printed without file sorting Supplied in source code 
lor Microsoft BASIC $790/$60 



(M) 
(M) 



• MICROSOFT PRODUCTS 

BAS'C-M - Disk Extended BASIC. ANSI compatible 
with long variable names. WHILE/WEND, chaining, 
variable length file records $350 $25 

BASIC COMPILER - Language compatible with 
BASIC 80 and 3-10 times faster execution Produces 
standard Microsoft relocatable binary output In- 
cludes MACRO 80 Also linkable to FORTRAN 80 or 
COBOL 80 code modules $395 $25 



( M) FO " TR **-M - ANSI 66 (except for COMPLEX) plus 
" ' many extensions Includes relocatable object com- 
piler, linking loader, library with manager Also in- 
cludes MACRO 80 (see below) $500 $25 

COBOL SO Level 1 ANSI 74 standard COBOL plus 
most of Level 2 Full sequential, relative, and in- 
dexed file support with variable file names STRING 
UNSTRING. COMPUTE VARYING/UNTIL. EXTEND. 
CALL. COPY. SEARCH. J-dimensional arrays, com- 
pound and abbreviated conditions, nested IF Power- 
ful interactive screen-handling extensions Includes 
compatible assembler, linking loader, and relocat- 
able library manager as described under MACRO 80 

$750 $25 



(M) 



(M) 



(M) 



MACRO SO - 8080 280 Macro Assembler Intel and 
Zilog mnemonics supported Relocatable linkable 
output Loader. Library Manager and Cross Refer- 
ence List utilities included $150 $25 

XMACRO-M 8086 cross assembler All Macro and 
utility features of MACRO 80 package Mnemonics 
slightly modified from Intel ASM86 Compatibility data 
sheet available $300 $25 



(M) 



(T) 



(T)' 



(M) 



PASCAL MT Subset of standard PASCAL Gener- 
ates ROMable 8080 machine code Symbolic debug- 
ger included Supports interrupt procedures. CP/M 
file I/O and assembly language interface Real vari- 
ables can be BCD software floating point, or AMD 
9511 hardware floating point Version 3 includes 
Enumeration and Record data types Manual explains 
BASIC to PASCAL conversion Source for the run- 
time package requires Digital Research s MAC Re- 
quires 32K $250 $30 



CBASIC-2 Disk Extended BASIC - Non-interactive 
BASIC with pseudo-code compiler and run-time in- 
terpreter Supports full file control chaining inteqer 
and extended precision variables, etc $110 $15 



(M) 



U 

(M) 



(M) 



(M) 



u 

(M) 



• DESPOOL Allows flexibility and efficiency. 
(Disk file printing can be accomplished while 
simultaneously using the computer for other 
tasks) Slower printers do not tie up the com- 
puter Requires 32K minimum $75 $10 

• SCREEN EDIT — Text editor for program en- 
try — allows user the ability to see entries as 
they are being made Has command which en- 
ables user to move the viewed position of the 
file anywhere within the current data file OR 
add information anywhere in the file. Requires 

16K minimum $125 $25 

(Also available in TRS DOS format 

Specify model or TRS-80) 

• MAC — Disk-based, powerful macro assem- 
bler utilizes Standard Intel Mnemonics. In- 
cludes macro processor. 

The CP M 8080 Macro Assembler reads as- 
sembly language statement from a diskette 
file and produces an Intel "HEX" format object 
file on the disk suitable for processing in the 
TRS-CP M environment. Requires 32K mini- 
mum and CP M $100 $25 

• ZSID — Efficient and reliable program testing 
system for Z80 microcomputers. Capabilities 
include traceback and histogram facilities. Al- 
lows real time break points. 

ZSID is a symbolic debugger which expands 
upon the features of the TRS-CP M standard de- 
bugger, providing greatly enhanced facilities 
for assembly language program check-out. Re- 
quires 32K minimum and CP M $99 $25 



(T) 



(T) 



FMG's LIBRARY: 



PASCAL USER MANUAL & REPORT 

(2nd) Edition by K Jensen and N. Wirth 
• Tutorial Manual and Concise Reference Report lor Both Pro 

grammars and Implementors 
■ Includes Helpful Eiamples to Damonstrata the Various Fea- 
tures of PASCAL 

The book consists ol two parts the user manual and the revised 
report The manual is directed to those who have some familiarity 
with computer programming and who wish to get acquainted with 
the PASCAL language The report defines standard PASCAL 
which constitutes a common base between various implementa 
lions of the language 



• GRAHAM-DORIAN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

GENERAL LEDGER - An on-line system; no batch- 

ming is required Entries to other GRAHAM-DORIAN 
accounting packages are automatically posted User 
establishes customized CO. A Provides transaction 
register, record of journal entries, trial balances and 
monthly closings Keeps 14 month history and pro 
vides comparison of current year with previous year 
Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $995 $35 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE - Maintains vendor list and 
check register. Performs cash flow analysis Flexible 
— writes checks to specific vendor for certain in- 
voices or can make partial payments Automatically 
posts to GRAHAM-DORIAN General Ledger or runs as 
stand alone system Requires CBASIC ? Supplied in 
source $995 $35 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - Creates trial balance re- 
ports prepares statements, ages accounts and rec- 
ords invoices Provides complete information describ- 
ing customer payment activity Receipts can be 
posted to different ledger accounts Entries auto- 
matically update GRAHAM-DORIAN General Ledger 
or runs as stand alone system Requires CBASIC-2 
Supplied in source $995 $35 

m PAYROLL SYSTEM - Maintains employee master file 
Computes payroll withholding for FICA, Federal and 
State taxes Prints payroll register, checks, quarterly 
reports and W-2 forms. Can generate ad hoc reports 
and employee form letters with mail labels Requires 
CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $590 $35 

m INVENTORY SYSTEM - Captures stock levels costs, 
sources sales ages, turnover, markup, etc. Trans- 
action information may be entered for reporting by 
salesman type of sale, date of sale, etc Reports 
available both for accounting and decision making 
Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $590 $35 

mJOB COSTING - Designed for general contractors 
To be used interactively with other GRAHAM-DORIAN 
accounting packages for tracking and analysing ex- 
penses User establishes customized cost categories 
and /ob phases Permits comparison of actual versus 
estimated costs Automatically updates GRAHAM- 
DORIAN General Ledger or runs as stand alone sys- 
tem. Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $995 $35 

Sample Program Disk For Each Graham-Dorian 
Business Package Specify Package $45 



BSTAM Utility to link one computer to another also 
equipped with BSTAM Allows file transfers at full 
data speed (no conversion to hex), with CRC block 
control check for very reliable error detection and 
automatic retry We use it' It's great" Full wildcard 
expansion to send * COM, etc 9600 baud with wire 
300 baud with phone connection. Both ends need 
one Standard and (Aversions can talk to one another 

$150 $5 



(M) 



SELECTOR III-C2 - Data Base Processor to create 
and maintain multi Key data bases Prints formatted 

m sorted reports with numerical summaries or mailing 
labels Comes with sample applications, including 
Sales Activity. Inventory. Payables. Receivables. 
Check Register, and Client Patient Appointments etc 
Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $349 $20 

GLECTOR - General Ledger option to SELECTOR 
III-C2 Interactive system provides for customized 
COA Unique chart of transaction types insure proper 
double entry bookkeeping Generates balance sheets. 
P&L statements and journals Two year record allows 
for statement of changes in financial position report 
Supplied in source Requires SELECTOR III-C2 
CBASIC-2 and 52K system $250 $25 



(M) 



TEXTWRITER III Text formatter to justify and pagi- 
nate letters and other documents Special features 
include insertion of text during execution from other 
disk files or console, permitting recipe documents 
to be created from linked fragments on other files 
Has facilities for sorted index, table of contents and 
footnote insertions Ideal for contracts manuals etc 
Now compatible with Electric Pencil" prepared files 
$12S/$20 



ORDERS MUST 
SPECIFY DISK 
SYSTEMS AND 
FORMATS: 



FORMATS AVAILABLE: 

(A) TRS 80 Model I (M) Keys Only 

(B) TRS 80 Model II 

(C) TRS 80 Model III (M) Keys Only 

(D) HEATHKIT H89 (M) Keys Only 

(E) NORTH STAR 

(F) SUPER BRAIN QD 

(G) STANDARD UNIMPLEMENTED 



The sale of each 
proprietary software 
package conveys a 
license for use on 
one system only. 



Prices F.O.B. 
Fort Worth, Tex. 
Shipping, hand 
ling and COD. 
charges extra. 



(M) Modif,ed version available for use with CPM as 
implemented on Heath and TRS 80 Model I 

(T) 



computers 

For all (T) items listed above , the rec 
ommended system configuration consists of 
48K CPM 2 full dize disk drives 24 x 80 CRT and 
132 column printer 



Microcomputer Problem Solving Using Pascal 
by Kenneth L. Bowles 

- A Book Designed lor Both College Courses AND Individual 
Salt-Study 

• Ideal for use with UCS0 Pascal 

• Includes Extensions to Standard PASCAL 

This book is designed both for introductory courses in com 
puter problem solving at the freshman and sophomore college 
level and lor individual self study II includes many examples and 
actually executable programs It includes information on the nee 
essary functions and procedures lor handling graphics and 
strings 



Stock No 

#821 



Price 
$9 95 



Stock No 
#822 



Price 
$1495 



PROGRAMING IN PASCAL 

by Peter Grogono 

• Aa Eicellent Introduction to One of the Fastest Growing Pro 
Dramming Languages Today 

• Sections on Procedures and Files PLUS a Chapter on Dynamic 
Data Structures such as Trees and Linked Lists 

The text is arranged as a tutorial containing both examples and 
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Here's a palatable method to attach a parallel printer to your PET. 



A PIE Taster's Report 



By Garold R. Stone 



For the past year I've had a South- 
west Technical Products model 
PR-40 printer connected to my PET 
via the parallel user port. I've been 
using various software subroutines to 
send output to the printer by poking 
to the user port and its associated reg- 
isters. 

But to use the LIST command or 
the other PET BASIC commands- 
like PRINT#, which outputs to the 
PET's IEEE port— I needed an inter- 
face that would let me connect my 
printer to the IEEE port. So I bought 
the PIE (parallel interfacing element) 
by Lemdata. 

The PIE comes completely assem- 
bled on a single, 4 by 6 inch printed 
circuit board for $89.95. It plugs ver- 
tically into the IEEE port, flat against 
the back of the PET, taking up very 
little room and out of harm's way. 

The cable from the printer attaches 
to the PYfr s card edge C-S. This is the 
same as the PET's parallel user port 
card edge, where my printer used to 
live. A cable clamp with a self-adhe- 
sive backing sticks to the PET and 
protects the PIE from accidental tugs 
on the printer cable. The PIE circuit 
board extends the IEEE bus to anoth- 
er card edge, C-E, so additional IEEE 
devices can still be attached. 

The IEEE bus allows many pieces 
of equipment to be attached simulta- 
neously to the PET. Each device is se- 
lected for communication by means 
of its particular IEEE device number. 
The PIE directs output to card edge 
C-S whenever data on the IEEE bus is 




PIE circuit board. 



addressed to the PIE's device num- 
ber. You can set the device number 
from 4 to 30 with a DIP switch on the 
PIE. I set mine to device 4 because 
that is the number used in most soft- 
ware for the PET printer. 

The PIE comes already wired for 
strobe and acknowledge handshak- 
ing signals for a printer using nega- 
tive logic (normally, +5V goes to V 
and returns to +5 V). Negative logic 
is used by almost all parallel printers. 

Handshaking for positive logic 
(normally, V goes to +5 V and re- 
turns to V) is available, but you 
must cut two traces on the circuit 
board and solder two jumper wires. 
Although very few users will have to 



perform this simple surgery, it would 
have been nice if this option were 
switch selectable. In any case, be 
sure to know your printer's require- 
ments to ensure proper operation. 
The PIE gives complete pin-for-pin 
details for wiring a cable from the 
printer. Lemdata also sells ready- 
wired printer cables. 

If your printer has lowercase, you 
will want to consider getting the 
Code Converter ROM, which plugs 
into an empty socket on the PIE. This 
optional ROM corrects for variations 



Address correspondence to Garold R. Stone, PO 
Box 153, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 179 



H 


In 


HI 

ill 






41 1 ! 


«* 




1 II 

* » 







O 



e 



lRC 



■ 



MM 
PI 









Back of my system, showing PIE, PR-40 printer, CB-2 sound amp and Uncrasher. 



in output among various models in 
the PET/CBM line. Converter ROM 
VI is for PETs which shift for lower- 
case. ROM V2 is for PET/CBM mod- 
els which shift for uppercase. 



When in lowercase mode, the VI 
ROM converts PET output codes 
193-218 to the ASCII lowercase al- 
phabet values 97-122. PET codes 
97-122 are converted to 193-218 so 



that all values from 0-255 may be 
output. Similarly, the V2 ROM con- 
verts PET codes 65-90 to 97-122, 
97-122 to 193-218 and 193-218 to 
65-90. 

To use the converter ROM you 
must manually set a DIP switch on 
the PIE to either graphics or lower- 
case to match the mode the PET is in 
at any given time. My PR-40 printer 
converts lowercase input to upper- 
case before printing, so I get by with- 
out needing a converter ROM for my 
PIE. 

The PIE instruction manual shows 
how to connect a+5V power supply. 
It also gives ways to get power from 
some popular printers. I chose to tap 
my PR-40 printer right at the voltage 
regulator, IC17 (Fig. 1). The 7508 reg- 
ulator's + 5 V output is the lead 
which faces the center of the PR-40' s 
main circuit board. 

I grounded the regulator's output 
lead with a test clip during soldering 
as a heat and static guard. The PIE 
manual suggested using the +5 V 
side of capacitor C12, which is proba- 
bly a safer soldering point, but that 
involves removing the circuit board 
from the PR-40. I let pin 1 of PR-40 




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180 Microcomputing, May 1981 



♦5V 




Fig. 1. Power regulation stage of PR-40 printer 
showing two points to tap + 5 V for the PIE. 

connector J-4 serve as both data and 
power ground. 

Connecting Power 

There are two ways to connect 
power to the PIE itself. One is to con- 
nect directly to the PIE circuit board 
with two power leads provided. Or, 
as the manual suggests, you can sup- 
ply the +5 V through pin 5 of the 
printer connector to pin 5 of C-S on 
the PIE. The ground is wired through 
printer connector pin 1, 12, A or N 
(Table 1). This allows the power and 
data to be in a single, detachable 
printer cable. 



Signal 


PR-40 


Cable 


PIE C-S 


PET User Port 


Ground 


J4-1 


A 


A 




A Ground 


Data 








Data 


Data 


Accepted 


J4-2 


B 


B 


Accepted 


B CA1— Accepted 


DO 


J4-10 


C 


C 




C PAO 


Dl 


J4-11 


D 


D 




D PA1 


D2 


J4-12 


E 


E 




E PA2 


D3 


J4-8 


F 


F 




F PA3 


D4 


J4-9 


H 


H 




H PA4 


D5 


J4-5 


J 


J 




J PA5 


D6 


J4-6 


K 


K 




K PA6 


D7 


not used 


L 


L 




L PA7 


Data 










Data 


Ready 


J4-3 


M 


M 




M CB2-Ready 


Ground 


J4-4J4-1 


N,l,12 


N.1,12 


N Ground 


optional: 












+ 5 volts 


Fig. 1 


5 


5 




5 Diagnostic Sense 



Table 1. Cable wiring and pin definitions. Note: The PET user port must be preprogrammed before 
it can be used with a parallel printer. See references. 



If you wire the power source di- 
rectly to the PIE circuit board, then 
you are free to plug the printer con- 
nector into either the PET user port 
or the PIE, since both are identical as 
far as data is concerned. But if you 
choose to power pin 5 of the printer 
connector, as I did, you must take 
some precautions before you plug 



your printer into the user port. 

If you have +5 Von pin 5 of the 
printer connector, then plugging it in- 
to the user port puts +5V from the 
PIE's power source to pin 5 of the 
PET user port. That in itself is no 
problem, because pin 5 on the user 
port is already + 5 V. The problem is 
that some accessories for the PET 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 181 




Lemdata also offers the PIE-C, which sells for $119.95. Note directly wired printer cable at bottom right of 
PIE-C and the modem cable at IEEE extension. 



might make use of user port pin 5, 
called the diagnostic sense pin, and a 
potentially dangerous conflict might 
result. 

The particular accessory I have in- 
stalled is the Uncrasher (available 
from International Technical Sys- 
tems, Box 264, Woodbridge, VA 
22194), which is a warm start reset 
switch for the PET. It lets my BASIC 
3.0 ROM PET recover from a system 
crash without losing the information 
I had in memory. 

It works by grounding the diagnos- 
tic sense pin (user port pin 5). So, if 
pin 5 of the printer connector is used 
for power, then using the Uncrasher 
when the printer is plugged into the 
PET user port would result in a dead 
short of the PIE's power source. 

My way around this conflict was to 
put a switch in the +5V power line, 
which disconnects power from the 
connector before I plug the printer 
back into the user port, where I used 
to have it. I recommend such a switch 
even if you do not already have acces- 
sories which might ground the diag- 
nostic sense pin. This prevents any 
fault in the power source from affect- 
ing the PET. Of course, such precau- 
tions are not necessary if you leave 
the printer connected to the PIE. 

IEEE Commands 

The PIE manual has instructions 
and good examples showing how to 
use the PET's IEEE BASIC com- 
mands. But I would like to clarify a 
commonly held misconception about 



the CLR command, which causes 
problems with any printer or other 
IEEE device. 

Both the PIE manual and the PET 
user manual show how to use the 
CMD command. For example: 

OPEN 1,4 
CMD 1 
LIST 

assigns file 1 to device 4, and makes 
device 4 (the printer) "...the 
primary output device for BASIC. 
PRINT or LIST commands are now 
directed to this primary device, 
rather than to the video screen. . . . 
the CMD of the printer device, fol- 
lowed by LIST, results in hard copy, 
instead of a video screen listing. . . 
since neither the CMD nor LIST [nor 
PRINT] command terminates [IEEE] 
bus operation for the device, a 
PRINT# is required to terminate a 
CMD command." (My emphasis. See 
Reference 7.) 

PRINT#1 returns the PET to screen 
operation. The misconception lies in 
trying to use the CLR command to 
terminate a CMD command. Using 
CLR incorrectly this way will seem to 
return PRINT and LIST to video 
screen operation, but it leaves the op- 
erating system in an undefined state, 
i.e., flaky. The cursor doesn't work 
right, and the system is liable to 
crash. This also means that when you 
want to use CLR for its defined pur- 
pose, you should first properly termi- 
nate any current CMD with a PRINT# 
to avoid this glitch. 

If you get the PIE, don't be sur- 



prised when the video screen starts 
flashing during output to the printer. 
I made an anxious phone call to Lem- 
data and learned that it is not a fault 
with the PIE, and it does not hurt the 
PET. Later, a friend of mine said he 
has the same annoying flashing with 
his PET printer. 

Whenever PET finishes printing a 
line, it sends a carriage return (ASCII 
13) and a line feed (ASCII 10) to the 
IEEE bus. The line feed activates the 
EOI (end or identify) Vine on the IEEE 
bus. The EOI line is shared by the TV 
display screen blanking circuit. To 
prevent this flashing, end all print 
statements with a semicolon (;), 
which suppresses both the carriage 
return and the line feed. 

You can still supply a carriage 
return where needed by using 
CHR$(13) or a string variable which 
has previously been equated to 
CHR$(13). For example: 

OPEN 1,4 

PRINT#1,"EXAMPLE"CHR$(13) 

or 

CR$=CHR$(13) 

PRINT#1, "USING A VARIABLE"CR$; 

There are other approaches to con- 
necting a parallel printer to the PET 
IEEE port, some of which are listed in 
the references, but the PIE has prov- 
en to be the right choice for me.l 

References 

1. "A Screen Print Machine Lan- 
guage Program" (for the PET User 
Port), Paul W. Sparks, The Paper, 
March/ April '80, p. 24. For a BASIC 
version, see The Paper, August '79, p. 
3. The Paper is out of print. 

2. "Get Your PET on the IEEE 488 
Bus," Gregory Yob, Kilobaud Micro- 
computing, July '80, p. 22. 

3. "Make PET Hard Copy Easy," 
James M. Downey, Kilobaud Micro- 
computing, September '79, p. 100. 

4. "A 'Pentronics' System," Bill Bajcz, 
Kilobaud Microcomputing, November 
'79, p. 158. 

5. "Low Cost IEEE-488 Systems Us- 
ing the Commodore PET Microcom- 
puter," Tom DeSantis, Electronic En- 
gineering Times, January 7, 1980, p. 
38. 

6. "A Review of the SWTPC PR-40 
Alphanumeric Printer," Gary Kay, 
SWTPC; Byte, March '77, pp. 18-24. 

7. PET User Manual, Model 2001-8, 
CMD; pp. 78-79; User Port: p. 61, 
CLR: p. C-l. 

8. PIE Instruction Manual, Lemdata 
Products, PO Box 1080, Columbia, 
MD 21044. 



182 Microcomputing, May 1981 




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Microcomputing, May 1981 183 



The IDS 440 printer shows its stripes. 



A Tiger VEye View 
Of Computer Graphics 



By Jim Hansen 



The Integral Data Systems Models 
440 and 445 printers, sold here 
and abroad as the Paper Tiger, are 
versatile and reliable. They come in 
two flavors: graphics and, for $99 
less, nongraphics. Except for obvious 
mechanical differences, the two 
models perform identically. The 
graphics version of each model has a 
special option ROM and an expanded 
print buffer (2048 bytes instead of the 
standard 256). 

Because of the special attention 
paid to the printer mechanism, IDS 
does not consider the 440 field up- 
gradable to the 440G configuration. It 
would be wise, therefore, to carefully 
consider which model will fit your 
needs best before buying. 

There are several reasons you 
might want to consider the graphics 
version over the standard nongraph- 
ics model, even if you never plan to 
use graphics. 

If you want to use the printer for 
screen dumps from a CRT, and you 
want the printer to run at its maxi- 
mum rate, buy the graphics model. 
The expanded printer buffer can al- 
low an entire screen of data to be sent 
to the printer at once. Without the 
large buffer, it might be necessary to 
slow the data rate going to the printer 



to prevent buffer overflow, and con- 
sequential loss of data at the printer, 
because some CRT terminals cannot 
halt the screen dump once it is start- 
ed. (The 440 uses the Data Terminal 
Ready control line to indicate its will- 
ingness to accept data. Many termi- 
nals can use this line to control the 
data flow during the screen dump, 
but many also ignore it.) 

Also, since the expanded buffer lets 
the printer absorb data at a higher 
rate than can be printed, it becomes 
useful for obtaining hard copy from 
timesharing systems at data rates of 
up to 1200 baud where the data ter- 
minal ready signal is ignored. 

Under these conditions you can get 
a fairly long listing with no fear of 
data loss, depending on the print den- 
sity (the number of characters print- 
ed per inch). The 440/445 printers 
move the head at a constant speed 
and change the needle frequency to 
adjust the print density. The higher 
the needle frequency, the greater the 
number of characters printed per 
inch. Thus the throughput of the 
printer changes with the print densi- 
ty. Table 1 lists the maximum sus- 
tained throughput of the printer for 
the various print densities. 

The information in the table will 



Print density 


Maximum sustained 


Graphics dot 


(characters/inch) 


throughput (characters/sec.) 


density (dots/inch) 


16.5 


92 


not recommended 


12.0 


67 


64.2 


10.0 


56 


51.4 


8.3 


45 


42.9 


Table 1. The maximum 


throughput and graphics horizontal dot density 


varies according to the se- 


lected print density. 







help you determine the approximate 
amount of time it will take to over- 
flow the printer buffer, given that 
you know the buffer size and the in- 
coming data rate. (See the equation in 
Table 2.) Example 1 shows the time 
to overflow, if a printer is set up at 
1200 baud and ten characters per 
inch. 

At 1200 baud the graphics model 
will print about 3840 characters (32 
seconds x 120 characters/ sec.) before 
the buffer overflows, making it prac- 
tical to use in applications where the 
data to be listed is several pages long 
(depending on the length of the lines 
being printed). At 16.5 characters per 
inch, it will take 73 seconds to over- 
flow, and print about 8777 charac- 
ters. 

Another often-overlooked aspect of 
the graphics option is what it does 
when you decide to buy another 
printer. The graphics option will no 
doubt make it easier to trade or sell 
your printer when that time comes. 

Using the Graphics Mode 

The graphics mode on the Paper Ti- 
ger is easy to use. But the problem of 
printing graphics on any printer ex- 
ists here as well: it will take a lot of 
computer resources (both memory 
and processing time, particularly 
time, if the graphics are to be gener- 
ated using an interpreter). 

When people think in terms of 
graphics, they naturally think of such 
things as bar graphs, scatter plots, 
line drawings and the like. It seems 
simple to connect two points with a 



Address correspondence to Jim Hansen, Methodist 
Hill, Lebanon, NH 03766. 



184 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Buffer size 



Data rate - Sustained character = Time (seconds) 
(characters/sec.) throughput to overflow 

Table 2. Buffer overflow equation. 



Graphics printer: 



2048 
102 - 56 



= 32 seconds 



Nongraphics printer: 256 _ 4 seconds 



120-56 



Example 1. 



single line. But the truth of the matter 
is that it takes a lot of data to address 
each dot position on an 8-1/2 by 11 
inch piece of paper. 

Suppose you want to print a graph- 
ics image that covers the entire sur- 
face of an 8-1/2 by 1 1 inch page. If the 
printer is set for ten characters per 
inch, each line will print 437 dots. 
(The dot density in graphics at ten 
characters per inch is 51.4 dots per 
inch.) The printer vertical resolution 
is 72 dots per inch; 1 1 times 72 makes 
792 lines. So you get 792 lines of 437 
dots, or 346,104 dots. Thus, you need 
a memory array of at least 43,263 
bytes to hold it all. In a 48K Apple it is 
plain that any graphics task of this 
size would be challenging. The 
TRS-80 will have the same problem. 

Fortunately, you will probably not 
want to fill a whole page with dots 
very often, making the problem more 
manageable. In the meantime, screen 
dumps from the Apple and TRS-80 
probably represent the best available 
solution for most people. This is 
probably small consolation for a lot of 
business users, but the problems are 
clear: memory size available for the 
graph to be stored, program and data 
memory requirements and program 
speed. Primarily because of speed, it 
is unlikely that any practical graphics 
programs will evolve using the BA- 
SIC interpreters for the entire task. 
Plotting programs like to manipulate 
bits, and, as we see, there are a lot of 
bits on a single page. Some, if not all, 
of a practical graphics program will 
have to use either compiled code or 
be written in assembly language. 

If you feel that screen dumps from 
your Apple, Exidy or TRS-80 might 
be useful, they are available. I am 
aware of three sources of screen 
dump programs for the Apple: Com- 



puter Stations, Computer Forum and 
Call- Apple. Call- Apple, an Apple us- 
er's group, has published informa- 
tion on screen dumps in their bulletin 
during the past year. I have used the 
Computer Station programs, and find 
that they work as advertised without 
a hitch. It is priced at nearly twice 
Computer Forum's, which I haven't 
tried, but looks more difficult to use. 

The only screen dump package for 
the Exidy that I am aware of is the 
Super Graphic Scratch Pad sold by a 
Canadian firm called Northamerican 
Software. I have not seen it run, but 
they describe a host of very interest- 
ing features, including the ability to 
save several screens of information 
and flash them by to give some ani- 
mation effects. It is an interesting 
package, and Exidy owners should be 
aware of it. 

The TRS-80 has but one screen 
dump program that I know of, and it 
is available through IDS dealers. It is 
sold on a tape, along with a copy of 
their application note AN-8012. The 
tape has a copy of the screen dump 
for both disk and nondisk systems on 
one side, and the program that prints 
the Tiger on the other. It automatical- 
ly locates itself to the top of whatever 
memory is available, resets the high 
memory pointer, patches in a new 
line printer driver and returns to BA- 
SIC or DOS, depending on which of 
the two versions was loaded. If you 
are running Apparat's NEWDOS, the 
JKL screen dump command still 
works, but is much faster, since emp- 
ty lines and trailing spaces are 
skipped. The screen dump itself in- 
termixes both graphics and text, just 
as it appears on the TRS-80 screen. A 
dump can be triggered from BASIC 
programs or directly from the key- 
board. 



I haven't seen or heard of any 
printer output package for the PET, 
but there must be one somewhere. 

Doing It Yourself 

Those of you who are interested in 
doing your own thing in graphics 
might want to drop a note to your IDS 
dealer and request information on 
the application notes for the 440/445 
printer that relate to your particular 
computer. Most are on various as- 
pects of using the TRS-80 and Apple, 
but there are a number of notes that 
talk about graphics in general and ap- 
ply to everyone. 

The following discussion will de- 
scribe the details of getting the 
printer into and out of graphics, as 
well as some of the pitfalls that you 
will encounter along the way. I have 
chosen to describe the I/O control 
codes in a BASIC-like manner so that 
the majority of you will be able to 
easily grasp what is required. Ad- 
vanced readers can use hexadecimal, 
binary or anything else equivalent 
that best suits your needs. My pro- 
gramming examples are in TRS-80 
BASIC. 

Before you begin to use the graph- 
ics option on your printer, enable the 
graphics option by making sure that 
switch 6 of DIP switch 3 (the right- 
hand one) is in the on position, to- 
ward the front of the printer. Re- 
member that the switch must be set 
before the printer is turned on, since 
the option switches are only scanned 
during the power-up sequence of the 
printer. 

When powered up in this configu- 
ration, the printer will still print nor- 
mally, but will now respond to con- 



Line feed 
Vertical tab 
Form feed 
Carriage return 
Enhanced mode 
Normal mode 
8.3 characters/inch 
10 characters/inch 
12 characters/inch 
Deselect printer 
Select printer 
Data CHR$(3) 



CHR$(3);CHR$(10) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(11) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(12) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(13) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(01) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(02) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(28^ 
CHR$(3);CHR$(29) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(30) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(19) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(17) 
CHR$(3);CHR$(03) 



Table 3. When in the graphics mode, the 
above functions can be activated by the two- 
character sequence shown. The codes are the 
same as used in the normal mode, but preceded 
with CHR$(3J;. Notice that when CHR$(3) is 
to be output as data, it too must be preceded by 
CHR$(3);. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 185 



10 N = 2*N 



Shift the bits 



* Assemble all the Ns into a string somehow 



100 LPRINT N$;CHR$(3);CHR$(11); *Print the string and end it with a vertical tab 



Listing 1. 



BYTE TO BE PRINTED 



DOT POSITION 
TOP 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



BOTTOM 



Fig. 1. While in the graphics mode, the 440G 
printer prints a single dot for each bit set in the 
bytes sent to it. The bit-to-dot mapping is shown 
above. If the printer were set for a character densi- 
ty often CPI, it would take about 54 bytes to print 
a line one inch long in the graphics mode. 



trol codes that can change the charac- 
ter density (number of characters per 
inch), form lengths and select the 
graphics mode. 

Before printing graphics, it would 
be a good idea to select the character 
density you wish under program con- 
trol. The printer cannot print graph- 
ics in the 16.5 character-per-inch 
mode because the required needle 
frequency is so high that the printer 
controller runs out of time. Ten char- 
acters per inch is a good figure to use, 
and can be selected by the following 
line of BASIC code: 

10 LPRINT CHR$(29); 

Other character densities can be se- 
lected as well; the control codes that 
are used by the 440/445 graphics 
printers while in the graphics mode 
are listed in Table 3. 

The graphics mode is selected by 
sending the printer a CHR$(3);. Be 
sure to place a semicolon after the 
print statement, or your computer 
will tack on a carriage return/line 
feed sequence as a part of the print 
statement. They will be accepted by 
the printer as graphics characters, 
and printed as such along with the 
data you really wanted. 

Characters that are sent to the 



printer are normally printed as a ver- 
tical column of up to seven dots. Bit 
0, the LSB of the byte sent from the 
computer, will appear at the top of 
the column, and bit 6 will reside at 
the bottom. A "one" in any bit posi- 
tion will cause a dot to be printed. 
(See Fig. 1.) 

Thus, CHR$(1) will print the top 
dot of a vertical column of seven dots, 
and CHR$(64) will print a dot at the 
bottom. CHR$(127) will print all sev- 
en dots. 

Normally you would not want to 
print more than six dots high, since 
the seventh dot will be overstruck by 
the top dot of the next line printed. 
Each byte that is sent to the printer 
while it is in the graphics mode will 
cause another vertical column to be 
printed; thus, the width of the output 
will be a function of the character 
density and number of characters 
sent in each line. 

Only a line terminator will cause 
the printer to print the data stored in 
the print buffer. In fact, if the print 
buffer is filled with no line termi- 



nator in the buffer itself, the printer 
will hang up and have to be powered 
down before it will ever print again. 
In the normal mode, a line termina- 
tor is a carriage return, line feed, ver- 
tical tab or form feed. The graphics 
mode uses the same codes but pre- 
cedes each by a CHR$(3);. Don't for- 
get the semicolon! A sequence to 
print the current line and advance the 
paper up six dots (the function of a 
vertical tab) would be: 

10 LPRINT CHR$(3);CHR$(11); 

The proper code for a carriage return, 
line feed or form feed can be substi- 
tuted for the CHR$(11);. Additionally, 
the return to normal mode (CHR$(2)j 
can be used as a line terminator when 
in the graphics mode. 

Since CHR$(3) is considered the 
"escape" code for the printer, it is 
somewhat of a hassle if you want to 
print a CHR$(3), the two upper dots. 
The issue can be resolved in three 
ways. 

First, you can trap the 3 and never 
send it. This is obviously not accept- 
able. The second method is to use a 
routine equivalent to: 

10 LPRINT CHR$|N); 

20 IF N = 3 THEN LPRINT CHRS(N); 

where N is the byte to be output. 

The effect of this routine is to send 
out a pair of CHR$(3)s whenever they 
are considered data, instead of an es- 
cape code. A third possibility is to 
shift the bits to the next higher posi- 
tion. This way, there is no possibility 
of sending a 3 to the printer. The ob- 



10 REM PROGRAM TO DEMONSTRATE GRAPHICAL 

15 LPRINT CHR*< 29 H'THE FOLLOWING IS A 

16 LPRINT CHR*( 10 )»CHR$< 10 ) 

17 LPRINT CHR$( 3+128)? 
FOR N=l TO 3 

FOR = TO 127 
P ■ ( 2*0 ) + 120 
IF P>255 THEN P=P -128 
LPRINT CHR$(P )» 
NEXT 
NEXT N 

60 LPRINT CHR$< 3 )>CHR$<2 ) 
70 LPRINT CHR$( 10)?CHR$( 10)»CHR*< 10) 
80 END 



THE FOLLOWING IS A STRING OF GRAPHICS 



OUTPUT ON THE IDS 440G 
STRING OF GRAPHICS"; 



20 
30 
35 
36 
40 
50 
55 



Program listing and sample run. Demonstrates control of the 440 graphics printer. Line 15printsa 
message, line 16 line-feeds the printer twice, and line 17 places the printer in the graphics mode. 
The loop starting at line 30 outputs ascending binary numbers to 127 XQ twice for each pass 
through the loop. These numbers are sent to the printer byte by byte after being shifted and scaled 
to a value less than 256. Line 60 returns the printer to the normal mode. The ascending binary 
count is plainly visible in the output. It took about 1 1 seconds for the program to run to completion. 
The printer was busy perhaps II 10th of a second. If an interpreter is to be used in graphics, efficient 
coding (this is not an example) must be used to minimize run times. 



186 Microcomputing, May 1981 







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See List of Advertisers on page 242 



Microcomputing, May 1981 187 



vious side effect is that the graphics 
field will be shifted down the page 
one dot position when compared to a 
normal character. Another advantage 
of this technique is that the data, once 
shifted, can be sent directly to the 
printer using a string output function. 
An example of the general method is 
conceptually shown in Listing 1. The 
precise techniques for string assem- 
bly will vary from one BASIC to the 
next. 

Impediments 

The actual output firmware in most 
existing computers such as the Apple 
and TRS-80 must be carefully scruti- 
nized before you dare try outputting 
graphics using the various PRINT or 
LPRINT statements. This is because 
in every system I have used, some 
characters will be trapped, and either 
replaced with one or more different 
characters or not sent at all. In other 
cases, the automatic line width con- 
trol must be defeated or a carriage 
return/line feed sequence will be out- 
put in the middle of a graphics string. 

The Apple line printer firmware 
traps a single character (normally a 

control I, CHR$(9)) and carefully 
tends the number of characters per 
line. If your Apple graphics program 
is to use the Applesoft print routines, 
you will want to defeat the trap char- 
acter and reset the character count 
each time a graphics character is out- 
put. 

If your printer is connected to slot 1 
in the Apple, the character counter 
can be reset with: 

10 POKE 2041,30 

The 30 is just a random number be- 
tween one and the maximum line 
width. The procedure for patching 
the control I to some other code is giv- 
en in the Apple parallel printer inter- 
face handbook. 

The TRS-80 gets into the act in a 
more vigorous manner. It traps and 



r> u o ~r t x N <: :;;; R R: o & R A M E X *=* M ff ::> i - f^ 

2 PLOTS & 2* MONTHS 





-1ST DATA SET 




— 2ND DATA SET 


150 


-•• 




.-■•■ y , .- 




....--- -•* ••-. * • • - • 






125 


1 \ A A 




• ^ .-■•»"- • 




* Vf X" 




. . •> ,-•■«•■■ ■•- • .- 


100 
ANYTHING 

T 
1 J 


.4 «i .« ^V * * 




. i. V 


50 




f 




n ■' 




■ •' ■ V ••-•-.. ' ' •" 


t 


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£4\ 


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<* 








discards all nulls (CHR$(0)), appends 
a carriage return to all line feed codes 
(CHR$(10)), replaces a vertical tab 
(CHR$(ll)j with a carriage return 
and line feed and replaces all form 
feeds (CHR$(12)) with a series of line 
feeds. 

Two tricks can be used to get 
around the Apple control I and 
TRS-80 character-trapping problem. 
One is to simply add 128 to each char- 
acter to be output. This has the effect 
of setting the high-order bit in each 
byte. The firmware will not find a 
match for trapping, and pass the 
character untouched. The 440/445 
printers will discard the high-order 
bit, and handle the characters in the 
normal fashion. 

The other way around the problem 
is to write your own character output 
routine in assembly language. For in- 
stance, all the data values could be 
shifted left (multiplied by two) in a 
single machine-language instruction, 
avoiding the CHR$(3) problem, and 
then be output with about four or five 
more instructions. The major prob- 



For the Apple: 


For the Sorcerer: 


Call-Apple 


Northamerican Software 


517 11th Ave. E. 


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Downs view, Ontario 


Computer Forum 


Canada M3H 5V6 


14052 East Firestone Blvd. 




Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670 


For the TRS-80: 


Computer Stations, Inc. 


Integral Data Systems (or its dealers) 


#12 Crossroads Plaza 


Tech Circle 


Granite City, IL 62040 


Milford, NH 03055 


Sources of screen 


dump programs. 



lem here is the clumsy way some BA- 
SICS allow machine code routines to 
be called. 

The thing to watch for if using a 
BASIC interpreter is speed. If you can 
do any of your work in machine 
code, by all means do it. Let BASIC 
do the leg work, but use machine 
code wherever bits are being shifted 
around or characters are being sent to 
the printer. This will speed things up 
considerably. 

As can be plainly seen, if you do not 
want to use a commerical screen 
dump program you will need to care- 
fully explore your computer system 
before graphics code can be confi- 
dently sent to the printer. Once this 
plateau has been reached, the next 
problem will be to write a graphics 
generator that will take commands or 
points from a file or other program 
and make whatever arrangements 
are needed to get them processed and 
sent to the printer. 

This is not a trivial feat, but it can 
be done. Fig. 2 shows the output of an 
early attempt to output a graph built 
entirely from a program. The pro- 
gram was written on a TRS-80 in BA- 
SIC and the listing was about four 
feet long. It was also slow, but could 
probably be speeded up by a factor of 
three to five using compilers now 
available. Even more compact and 
faster code will result if the program 
is written in assembly language. 

It is only a small step, once graphics 
output of the type shown in Fig. 2 is 
done, to make your Paper Tiger into a 
line plotter. If there is sufficient inter- 
est, more could be said about this 
project. In the meantime, happy 
graphing! ■ 



188 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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BASIC Language Summary; Guidelines for the Selection 
of Microcomputers in Commercial Applications; 
Microcomputers and Word Processing, Big Future for 
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Microcomputing, May 1981 189 



Get twice the storage with the Discus 2 Disk System. 



Double Your Memory, 
Double Your Fun 



By Rod Hallen 



When I described my experiences 
with the ThinkerToys Discus I 
Disk System (Kilobaud Microcomput- 
ing, Nov. 1979, p. 96), I was sure I had 
enough mass storage to last me for a 
long time. But then they started 
tempting me with Discus 2D. They 
were offering twice as much storage 
on each disk, using my existing 
drives! 



I held out for a while but finally 
went ahead and ordered the 2D con- 
troller board. That and a special 
double-density version of CP/M were 
all I needed to bring my Z-2 computer 
back up in the double-density config- 
uration. As it turns out, the increase 
in disk storage capacity is only one of 
several advantages to the new sys- 
tem. 




The Discus 2D disk operating system offers twice as much storage on one disk. (Photo courtesy Morrow 
Designs) 

190 Microcomputing, May 1981 



Doubling disk storage capacity is 
certainly a major plus. At the start of 
this project, I had almost 50 disks in 
my library, and my Master Catalog 
file listed 983 programs. I've cut that 
to less than 30 disks, even though the 
Catalog now lists 1267 programs! 

The Master Catalog, by the way, is 
outstanding and the only way to keep 
track of the programs on your disks. 
It is available from Elliam Associates, 
24000 Bessemer St., Woodland Hills, 
CA 91367, for $10 on an eight inch 
single-density diskette. Every CP/M 
user should have a copy. 

Hardware 

Just about everything that I men- 
tioned in my Discus I article applies 
to the 2D controller. However, it uses 
the Western Digital 1791 disk con- 
troller chip for increased efficiency, 
and is available in kit or assembled 
form (ThinkerToys, 5221 Central 
Ave., Richmond, CA 94804). The 
RS-232 parameters for the onboard 
serial port, such as baud rate, charac- 
ter length and stop bits, are switch- 
controlled so that the board can be 
quickly set to match your particular 
serial terminal. It can also feed 20 mA 
serial devices such as the Model 33. 

My NEC Spinwriter, which has a 
Diablo-compatible serial interface, 



Address correspondence to Rod Hallen, State 
Department— Accra, Washington, DC 20520. 



normally works through a separate 
I/O board, but was easily switched to 
the 2D controller. With the proper 
switches set, the drive cable plugged 
in and the special double-density ver- 
sion of CP/M in the first drive, I 
powered up the system and was in 
business that quickly. It couldn't 
have been simpler. 

DISRATE 

Discus 2D includes an enhanced 
version of DISKATE, which, as I dis- 
cussed in my previous article, is 
ThinkerToys' proprietary disk-oper- 
ating software. Version 2.0 has some 
added commands and increased 
block size, and will work with dou- 
ble-sided as well as single-sided 
drives. Also part of the package is 
Virtual BASIC. 

CP/M 

Available as an option is Lifeboat 
Associates' double-density CP/M. 
This is the DOS that I use, and it has 
all of the features of standard CP/M, 
plus a few new ones. 

First and foremost of these is the 
DENSITY command, which lets you 
intermix single- and double-density 
disks. It also tells you whether a 
given disk is recorded in single- or 
double-density format and the pres- 
ent density condition of each drive in 
the system. You can change the den- 
sity of any drive at any time and can 
copy from single- or double-density 
disks or vice versa. This makes for 
very flexible operation. 

Whenever 2D is powered up, it will 
initialize with drives A, C and D set 
for double-density and drive B set for 
single. You can make a simple modi- 
fication to the I/O driver that will set 
the density configuration any way 
that you want. The original setup was 
great for converting all of my disk 
files to double-density, but now I 
have the system come up with both 
of my drives set for double-density. I 
can always use the DENSITY com- 
mand to reset one or the other to 
single when I have a single-density 
disk to read or write. 

When you initially fire up 2D, your 
existing disk library (if you have one) 
will probably be recorded in single- 
density format. But it is relatively 
easy to convert it to double-density. 
With a dual drive system you use the 
DENSITY command to set drive A 
for double-density and drive B for 
single. Insert the single-density disk 
that you want to copy in drive B and a 
double-density disk in drive A. The 



CP/M PIP command (PIP A:=B:*.*) 
can then be used to move programs, 
and they will automatically be con- 
verted to double-density as they are 
recorded on drive A. A SINGLE com- 
mand is provided to do the same op- 
eration on single-drive systems. 

The FORMAT command lets you 
initialize a diskette in either single- or 
double-density format. This should 
never be used on a disk that contains 
software that you wish to retain, 
since the files on the disk will be to- 
tally erased in the formatting process. 
Be sure to make a backup copy first. 

An updated DIR command called 
LIST is also provided. LIST will cause 
the disk directory to be displayed in 
horizontal format so that it does not 
scroll off the screen as long DIR dis- 
plays do. 

COPY will duplicate disks when 
two or more drives are used. It will 
not, however, copy from single- to 
double-density. It can also be used 
with single-drive systems in conjunc- 
tion with the SINGLE command. 

Because of a compatibility prob- 
lem, some single-density disks can- 
not be read by 2D in their original 
format. A REGEN command is used 
on these disks to read a track at a time 
into memory where the formatting is 
corrected; then the track is written 
back on the disk. It is still a single- 
density disk, but it is now readable 
by Discus 2D. About six of my disks 
fell into this category, but REGEN 
quickly fixed them up. 

AUTO is a very interesting com- 
mand. It is not a CP/M command in 
the usual fashion; instead, it is used to 
invoke a program automatically upon 
a cold or warm start. For instance, if 
you rename LIST.COM AUTO.COM 
(REN AUTO. COM = LIST.COM), 
then the disk directory will be dis- 
played whenever a warm start (con- 
trol-C) is initiated after changing 
disks. Or BASIC.COM could be re- 
named AUTO.COM on your BASIC 
disks; then it would be loaded and ex- 
ecuted with each cold or warm start. 

AUTO can also be used to load long 
I/O drivers. As an example, the 
driver routine for my Malibu 160 line 
printer was almost 2K long and 
wouldn't fit within the area of CP/M 
set aside for I/O, so I had to load it 
with DDT each time that I wanted to 
use the printer. With AUTO it would 
be loaded each time that the power 
was turned on. 

Those of you who are familiar with 
CP/M know that the interface be- 
tween CP/M and the hardware that it 



runs on is called the Custom BASIC 
Input-Output System, or CBIOS for 
short. The CBIOS supplied with the 
2D version of CP/M is, of course, 
designed to work with the 2D disk 
controller and its serial port. This 
takes care of the keyboard and screen 
of a video terminal. But what about 
other peripherals, in particular a 
printer, or in my case a memory - 
mapped video interface board, the 
Imsai VIO-C? It is easy to rewrite 
CBIOS to fit your needs. Ten minutes 
after I first powered up 2D, my 
screen came alive. 

Two different CBIOS routines, 
which are called USER and TTUSER, 
are provided. The first is a simplified 
routine and best used by those who 
are new to CP/M. You can move up 
to TTUSER, which has a more flex- 
ible I/O structure, when you have 
gained a little experience. All you 
need to do is rewrite USER so that it 
will access your peripherals and then 
use MOVCPM, DDT and SYSGEN to 
merge your new CBIOS and CP/M. 
Complete instructions are given, but 
this could prove difficult for those 
who are not familiar with assembly- 
language programming. 

If your original system consists of a 
serial video terminal or KSR, then 
you won't have to worry about any of 
this. Just connect it to the controller 
serial port, and the software is ready 
to go. You can add peripherals later. 

As supplied, 2D CP/M is designed 
for 24K memory. If you have more 
than 24K, you will want to increase 
its size so that larger programs can be 
run. This is done in the same manner 
as the CBIOS modification and is ex- 
plained in the manual. This is easier 
to do than was the case with my origi- 
nal version of CP/M and does not re- 
quire assembly-language program- 
ming experience. 

I am now using 56K and would go 
even larger except that my top 8K is 
occupied with the Discus controller 
at EOOOH and the Imsai VIO-C video 
board at FOOOH. You may think 56K 
is a lot of memory until you consider 
that my Pascal compiler requires that 
much as a minimum. I guess it is time 
to start thinking about memory bank 
switching. The 2D controller can be 
deselected so that it can co-reside in 
memory with RAM, but I haven't fig- 
ured out the details yet. 

To initiate a cold start, which 
means to power the system up, it is 
necessary to execute address EOOOH. 
You can do this from front panel 
switches, with a ROM-based monitor 

Microcomputing, May 1981 191 



or a power-on-jump. My Cromemco 
Z-2 ZPU has address switches which I 
set for EOOOH; each time the system 
is turned on or the reset button is 
pressed, a jump is made to the begin- 
ning of Discus 2D and CP/M is auto- 
matically loaded. Although I haven't 
used DISKATE very much yet— all of 
my disks are recorded in CP/M for- 
mat— DISKATE should come up in 
the same fashion. If you don't have a 
CPU board with power-on-jump cir- 
cuitry, the Discus 2D controller 
board will provide it. 

Disks 

It might be worthwhile, at this 
point, to talk about diskettes and 
some of the things that I have dis- 
covered. I started with single-sided 
single-density diskettes such as the 



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Verbatim FD 34-1000 and the Scotch 
740-0. Both worked well, and I have 
never had any disk I/O problems 
which I could trace to the diskettes 
themselves. 

Then I read somewhere that you 
could use both sides of a disk if you 
punched new openings so that the in- 
dex hole was in the proper position 
when the disk was placed in the drive 
upside down. This worked fine with 
the Scotch disks but not the ones 
from Verbatim. Maybe the magnetic 
coating on the back side wasn't good 
enough. But since they are not in- 
tended to be used this way, you can't 
very well blame Verbatim. Then I 
came across reversible diskettes from 
Key, which accomplish the same 
thing. 

My first question upon ordering 
my Discus 2D had to do with the in- 
creased density of recording: ' 'Would 
the disks rated for single-density han- 
dle the more compact code?" To be 
sure, I ordered three double-density- 
rated disks just in case. However, 
while it is not recommended that 
single-density diskettes be used for 
the double-density recording, I have 
not had any problems. 

I did run into one difficulty though: 
there are two different types of dou- 
ble-sided disks. One is the reversible 
disk that I have just mentioned. It is 
intended to be used in single-sided 
drives and is turned over by hand to 
gain access to the second side. It can- 
not be used in a double-sided drive. 

The true double-sided diskette has 
the openings for reading the index 
hole placed differently and cannot be 
used in a single-sided drive. I use the 
double-sided reversible disks with 
my system. 

Conclusions 

One difference that I've noticed be- 
tween Discus I and 2D is the transfer 
of data in a two-drive system. With 
Discus I the system jumps between 
drive A and drive B so rapidly that 
the heads being loaded sound like a 
machine gun. This was particularly 
noticeable when reading files from 
the drive that was not logged in. This 
apparently has something to do with 
the length of each block of data that is 
written or read. The machine-gun ef- 
fect is not present with 2D. 

One very pleasant improvement 
that 2D makes over Discus I is speed. 
Because data is packed twice as 
densely on the disk, reads and writes 
seem to be twice as fast. This is espe- 
cially welcome when loading or sav- 



ing long files. The 2D controller is de- 
signed to run with either 2 or 4 MHz 
8080, 8085 or Z-80 CPUs, but a cou- 
ple of my memory boards won't han- 
dle the higher speed. If they would 
I'd get an even greater increase in op- 
erating speed. 

Another question that came to 
mind early was whether all of my ex- 
isting software would run OK with 
the 2D and the Lifeboat Associates 
double-density version of CP/M. I am 
happy to say that, except for one mi- 
nor problem, everything works fine. 
This includes such programs as the 
Electric Pencil II, Magic Wand, Mi- 
crosoft Extended Disk BASIC, Pas- 
cal/M, Pascal/MT and a whole lot 
more. 

The only difficulty developed with 
a directory display program called 
XDIR that lists the directory in alpha- 
betical order and in horizontal for- 
mat, along with the size of each pro- 
gram. I like this display best of any 
that I've seen. After taking it apart, I 
found that it was reading the direc- 
tory sectors directly; they are not 
recorded in the same sequence with 
2D as with the single-density version. 
No other problems have shown up, 
and once you are up and running, the 
only noticeable difference between 
the two versions of Discus is the 
speed of disk I/O and the increased 
storage capacity of each diskette. 

If you put a single-density-format- 
ted disk in a drive set for double- 
density or vice versa and try to read 
or write it, the head will seek and 
load continuously, but nothing else 
will happen. To get out of this loop, 
you must load a double-density 
system disk in drive A and reset. No 
damage will be done to the disk that 
was used erroneously, but you will 
lose whatever is in memory when 
you reset. 

Upon rereading what I have writ- 
ten, I find that I've devoted a lot more 
text describing CP/M than I did talk- 
ing about the 2D controller itself. But 
this is how the system strikes me. 
The hardware is in the background, 
and it is the software that the user ac- 
tually deals with. 

The advantages of the Discus 2D 
are well worth the difference in cost 
between it and Discus I. However, 
ThinkerToys is now tempting me 
again, this time with double-density, 
double-sided drives, and even hard 
disks. Both of these configurations 
come with the new CP/M version 2.0. 
Here we go again! Where will it ever 
end— or will it?B 



192 Microcomputing, May 1981 







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194 Microcomputing, May 1981 



General Instrument hits the right note with its programmable sound generator to liven up PET programs. 



Soulful Software Sounds 



By Raymond J. Bell 



General Instrument Corp. has a 
new IC called a programmable 
sound generator (PSG). This unique 
chip, part number AY-3-8910, can 
generate various sounds by having a 
processor write control words into its 
internal registers. All changes are 
done through software. 

Chip Capabilities 

The chip can generate three sepa- 
rate analog channels of sound for mu- 
sical chords and other complex ef- 
fects. Each channel can be selectively 
enabled. Their amplitudes can be un- 
der direct processor control or under 
control of an envelope generator. 
You can selectively enable noise at a 
selected frequency onto each analog 
channel. Finally, the chip provides 




BIT 



RO 



R1 



R2 



R3 



R4 



Channel A Tone Period r 




^ 



Channel B Tone Period 



^ 



R5 



R6 



R7 



R8 



R9 



R10 



R11 



R12 



R13 



R14 



R15 



Channel C Tone Period 



Noise Period 



Enable 



Channel A Amplitude 



Channel B Amplitude 



Channel C Amplitude 



Envelope Period 



Envelope Shape/Cycle 



I/O Port A Data Store 



I/O Port B Data Store 



B7 



B6 



two 8-bit user ports, so you can inter- 
face this chip to the PET and still 
have plenty of I/O left over for joy- 
sticks or other specialized game inter- 
faces. 

The chip appears as 16 external 
memory registers that are eight bits 
wide. Each register can be read from 
or written to (see Table 1). General 
Instrument uses octal notation, but I 
changed everything over to decimal 
or hexadecimal. 

Register pairs RO and Rl, R2 and 
R3 and R4 and R5 set the tone fre- 
quency for each of the three channels 
by acting as programmable dividers. 
The output frequency in each case is 
given by: 

Fo = fclock-r(16(RlR0)) 

The upper four bits in Rl, R3 and R5 



B5 



B4 



B3 



B2 



B1 



BO 



8-BIT Fine Tune A 



21 



4-BIT Coarse Tune A 



8-BIT Fine Tune B 




A 



4-BIT Coarse Tune B 




4-BIT Coarse Tune C 



5-BIT Period Control 



Tone 



L2 



L2 



L2 



B 



L1 



L1 



L1 



LO 



LO 



LO 



8-BIT Fine Tune E 



8-BIT Coarse Tune E 




^ 



Z 



CONT 



ATT 



ALT. 



HOLD 



8-BIT PARALLEL I/O on Port A 



8-BIT PARALLEL I/O Port B 



Table 1. PSG register array. 



are not used. This gives a 12-bit divi- 
sor. The lower five bits of R6 deter- 
mine the frequency of the noise 
source. Its frequency is calculated the 
same way. The upper three bits are 
unused. 

R7 is the enable register. The bits 
are defined as follows (when bit = 0): 

BO Enable tone on channel A 

Bl Enable tone on channel B 

B2 Enable tone on channel C 

B3 Enable noise on channel A 

B4 Enable noise on channel B 

B5 Enable noise on channel C 

B6 Enable input on I/O port A 

B7 Enable input on I/O port B 

Registers R8, R9 and RIO control 
the amplitude for each channel. The 
lower four bits (B0-B3) allow direct 
processor control of amplitude. If bit 
4=1, the amplitude is controlled by 
the envelope generator. 

Registers Rll and R12 control the 
envelope frequency, which is given 
by: 

fe = fclock + (256 (R11R12)) 

Here all 16 bits in both registers are 

used. 

Register R13 controls the envelope 
shape. Only the lower four bits are 



BDIR 


BC1 


Operation 








PSG inactive 





1 


read PSG register 


1 





write PSG register 


1 


1 


latch address 
Table 2. 



Address correspondence to Raymond J. Bell, RD 1, 
Landenberg Manor, Landenberg, PA 19350. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 195 



Listing 1. PSG Sound Generator driver. 



033fl 




1 










Q33fl 




2 


! PSG 


DRIVE 




033fl 




3 


! 29DEC79 


R.J. BELL 


033R 




4 


! RRM 1 


RLLOCRTION 




0050 




5 




#=$50 




0051 




6 


REG 


*=*+l 




0052 




7 


DRTR 


*=*+! 




0052 




8 


! I/O 








E822 




9 




*=*E822 




E823 




10 


CNTRL 


*=*+l 




E843 




11 




*=$E843 




E844 




12 


DDR 


*=*+l 




E84F 




13 




*=*E84F 




E850 




14 


PORT 


*=*+! 




E850 




15 


! EXECUTF BLE 


033R 




16 




*=$33R 




©33R 


R551 


17 


WRITE 


LDR 


DRTR 


•GET USER 


033C 


R202 


18 




LDX 


#$02 


! WRITE PSG 


033E 


D009 


19 




BNE 


WRTPIR 


! FORCED 


©340 


R550 


20 


LRTCH 


LDR 


REG 


!GET REG # 


0342 


R2FF 


21 




LDX 


#*FF 


!SET DDR TO 


0344 


8E43E8 


22 




STX 


DDR 


! OUTPUT 


034? 


R203 


23 




LDX 


#$03 


!SET UP 


0349 


SD4FE8 


24 


WRTPIR 


STR 


PORT 


ISEND RDDR 


034C 


8E22E8 


25 




STX 


CNTRL 


•LRTCH IT 


034F 


D00E 


26 




BNE 


EXIT 


! FORCED 


0351 


R200 




READ 


LDX 


#$00 


!SET DDR FOR 


0353 


8E43E8 


23 




STX 


DDR 


! INPUT 


0356 


E8 


29 




I NX 




!SET UP 


0357 


8E22E8 


30 




STX 


CNTRL 


! TO RERD 


035R 


RD4FE8 


31 




LDR 


PORT 


!RERD DRTR 


035D 


8551 


32 




STR 


DRTR 


!SRVE IT 


035F 


R200 


33 


EXIT 


LDX 


#$00 


! DISABLE 


0361 


3E22E8 


34 




STX 


CNTRL 


! PSG 


0364 


60 


35 




RTS 






0365 


204003 


36 


GETREG 


JSR 


LRTCH 


!SET UP RDDR 


8368 


205 1 03 


37 




JSR 


RERD 


!GET DRTR 


036B 


60 


33 




RTS 






036C 


204003 


39 


WRTREG 


JSR 


LRTCH 


!GET RDDR 


036F 


203R03 


40 




JSR 


WRITE 


.•SEND DRTR 


0372 


60 


41 




RTS 






0373 




42 




. END 





defined. These bits work together to 
yield various combinations of attack 
and decay of sound. 

Once you set up a particular sound, 
the PSG will continue to make that 
sound without any further interven- 
tion on the part of the PET. 

Finally, R14 and R15 read/write to 
I/O ports A and B, respectively. All 
bits in one I/O register must be set up 
as all input or all output. 

Eight multiplexed address/data 
lines (DA0-DA7) and two control 
lines (BC1 and BDIR) accomplish 
communication with the chip. You 
write (or read) a register by first writ- 
ing the lower four-bit address and 
latching it. This selects one of the 16 
registers. Then you can send the data 
to or from that register. Lines BC1 
and BDIR on the chip control this as 
in Table 2. 

Circuit Construction 

But I wanted to interface the chip 
directly to the PET user port, which 
only has eight lines available. So I 



used two lines on the IEEE interface 
on the PET as the control lines and 
used the user port for the address/ 



data lines. See the circuit in Fig. 1. 

The 74LS04 teams up with an inex- 
pensive 3.579 MHz color TV crystal 
to form a simple TTL oscillator. The 
resulting frequency is divided by two 
by one-half of a 74LS74 flip-flop to 
give 1.789 MHz, as the maximum 
clock rate for the PSG is 2 MHz. You 
should use this frequency because 
the PSG software assumes this fre- 
quency and color TV crystals are 
cheap and available. 

If you want another frequency, 
make sure you change the appropri- 
ate register values, and stay in the 
range of 1 to 2 MHz. Connect lines 
DA0-DA7 on the chip to PA0-PA7 on 
the PET user port. BC1 and BDIR go 
to pins 1 and 2, respectively, on the 
IEEE connector. Tie analog channels 
A, B and C to the input of an LM386 
audio amplifier. You can use wire- 
wrap techniques; layout is not criti- 
cal. I used two pieces of ribbon cable, 
each connected to a 24-pin edge con- 
nector. 

Software 

The software driver for the PSG is 
given in Listing 1. I assembled the 
machine code to reside in the second 
cassette buffer at location $33A(826). 
Locations 80 and 81 in RAM— regis- 
ter number and data, respectively— 
provide the interface to BASIC. 
These locations work well on the old 
PET— I'm not sure they will work on 
new PETs. 

To write to the PSG in BASIC, 
POKE the register number in 80 and 
the data value in 81 and execute SYS 
(876). To read a register, POKE the 



PET USER PORT 



PAO-7 



GPIB 
•PORT 



2«0 



00060000 




22pF 



3579MH* 



* 



74LS04 



10 



t>- 



470 
-wv- 



IOpF 



-)h 




vcc 



J- 




, t 






74LS74 
1 
CLK 

D Q 




3 






2 


« 











LS04 



0^ 



Fig. 1. Programmable sound generator— PET interface. 



196 Microcomputing, May 1981 



BELL 



0=QUIT" 
1 *SIREN H 
2=B0MB" 
3-EXPLOSION" 

4= WOLF WHISTLE" 
5=PHRSERS"; : INPUT I 
1=8 



Listing 2. 

5 REM PSG DEMO PRGM 2JRN86 R.J. 

8 REM FOR OLD PETS 

10 GOTO3600 

20 PR I NT" ."WHICH EFFECT 

30 PRINT" 

40 PRINT" 

50 PRINT" 

60 PRINT" 

70 PRINT" 

83 1»1KTU>+I a -1F I<9 THEN 

35 IF I>6 THEN 28 

30 ON I GOTO 95.108,208,360,400,500 

95 END 

99 REM SIREN EFFECT 

100 GOSUB 1000 

105 REM SELECT 448 HZ ON CH. R 

1 1 R=0 • V=254 : GOSUB2000 

120 R=l = V=0 = G0SUB2888 

125 REM ENABLE CH ft 

130 R=7 : V=62 : GOSUB2000 

135 REM MAX. AMPLITUDE ON CH. A 

1 40 R=8 : V«15 • GOSUB2000 

145 REM SOFTWARE WAIT LOOP 

150 FORI-1TO450NEXT 

155 REM SELECT 187 HZ 

160 R=0 : V=86 : GOSUB2000 

170 R»l : V=l GOSUB2000 

180 FORI=1TO550NEXT 

190 GETA$ IFA$=""THEN110 

1 92 R=8 : V=0 : GOSUB2000 

195 GOTO20 

199 REM BOMB WHISTLE EFFECT 

200 GOSUB 1000 

2 10 R=7 : V=62 : GOSUB2000 
220 R=3 = V= 1 5 : GOSUB2000 



-.•-■i 



^25 R=0 

230 F0RV=48T0192 

235 REM DO FREQ. SWEEP ON CH. A 

240 F0RI=1T04NEXTI 

250 NEXTV 

268 R=8 V=0 = GOSUB2800 

299 REM EXPLOSION 

300 GOSUB 1000 

305 REM SELECT NOISE PERIOD 

310 R=6 : V=0 : GOSUB2000 

315 REM ENABLE NOISE 

320 R=7 : V=7 : GOSUB200O 

325 REM ENABLE ENVELOPE GENERATOR 

330 R=3 V= 1 6 : GOSUB2000 

340 R=9 : GOSUB2000 

350 R=10GOSLIB2008 

355 REM SELECT ENVELOPE PERIOD 

360 R= 1 2 •• V=56 : GOSUB2080 

3SS REM SELECT DECAY MODE FOR ENV. 

370 G0T028 

400 GOSUB 1000 

405 R=6 • V=l • GOSUB200O 

403 REM ENABLE NOISE ON CH. B 

410 R=7 : V=46 : G0SUB2888 

4 1 5 R=8 : V= 1 5 : G0SUB2888 

428 R=9 : V=9 : GOSUB2088 

422 R=0 

424 REM DO FREQ. SWEEP 

425 F0RV=64T032STEP-1 
430 GOSUB 2880 

432 F0RI«1T012:NEXT 

435 NEXT 

440 F0RI«1T0158-NEXT 

450 F0RV=64T048STEP-1 

452 GOSUB2080 

455 F0RI=1T025 NEXT 

458 NEXT 

460 FOR , v'=43TO104 

462 GOSUB2080 

465 FOR I = 1 T06 : NEXT 

463 NEXT 

478 R=3 : V=0 : G0SUB2988 

480 R=9 : GOSUB2808 

435 GOTO20 

499 REM PHASER PHI RE 

588 GOSUB 1000 

585 R=6V=11 GOSUB2000 



GEN, 




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Microcomputing, May 1981 197 



Listing 2 continued. 

503 REM ENABLE NOISE & TONE 

5 1 9 R=7 : V=54 GOSUE209G 

515 F0R,T=1T03 

52S R=3 : V= 1 5 : GOSUB2090 

530 R=y : V=55 GOSUB20OG 

535 REM TURN PHflSERS ON 

540 FORI = lTCill0NEXT 

545 REM TURN PHflSERS OFF 

550 R=S : V=0 : GOSUE2UU0 

560 F0RI-1T019NEXT 

570 NEXTJ 

575 REM RANDOMLY GET TO EXPLOSION 

530 IF 3*RND<1>>=2THEN 300 

599 GOTO20 

999 REM CLERR PSG REGISTERS 

1000 V=0 

1010 FOR R=0TO15 
1020 G0SUB2MG 
1030 NEXT 
1040 RETURN 

1999 REM WRITE TO PSG 

2000 POKES© , R : P0KE3 1 , V • S VS < 376 ) : RETURN 

2499 REM READ FROM PSG 

2500 POKES0,RSVS<369::' RETURN 

2999 REM POKE PSG DRIVER INTO MEMORY 

3000 FOR I=0TO56 
3010 READ fl 



255,14 
2,203, 



3020 POKE 326+ I, H 
3030 NEXT 

3040 DfiTfi 165,31,1 62 , 2 , 203 ,9,1 65 , 80 , 1 62 , 
3050 DflTfl 232 , 1 62 ,3,141 , 79 , 232 , 1 42 , 34 , 23 
3060 DRTR0, 142,67,232,232, 142,34,232, 173 
3070 DRTR 31,162,0,142,34,232,96,32,64,3,32,81 
3030 DRTR3 , 96 , 32 , 64 , 3 , 32 ,53,3 , 96 
3090 G0T020 
RERDV. 






>•> 



2,67 
14,162 
2, 133 



register number in 80 and execute 
SYS (869). You can get the resulting 
value by peeking 81. The software is 
set up to do repeated reads or writes 
on the same register without having 
to set the register number up. Exe- 
cute SYS (826) for writes and SYS 
(849) for reads. 



The I/O locations on the PET are 
$E822(59426), which is the IEEE out- 
put port and controls the PSG; $E84F 
(59471), which is the user port and 
transfers the data; and $E843(59459), 
which is the data direction register 
for the user port that determines the 
direction of data flow. 



Program Updates 



Many fine programs have been pub- 
lished in the pages of Kilobaud Micro- 
computing, but they are of little use to 
you if they aren't compatible with 
your system. Have you converted any 
of our programs for use on your own 
system? 

If so, readers are asked to send in 
program changes they find necessary 
when they convert a program we have 
published to another system. 



If you have successfully converted a 
program published in Microcomputing 
for use on your system, send in a print- 
out and a cassette or disk copy of the 
conversion. We'll check out the con- 
versions and changes to see that they 
run OK and prepare the converted pro- 
gram for possible publication. This 
way, you'll be sharing your efforts 
with thousands of other users, who'll 
be able to add another selection to their 
program libraries. Of course, you will 
be rewarded handsomely for your ef- 
forts. 




Listing 2 demonstrates the versatil- 
ity of the PSG and shows how typical 
sounds are programmed. Lines 3000- 
3099 POKE the machine-language 
driver shown in Listing 1 into the sec- 
ond cassette buffer. The subroutine 
starting at line 1000 clears the PSG 
registers. The subroutine at line 2000 
interfaces BASIC to the PSG driver 
when writing to it; likewise, subrou- 
tine 2500 interfaces when reading 
from the driver. 

Lines 100-199 alternate high and 
low tones like a European siren. The 
program enables the low tone for an 
additional 350 ms, after enabling the 
high tone on channel A and waiting 
350 ms. This repeats until interrupt- 
ed by the keyboard. 

Lines 200-299 perform the whis- 
tling bomb noise with a frequency 
sweep from high to low on channel 
A. You do this by writing a new value 
out to R0 of the PSG every few ms. 
This leads to the bomb-explosion ef- 
fect in lines 300-399. Here, all tones 
are shut off, and noise is selected on 
all three channels. The amplitude is 
under control of the envelope genera- 
tor, which starts out at maximum val- 
ue and decays to zero. 

Lines 400-499 produce the wolf 
whistle. The computer uses both 
tones to provide the whistle and noise 
to add breath. It does two frequency 
sweeps. 

Last, lines 500-599 produce phaser 
fire sounds. These also use noise and 
tone, except the sound is turned on 
and off rapidly. 

There are ways to improve the effi- 
ciency of this chip, particularly in 
real-time interactive games. All of my 
demonstration software uses timing 
loops to generate various sounds. 
This wastes much time; it would be 
far better to drive the PSG under in- 
terrupt, so that only microseconds 
need be used. 

Remember, once the PSG is set up, 
it requires no more attention to keep 
producing that particular sound. Al- 
so, at a PSG interrupt, if you use the 
I/O ports you can read the status of 
joysticks and other input. You could 
place the resulting data directly into 
the memory location, where it is used 
by BASIC. 

Fortunately, generating interrupts 
in the PET is easy. You can use the 60 
Hz interrupt already in the PET or 
program the timers in the 6522 VIA 
(versatile interface adapter) to get in- 
terrupts of some other time than 
16.67 ms. See the PET manual for fur- 
ther details. ■ 



198 Microcomputing, May 1981 



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Microcomputing, May 1981 199 



This PET package lets you keep tabs on your program collection. 



Find That Program! 



By Robert W. Baker 



Program Finder is a two-program 
package for the PET designed to 
provide an easy method of locating 
specific programs or groups of pro- 
grams within a large program library. 
One program, Program Data, is used 
to specify the program categories and 
qualifiers to be used to identify or 
separate programs within the collec- 
tion. 

The program categories would nor- 
mally be used to group programs by 



type, such as games, business, utility 
or household. The qualifiers could be 
anything desired to further separate 
or classify programs. They would 
normally be used to identify program 
requirements, such as needs a print- 
er, uses data files, uses joysticks, 
written in machine language, uses 
two tape drives or requires disks. 

The program then stores detailed 
information on each program to be 
entered in the directory, creating a 



Program Data listing. 



T*="#$EOT-:" FB$="TflPE/DISK ID" 
D R T fl" PRINT Tfi£'::6>; GOSUB 1 
HEW PROGRAM FILE DIRECTORY 
OLD PROGRAM FILE DIRECTORY 



10 REM *******M******************** 

20 REM 

30 REM PROGRRM DRTfi 

40 REM FOR TRPE 

50 REM 

60 REM BV ROBERT W. BAKER, A TOO. MJ 

?0 REM 

80 REM ***♦:******:♦.****************** 

90 • 

108 NR=PEEK< : 500O3) POKE 59468/12 

110 CM=14 QH-14 DIM C*<CM>/Q*<QM) 

120 PRINT":]" .;TfiB<8),"P R R R M 

130 PRINT PRINT PRINT" 1 - gCREATEl 

140 PRINT PRINT PR I NT "2 - COPYS 

150 PRINT SPCOl); "WITH OPTION TO RDD ENTRIES" PRINT 

160 PRINT SPC<11);"* REQUIRES 2 TRPE DRIVES »" PRINT : PRINT 

170 PRIHT"3 - SEE IT" OLD PROGRRM FILE DIRECTORY" PRINT 

130 PRINT SPCai'i"* REQUIRES 2 TRPE DRIVES *" PRINT PRINT 

190 GOSUB 1510 

200 PR I NT " SELEC T MODE ( 1 - 3 > = " i 

210 GET R* IF RtO'l" OR R*>"3" THEN 216 

220 PM=VRL<R*> PR I NT "IT, 

230 IF PM=3 THEN Rt="2"] PRINT" INSERT TRPE TO BE EDITED IN DRIVE #1," 

24A IF PM=2 THEN PRINT" INSERT TRPE TO BE COPIED IN DRIVE #1," PRINT 

250 PRINT" INSERT R BLANK TRPE IN DRIVE •";!**;" AND 

260 PRINT = PR INT "DEPRESS ANY KEY WHEN RERDY TO START 

270 GET R$ IF Rt="" THEN 270 

280 MC=59411 M0=53 MF=t~l F0=122 

290 IF PM>1 THEN MC=59456 MO-287 MF=223 F0=5S GOTO420 

300 C=0 : PR I NT " 7IDEF I NE PROGRRM CATAGOR I ES , " J CM ; " MAX : " : PR I NT 

310 INPUT" dlir'.;C$ -IF C*='W THEN 350 

320 C*<C>«C$ C-C+l IF C-'.CM THEN 310 

330 PR I NT PR I NT • PR I NT " WAX I MUM NUMBER OF CATAGOR I ES ! " : PR I NT 

349 PRINT PRINT"WRNT TO RE-ENTER CATAGOR I ES", GOSUB 1520 IF R$="V" 

350 Q=0 : PR I NT " 3DEF I NE PROGRRM QUAL I F I ERS , " I QM ; " MRX : " PR I NT 
360 INPUT" Jill" ,Q$ IF G$='V THEN 488 

370 Q*<Q)«Q$ Q=Q+1 IF 6KQM THEN 368 

380 PRINT PRINT PRINT" SMflX I MUM NUMBER OF QUALIFIERS! 

:"-:90 PRINT : PR I NT "WANT TO RE-ENTER QUALIFIERS"; GOSUB 1520 IF R|-="Y" 

400 INPUT "DIRECTORY HERDING ■Jill" ; H* IF H$="«" THEN H*=" " 

410 GOTO 510 

420 PR I NT "IT; OPEN 1,1,0 GOSUB 1470 Ht=Lt 

430 PRINT GOSUB 1510 : PR INT "DIRECTORY HERDING: » , h$ 

440 PRINT GOSUB 1310 PRINT : PR I NT "CORRECT DIRECTORY"; 

450 IF R$="N" THEN CLOSE 1 GOTO 120 

460 PRINT PRINT GOSUB 1518 

470 GOSUB 1470 C*VAL<L*) 

4S0 IF OO THEN FOR X=0 TO C-l GOSUB 1470 C*<X>-L* NEXT 

490 GOSUB 1478 Q«VAL<L*) 

506 IF Q>0 THEN FOR X=0 TO Q-l GOSUB 1470 Q*<X>«L« NEXT 

510 L«INT<<PM*2>/2> IF NR=0 THEN POKE 243, FO POKE 244, L+l 

520 OPEN 2,L,1,H* : L$=H$ GOSUB 1430 

530 L*-STR*<C> GOSUB 1430 

540 IF OO THEN FOR X=0 TO C-l :L$«C$<X) GOSUB 1430 : NEXT 



: NP=0 
310 



= PR I NT 



THEN 300 



THEN 350 



GOSUB 1520 



REM OLD 




data file on tape. It has options that al- 
low copying or editing the data files if 
a second tape is available. This pro- 
gram is extremely flexible and should 
handle most applications. 

The second program, Program 
Search, will then read the data file 
created by the other program and dis- 
play or list the desired information. 
This program has various options to 
allow finding groups of programs, 
such as all game programs, all pro- 
grams that require a printer or all 
programs written by a specific au- 
thor. Other options allow displaying 
or printing only that information de- 
sired for each file that meets the se- 
lection criteria. 

This program package should pro- 
vide an easy means of maintaining a 
large program library without forget- 
ting what programs are available or 
where they are located. It should also 
be useful for schools, clubs or other 
groups sharing a collection of pro- 
grams. A little experimentation 
should clearly show how they oper- 
ate and can best be used for your par- 
ticular application. 

Both programs were written to run 
on all current model 40-column PETs 
with any ROM operating system. 
This includes both ROMs on the 8K 
PET and the 16/32K PET/CBMs. 

Program Search was written to sup- 
port both the Commodore 2022 and 
2023 printers, as well as the Axiom 
EX-801P printer. 

Program Data 

This program will create a tape 
data file that can be scanned or 
searched by the Program Search pro- 
gram. If two tapes are available, it 
will allow copying or editing of pro- 

Robert W. Baker (15 Windsor Drive, Atco, NJ 
08004} writes the monthly "PET-pourri" column 
for Microcomputing magazine. 



200 Microcomputing, May 1981 



gram directories for easy mainte- 
nance and updating when required. 
When the program is run, select 
the desired mode by entering the ap- 
propriate number from 1 to 3; any 
other character will be ignored. In- 
sert the appropriate tape(s) and fol- 
low the displayed instructions to 
start. 

The Create mode creates a new pro- 
gram directory data file. First define 
the desired program categories, up to 
14, and press return. No entries are 
required if desired. If you should 
reach the maximum number of en- 
tries allowed, you will be given the 
option of reentering the categories. 
Some possible suggestions: business, 
educational, games, household, utili- 
ties, graphic/sound demo, miscella- 
neous and subroutines. 

Next, define the desired program 
qualifiers, again with up to 14 al- 
lowed. They are entered in the same 
way the categories were entered. 
Some possible suggestions here might 
be: printer, sound, two-tapes, disk, 
data files, joysticks, light pen and ma- 
chine language. 

Enter a directory heading to identi- 
fy this particular directory. This can 
be useful where multiple directory 
files are used to further separate an 
extremely large program collection. 
You might want separate directories 
for games, business, etc., and then 
use the categories to identify board 
games, card games, strategy games, 
etc. The directory heading will then 
identify the specific directory being 
created or searched. 

Once the initial overall data for the 
directory is defined, you then enter 
the specific data for each program as 
follows: 

PROGRAM TITLE-The file name 
used to save the program, 16 charac- 
ters maximum. 

SOURCE/AUTHOR-Who wrote 
the program or where it was ob- 
tained. Defaults to "?" if nothing is 
entered before hitting return. 

PROGRAM SIZE-Approximately 
how big the program is, or how much 
memory is required to run the pro- 
gram. Defaults to "?" if nothing is en- 
tered before hitting return. 

TAPE/DISK ID-Where the pro- 
gram is located, assuming you have 
devised some kind of tape/disk iden- 
tification system. This field identifier 
can be changed by changing the val- 
ue of FB$ near the beginning of each 
program. You may want to define 
this as a backup tape ID, etc. 



Program listing continued. 

556 L$*STR$<Q) GOSUB 143© 

566 IF Q>0 THEN FOR X=0 TO Q-l :L**Q*<X) GOSUB 1438 = NEXT 

570 IF PM>1 THEN 940 

580 INPUTTPROGRflH TITLE .Jiil".;PT* IF PT*='W THEN PRINTS"; GOTO 980 

5 -?r JLr£ H<PT * >>16 THEN PRINT"«TOO LONG' -16 CHRS MAX>" : GOSUB 1568 GOTO 580 
fc.00 PR INT I NPUT " SOURCE/AUTHOR ?ll||" ; PR* uo. uuiu o*u 

6 1 PR I NT I NPUT " APPROX . PROGRM SI2E ~ Mil" ; PS t 

620 PRINT PRINT FB*.; " III! INPUT PB* 

630 GOSUB 66% GOSUB 730 GOSUB 888 

640 GOSUB 1280 : PR I NT "CORRECT " ; GOSUB 1520 -IF R$="V" THEN GOSUB 14R0 

650 GOTO 580 " " 

66Q PC=0 : IF C=0 THEN RETURN 

670 PR I NT "SELECT RPPROPRIRTE CRTRGORIES:" PRINT 

680 FOR X"8 TO C-l GOSUB 1500 PRINT C$<X) = NEXT 

690 PRINT : INPUT-ENTER RLL CODE LETTERS dMT;L« IF L*="«" THEN RETURN 

700 FOR X=l TO LEN<L$) : L«RSC<HID*<L*j X. 1 > >-65 

710 IF L<8 OR L>=C THEN GOSUB 1550 GOTO 668 

720 PC=PC OR (21L) NEXT RETURN 

730 PQ=0 IF Q=0 THEN RETURN 

740 PR I NT " SELECT RPPROPR I ATE QUAL I F I ERS : " : PR I NT 

750 FOR X"8 TO Q-l GOSUB 1588 PRINT 0*<X) NEXT 

760 PRINT INPUT-ENTER RLL CODE LETTERS ■llll" , L* IF L»«"«" THEN RETURN 

770 FOR X=l TO LENCL*) : L=RSC<NID*'::Lf , X, 1 > >-6=i 

730 IF L<8 OR L>=Q THEN GOSUB 1550 GOTO 738 

790 PQ=PQ OR (2tL) : NEXT RETURN 

800 PR I NT 'TENTER R BRIEF PROGRAM DESCRIPTION" PRINT SPC<8>;" 

810 PR I NT "PRESS CLEAR. 'HOME WHEN DONE : " PRINT : GOSUB 1518 X=0 PD$="" 

820 GET R* IF R$»"" THEN 828 

830 R=ASC-:R$> IF R=13 THEN 858 

840 IF (R AND 127X32 THEN 878 

850 PD**PD*+R* PRINT R$i X=X+1 : IF X<258 THEN 82m 

S6& PRINT"*MDESCRIPTION TOO LONG!" GOSUB 1568 :Q0T0 888 

870 IF R028 THEN 920 

380 IF X<2 THEN 888 

390 X=X-1 R*«RIGNT*<PD**1) PD$«LEFT*<PD*,X) 

900 IF RSC<R*>>13 THEN PR I NT " aMKBWWT PRINT PD*: 'GOTO 828 

910 PRINT CNR$<28); GOTO 820 

920 IF <R AND 127)019 THEN 820 

930 PD$=PD*+CHR$ '■. 1 9 ) : RETURN 

940 PRINT-3"; IF PM=2 THEN PRINT"COPVING OLD PROGRAM FILE DIRECTORY W 

950 GOSUB 1470 IF LIOTI THEN 1888 " 

960 PRINT'TMEND OF TAPE 

970 PRINT PRINT"WANT TO ADD ENTRIES": GOSUB 1520 IF R$="V" THEN 580 

980 PRINT L*=T$ GOSUB 1430 CLOSE 1 : CLOSE 2 

990 PRINT PRINT PRINT NP; "PROGRAMS IN DIRECTORY" PRINT PRINT END 

1000 PT$=L* GOSUB 1470 : PA*=L* GOSUB 1478 

1010 PS*=L$ GOSUB 1470 =PB*«L* GOSUB 1478 

1020 PC«VRL<L$) GOSUB 1470 PQ-VRL<L*) PD$="" 

1030 GOSU B9100 :PB$=PD$+L$ IF RSC<Lt)019 THEN 1030 

1040 GOSUB 1460 : IF PM=2 THEN 1260 

1050 GOSUB 1280 : PRINT "COPY <C>< DELETE (D>< OR EDIT <E> = "i 

1066 GET R$ IF R*<"C" OR R$>"E" THEN 1868 

1070 PRINT"a";R$; 

1080 IF R$="C" THEN 1268 

1090 IF R$="D" THEN 950 

1100 PRINT'TJTVPE NEW ENTRY AND RETURN" OR ONLY 

1110 PRINT : PRINT" SRETURN" TO KEEP THE SAME DATA." PRINT 

1120 GOSUB 1510 

1130 PR I NT "PROGRAM TITLE: ";PT* GOSUB 1278 IF LtO"«" THEN PT$=L$ 

1140 PRINT : PR I NT "SOURCE, 'AUTHOR : " .: PA* GOSUB 1270 IF LSO'W THEN PA$=L* 

1150 PRINT PRINT-SIZE ";PS* : GOSUB 1278 IF L*0"«" THEN PSt*L$ 

1160 PRINT PRINT FB*; " : ";PB* GOSUB 1270 IF L$0"«" THEN PB**L* 

1170 PRINT"3"; GOSUB 1328 

1180 PRINT : PRINT : PR I NT "NEM CRTRGORIES"; GOSUB 1520 IF R*«"N" THEN 1208 

1190 GOSUB 660 

1200 PR I NT 'TT; GOSUB 1360 

1210 PRINT PRINT ■' PR I NT "NEW QUALIFIERS"; GOSUB 1528 IF R*«"N" THEN 1230 

1220 GOSUB 730 

1 230 PR I NT " 3DESCR I PT I ON : " : PR I NT : PR I NT : GOSUB 1 308 

1240 PRINT"NEW DESCRIPTION"; GOSUB 1520 IF R$="N" THEN 1058 

1250 GOSUB 800 :G0T0 1058 

1260 GOSUB 1400 GOTO 950 

1276 INPUT "ANEW DATA dW;L$ RETURN 

128© PRINT'TFRGGRAM TITLE: ";PT* : FRINT"SGURCE/AUTHfiR : " ; PA$ 

1290 PR I NT "SIZE: »;PS*;" ";FB*;": ";PB* GOSUB 1320 GOSUB 1360 

1300 GOSUB 1310 : PR I NT PD$ PR I NT " W««««!Ii'I(!M!!I«'M«!M«pWpWi>I!iW" REM DOWN 21 

1310 PRINT" -" RETURN 

1320 IF PC=0 THEN RETURN 

1330 PRINT "CRTRGORIES " FOR X=0 TO C-l 

1340 IF PC AND <2tX) THEN GOSUB 1588 PRINT C*<X> 

1350 NEXT RETURN 

1360 IF PQ=0 THEN RETURN 

137Q PRINT"QURLIFIERS : " FOR X=0 TO Q-l 

1380 IF PQ AND <2tX> THEN GOSUB 1588 : PRINT 0*<X) 

1390 NEXT RETURN 

1400 L*=PT$ GOSUB 1430 : L*=PA* GOSUB 1430 = 

1410 L$=PS* GOSUB 1430 L*=PB$ GOSUB 1430 

1420 L*"STR*(PC) GOSUB 1438 L**STR*<PQ) GOSUB 1438 : L*=PD* NP=NP+1 

1430 Z=TI PRINT#2,L$ IF TI-Z<18 THEN RETURN 

1440 IF NR THEN POKE MC ... MO FOR Z=l TO 7Q NEXT POKE MC . MF 

1450 RETURN 

1460 GET#1,L$ GOTO 1488 

1470 INPUT#1,L* 

1480 IF ST=0 THEN RETURN 

1490 PR I NT ".IT APE READ ERROR. ST = ";ST CLOSE 1 CLOSE 2 END 

1500 PRINT SPC<5) ; CNR«X+65) ; " - "; RETURN 

1510 PRINT" — ' RETURN 

1520 PRINT" (V/N)« "i 

1530 GET R$ IF R$="V" OR R*="N" THEN] PR I NT" S" ; R$; "■" ; RETURN 
1540 GOTO 1530 
1550 PRINT" SIN VALID CODE! 
1560 FOR X=l TO 1000 NEXT RETURN 
READV. 



Microcomputing, May 1981 201 



DESCRIPTION-A brief descrip- 
tion of any miscellaneous informa- 
tion about the program. Up to 250 
characters may be entered on multi- 
ple lines (using return to end each 
line), and any characters, as well as 
graphics, can be included. The CLR/ 
HOME key is used to indicate the end 
of the description. The default is no 
description if nothing is entered be- 
fore hitting return. 

The program also requests the ap- 
propriate category and qualifier 
code. This code is a string of letters 
identifying the desired categories/ 
qualifiers to be associated with the 
program and can be any combination 
from the list of available categories/ 
qualifiers. 

After all data for a program is en- 
tered, the entire entry will be dis- 
played in the normal display format 
and you are asked if it is correct. If 
not, you can discard the current val- 
ues and reenter the entire entry 
again. Typing return with no data 
specified for source/author, size or ID 
will enter a '?" in that field as a de- 
fault value. Hitting CLR/HOME be- 
fore any description is entered will 
give a blank description. 

Hit return without entering any 
program title to indicate all programs 
have been entered into the directory. 
This will close the output file and ter- 
minate the program. The display will 
indicate the number of programs en- 



tered into the directory. 

One additional note on entering the 
description. The delete key will still 
operate as usual and will delete the 
last character entered (including re- 
turns). All other cursor control char- 
acters will have no effect. 

The Copy mode requires a second 
tape drive and is used to copy the en- 
tire contents of an existing program 
directory unchanged. It does allow 
adding new programs at the end of 
the directory if desired. Additional 
entries are entered as described for 
the Create mode. 

The Edit mode also requires a sec- 
ond tape drive and is used to selec- 
tively copy the contents of an existing 
program directory. Each entry is dis- 
played and can be copied (un- 
changed), deleted or edited. When an 
entry is edited, you have the option of 
changing each individual field of data 
for that program. After checking all 
fields, the updated data is displayed 
and you can copy, delete or edit it 
again. After the entire existing pro- 
gram directory has been read, you 
have an option to add additional new 
entries. The instructions displayed 
during the editing should be suffi- 
cient to understand the operation and 
achieve the desired results. 

Program Search 

This program reads the program di- 
rectory data files created by Program 



Program Search listing. 



10 REM M**i»****«***»********»****> 
28 REN 

38 REM PROGRAM SEARCH 

46 REM FOR TRPE 

50 REM 

60 REM BY ROBERT M. BAKER, ATCO, N,T 

70 REM 

80 REM ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦*♦**♦♦♦♦*♦♦****♦♦♦* 

30 

100 CM=14 QM=14 DIM Zt (CH>/Q*<QM) T$="#$E0T?i" 

110 FB*=" TAPE/DISK ID" POKE 59468/12 

120 PRINT"3";TftB<6);"P R G R R M S E R R C H" PRINT TAB<6>; GOSUB 1200 

130 PRINT PRINT : PRINT" INSERT TRPE TO BE RERD IN DRIVE #1," PRINT 

140 GOSUB 1300 PRINT PRINT NP=0 

150 OPEN 1,1,0 GOSUB 1278 H$=L* 

160 PR I NT "TIB I RECTORY HERDING ";H* PRINT GOSUB 1288 

170 PRINT PR I NT "CORRECT DIRECTORY"; 

180 GOSUB 1360 IF R*="N" THEN CLOSE 1 GOTO 128 

190 PR I NT "THREADING DIRECTORY CATAGORIES.'QUALIFIERS 

200 GOSUB 1270 C«VAL<L* > 

21 8 IF C>0 THEN FOR X-8 TO C-l GOSUB 1270 C*<X)-L$ NEXT 

220 GOSUB 1270 Q=VRL'L*' 

230 IF Q>0 THEN FOR X«8 TO Q-l GOSUB 1270 :Q*<.X>=L* NEXT 



246 PRINT 
250 PRINT 
260 PRINT 
270 PRINT 
280 GOSUB 
290 GOSUB 



PRINT PR I NT "OK, READY TO SCAN FOR SELECTED FILES." 

GOSUB 1350 

PR I NT "COMPLETE LIST OF RLL FILES": = GOSUB 1360 IF R*="N" THEN 30m 

GOSUB 710 PR I NT " TJ3E ARCH I NG " PR I NT PR I NT 

1210 IF PT$=T* THEN 628 
968 GOTO 280 
300 PR I NT "TENTER SELECTION CRITERIA FOR SELECTED 
310 PRINT PRINT "SCAN. DEPRESS RETURN" RFTER ERCH ENTRY. 

320 PRINT PR I NT "DEPRESS aRETURNS ONLY TO SKIP R GIVEN" PRINT SPC(13>; H 

330 PR I NT "ITEM AND ALLOW RLL VALUES FOR THRT 

340 PRINT PR INT "FIELD TO MRTCH DURING THE SCAN." PRINT GOSUB 1350 

350 INPUT "PROGRAM TITLE Jiil",CT* IF CJt="m" THEN CT*«"" 

360 IF LEN<CTt»16 THEN PRINT"W3T00 LONG! (16 CHRS MAX>" GOSUB 14m0 

370 PRINT INPUT "SOURCE, 'AUTHOR ^HI'MIR* IF CA$="«" THEN CA*="" 

380 PRINT PRINT FE* , " Jill": INPUT CB* IF CB*="«" THEN f:B*="" (More 



GOTO 350 




PROGRAM TITLE PROGRAM DRTR 
SOURCE/AUTHOR: ROBERT BAKER 
SIZE- SK TAPE/DISK ID 38 
CATEGORIES : 

C - UTILITY 
QUALIFIERS 

A - NEEDS 2 TAPES 
B - USES DISK FILES 
C - PRINTER 

THIS PROGRAM CREATES THE DATA FILES 
USED BY PROGRAM SEARCH TO ALLOW FINDING 
GROUPS OF PROGRAMS WITH COMMON 
FUNCIONS. NEEDS, ETC. 

x*XvX-xx>x-X'X'X'X<oxvX-x-X'X-x :-x-x-x x-x->xx-x-x -x-x-x- 



PROGRAM TITLE: PROGRAM SEARCH 
SOURCE/AUTHOR ROBERT BAKER 
SIZE: SK TAPE/DISK ID : 38 
CATEGORIES: 

C - UTILITY 
QUALIFIERS 

A - NEEDS 2 TAPES 
B - USES DISK FILES 
C - PRINTER 

THIS PROGRAM READS THE DATA FILES 
CREATED BV PROGRAM DATA 

IT ALLOWS FINDING GROUPS OF PROGRRMS 
WITH SIMILAR ATTRIBUTES... 

THUS, YOU COULD ERSILY GET R LIST OF 
RLL GAME PROGRAMS WRITTEN BY A SPECIFIC 
AUTHOR THAT HAVE SOUND AND USE 
JOYSTICKS! 



;::::::::::x::¥:W*;:::::-::::¥:::-:::::::x:x:xW:>::::::¥:&:;x::.: 



MMMMMNMMMM 



2 PROGRAMS FOUND IN DIRECTORY 

Typical printouts of directory data. 



Data and selectively displays data 
about the programs. The best way to 
understand the many options and 
features of this program is to first cre- 
ate a simple directory and then play 
with this program, trying the various 
options. 

When run, the program first opens 
the file and checks if this is the de- 
sired program directory. If correct, 
the program categories and qualifiers 
are read from the file and saved be- 
fore asking what to search for. The 
first question asks if a complete list of 
all programs is desired. If the answer 
is "N" (no), you can then enter the 
desired selection criteria to be 
searched on: program title, source/ 
author or tape/disk ID. Hitting return 
with no data specified will allow any 
value for that field to be a match. 

If any data is entered, it will be 
compared with the corresponding 
field for each entry in the directory. 
Only the number of characters en- 
tered for each field are compared and 
considered a match if equal. This is 
similar in operation to what happens 
when you enter LOAD XYZ to the 
PET Operating System, where it will 
match on XYZABC. Thus, if you en- 
ter a selection program title of "time", 
all titles starting with "time" will be 



202 Microcomputing, May 1981 




NATIONAL TRS-80 

MICROCOMPUTER SHOW 



New York Statler 

Exposition Hall 

(opposite Pennsylvania Railroad Station 

and Madison Square Garden) 

7th Ave. & 33rd Street 



May 21, 22, 23, 1981 

Thursday Noon to 6 PM 

Friday 11 AM to 6 PM 

Saturday 10 AM to 4 PM 



For the Businessman, Educator, Professional and Hobbyist. 

• Commercial Exhibits and Sales of Microcomputers, 
Software, Books, Magazines, Supplies, 

Parts, Printers, Etc. 

• Free Seminars 

• Famous Name Guest Speakers. 

• User Groups. 

(Mod I, II, III, Color and Pocket Computers). 

• Door Prizes - A TRS-80® Computer will be given 
away free each day, plus other prizes. 

Avoid standing on line - Send in your registration today! 

Radio Shack and TRS-80 are registered trademarks of Tandy Corporation, which has 
no relationship to Kengore Corporation or The National TRS-80 Microcomputer Snow. 



REGISTRATION FOR TRS-80® MICROCOMPUTER SHOW 



May 21, 22,23, 1981 
Name 



New York Statler Hotel 



Title 



Company Name 
Address 



City, State, Zip 



Please send 



registrations at $10.00 each 



Send To: 

Kengore Corporation, Dept. 80 ^54 

3001 Route 27 

Franklin Park, N.J. 08823 



(Registration Badge will be sent to you on May 1st.) 

Co-sponsored By 



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microcomputing 



(Be sure to enclose 
check or money order.) 



J 



indicated: time billing, time clock, 
timer, etc. You can also select the de- 
sired categories and/or qualifiers to 
be scanned for, in any combination. 
To be considered a match, and be dis- 
played/printed, the title, author and 
ID must be equal and the program 
must have one of the categories and/ 
or qualifiers specified. 

Once the selection criteria are spec- 
ified, you can have the data found on 
each program printed on a printer or 
displayed on the display. Further- 
more, you can limit the amount of 
data to be shown by specifying only 
those fields wanted, or what fields to 
delete from the full format. After 
scanning an entire directory, the 
number of programs found matching 
the selection criteria will be indicated 
and you can scan another directory. 

If you have a Commodore 2040 
disk, I have another set of programs 
that use sequential disk data files in- 
stead of using tape. The disk version 
makes the editing capabilities more 
useful. If anyone is interested, I'll 
provide a copy of either set of pro- 
grams on cassette tape for $2 to cover 
costs. Indicate which you prefer. ■ 



MAGTC WAND 



This powerful word processor 
(new version 1.1) is now ready for 



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We stock most CP/M 8" sin- 
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(inc. TRS, Vector, North 
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customize Magic Wand for 
most systems: specify CPU, 
terminal, printer. 
Our fully interactive Mail 
Magic™ mail management 
software, with 14 user de- 
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and sort capability is avail- 
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COMPUTER CTY 
PO Box 60284 K 
Houston TX 77205 
(713)821-2702 

TM Magic Wand is a trademark of 
Small Business Applications 



Program listing continued. 



390 

400 
410 
420 
438 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 

500 

519 
520 
530 
=i4Pi 
558 
560 
570 
530 
590 

600 

610 
620 
630 
640 

650 



CC=2TCM-1 IF C=0 THEN 460 

PR I NT " SELECT APPR0PR I ATE CRT AG0R IES • " PR I NT 

FOP X=0 TO C-l GOSUB 1330 PRINT C*<X> NEXT 

PRINT = INPUT-ENTER ALL CODE LETTERS .1111 L$ IF L*-"«" THEN 460 

CC=0 : FOR X« 1 TO LEN ( L* ) : L=ASC < M I D* < L t , X , 1 • ) -65 

IF L<0 OR L>=C THEN GOSUB 1390 : GOTO 390 

CC=CC OR (2tL) = NEXT 

CQ=2TU.!M-1 IF Q=0 THEN 530 

PR I NT " SELECT APPROPR. I ATE QUAL I F I ERS : " : PR I NT 

FOR X=0 TO 0-1 GOSUB 1330 PRINT 0$<X> NEXT 

PRINT INPUT "ENTER ALL CODE LETTERS JIIIMI IF L$="«" THEN 530 

CQ=0 : FOR X= 1 TO LEN < L$ > ■ L=ASC ( M I D* < L$ , X , 1 ) > -65 

IF L<0 OR L>«Q THEN GOSUB 1390 : GOT0 460 

CQ=CQ OR (21L) NEXT 

PR I NT "H"; GOSUB 710 

PR I NT "SEARCHING 

GOSUB 1210 IF PT*«T* 

IF <CC AND PC>=0 THEN 

IF CCQ AND PQ>=0 THEN 

IF CT*OMID*<PT$, i,LEN<CT*>) 

IF CR*OMD*<PRt* 1 *LEN<CR*) ) 

IF CB*OMID*<PB*> 1*LEN<CB*>) 

GOSUB 960 GOTO 590 

IF (PF>0) AND '::FF=0> THEN FOR X=l 

IF PF THEN PRINT#4,NP 

CLOSE 1 CLOSE 4 

IF PF+FF=0 THEN PRINT 



PRINT PRINT 
THEN 620 
550 



550 



THEN 
THEN 
THEN 



55 



50 
50 

M 



TO 



"PROGRAMS FOUND 

GOSUB 1 30O 

PRINT : PRINT 



PRINT#4 NEXT 
I N D I RECTORY " : FOR X= 1 T06 : PR I NT#4 : NEXT 



GOSUB 1200 
660 PRINT TJSEND OF TAPE" PRINT 
670 PRINT HP," PROGRAMS FOUND IN DIRECTORY" 
680 PR INT "SEARCH ANOTHER DIRECTORY"; 
690 GOSUB 1360 IF R$«"V" THEN PRINT GOTO 120 
700 PRINT PRINT END 

FF=2T6-1 :PF=0 PRINT PRINT : PR I NT "PRINTED LIST 
GET R* IF R$="D" THEN OPEN 4,3 GOTO 750 
IF R*0"P" THEN 720 
PF= 1 : OPEN 4,4 : PR I NT#4 , CHR* < 8 ) i 
PRINT" 8T;R* 

PRINT "^COMPLETE DATA ON ALL FILES"; GOSUB 1360 
T" 3SELECT CODE LETTERS FOR ALL FIELD:- TO 

PR I NT "BE DISPLAYED, OP FIELDS TO BE OMITTED 



710 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 

780 PRINT 
790 PRINT 
800 GOSUB 
810 PRINT 
820 PRINT 
330 PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



P> OR DISPLAY CD) 



IF R*="V" THEN RETURN 



840 
850 
860 
870 
880 
890 

900 

919 
920 
930 
946 
950 
960 
970 
980 
990 

1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1060 
1070 
1080 
1090 
1100 
1110 

1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1160 
1170 
1180 



PRINT" IF 
1350 

SPC<7>; "- 
SPC<5>; "A 
SPC<5) 
SPCC5) 

SPCC5> 
SPC<5) 
SPC<5) 



PRECEDED BV A MINUS SIGN -'" PRINT PRINT 



"B 
"C 
"D 
"E 
"F 



PRINT PRINT 
JIIIMI IF 
THEN Z=2 
:GOT0 770 

l>>-65 
770 



PRINT 
Lt="«" 



PA* 



PROGRAM TITLE (MINIMUM) 

- SOURCE/AUTHOR 

- SIZE 

- ",FB* 

- CATAG0RIES 

- QUALIFIERS 

- DESCRIPTION" 
INPUT"MENTER ALL CODE LETTERS 
Y=0 Z=l : IF LEFT*<L*j 1 ■="-" 
IF LEN<L*><2 THEN GOSUB 1390 
FOR X=Z TO LEN<L*> L=ASCaiID$(L* . X 
IF L<0 OR L>5 THEN GOSUB 1390 =OOT0 
V=V OR (2TL> NEXT 
FF=V IF Z=2 THEN FF=2T6-1-V 
RETURN 

NP-NP+1 IF FF>0 THEN PR I NT #4, "IT ; 

PR I NT#4 , " PROGRAM T I TLE : " ; PT* 

IF <FF AND I) THEN PR I NT #4, "SOURCE/AUTHfiR 

IF CFF AND 2) THEN PRINT#4, "SIZE ";PS*;SPC<3>; 

IF <FF AND 4) THEN PRINT#4, FB$; " " : PB* i 

IF CFF AND 6) THEN PRINT#4 

IF <PC=0> OR OFF AND 8>"9> THEN 1060 

PRINT#4,"CATAG0RIES: " FOR X=0 TO C-l 

IF PC AND <21X) THEN GOSUB 1340 PRINT«4,C$<X) 

NEXT 

IF (PQ-0) OR <<FF AND 16>*0) THEN 1100 

PR INT#4, "QUALIFIERS" FOR X«8 TO 0-1 

IF PQ AND <2tX) THEN GOSUB 1340 PRINT#4,Q*<X) 

NEXT 

IF (FF AND 32)=0 OR LEN<PD*)»0 THEN 1160 

PR I NT#4 , " — 

FOR X=l TO LENCPD*) L$«MID*<PD$,X, 1) 

IF RSC<L*X>13 THEN PRINT#4,L$; GOTO 1150 

PR I NT #4 

NEXT PRINT#4 

IF (PF=0> OR <FF«0) THEN 1180 

INT#4 , "■x. : -:o:.:o:.:-:.xo:.:. : ,.>>:.:,,^:,.:,,.,v.v.-.v.-.v^,...-.^-,.w... TT l l l im i l l ll ll lfinnnnftlftlTfllUllJlllMlllU l U " 



THEN FF=0 RETURN 



IF (PF>0:- OR (FF"8) THEN RETURN 
1190 PRINT"««W«W«Pj«««i!liIi!li!l««W^M«W'' GOSUB 1200 

12O0 PRINT" « : RETURN 

1210 GOSUB 127G PT$=L* : IF L*=T$ THEN RETURN 

GOSUB 1270 PR**L* GOSUB 1270 PS*«L* : GOSUB 1270 

PB*=L$ GOSUB 1270 PC«VRL<L») 

GOSUB 1270 PQ*VflL<Lf) FM="" 

GOSUB 1260 PD**PD*+L* : IF RSC<L*>Oi9 THEN 1250 



PRINT#4 PRINT#4 
GOTO 130O REM HOME t DUN 21 



1220 
1 230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 

1300 

1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 

1400 

READY. 



GET#1,L* GOTO 1280 

INPUT#1,L* 

IF ST=0 THEN RETURN 

PR I NT "nT APE READ ERROR, ST =";ST CLOSE 1 

PR I NT "DEPRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE "; 

GET R* IF R$="" THEN 1310 

PRINT" - gOK m i RETURN 

PRINT SPC<5>;CHR$<X+65>; " - "; RETURN 

PR I NT#4 , SPC < 5 > ; CHR* < X+65 );"-".; : RETURN 

PR I NT " 



END 



VX 



N) 



PRINT" 

GET R$ IF R$="Y" OR R*="N" THEN PRINT" tT iR$i 

GOTO 1370 

PRINT"aiNVALID CODE! 

FOR X=l TO 1000 NEXT RETURN 



' RETURN 
RETURN 



204 Microcomputing, May 1981 



MCP 



COMPARE THE FEATURES. COMPARE 
THE PRICE. ORIGINALLY DESIGNED 
FOR OEM APPLICATIONS. MCP SYS- 
TEMS COMPONENTS OFFER HIGH RE- 
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ALL ARE CP/M AND IEEE/SIOO COM- 
PATIBLE. 



THE MCP/SCC Z80 CPU CARD FEATURES: 

TWO SERIAL PORTS WITH KS232 DK1VE AND HANDSHAKING. BAUD RATES FROM 50 TO 
19. 2K. AN 8255 PROGRAMMABLE PARALLEL INTERFACE. 1 K ONBOARDSTATIC RAM AND 1 K 
KI'KOM. WITH MONITOR PROGRAM FOR SERIAL TERMINAL INCLUDED. 2K 27 16 EPROM OP- 
TIONAL. ONBOARD RAM1CPROM OPERATE IN SHADOW MODE TO ALLOW 64K ADDRESSING. 
OPERATES AT 2 OR 4 MHZ. 
ASSEMBLED AND TESTED LIST $349.95 SALE PRICE $309.95 

THE MCP/FDC DOUBLE DENSITY DISK CONTROLLER: 

UTILIZES THE WD 1 793 DOUBLE DENSITY F/D CONTROLLER CHIP AND THE WD 169 1 FLOPPY 

SUPPORT LOOK CHIP. THIS CHIP SET OFFERS SUPERB PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY 

DUE TO ENHANCED DATA RECOVERY AND WRITE PRECOMP SUPPORT. THE MCP/FDC WILL 

SUPPORT UP TO FOUR 8" SINGLE OR DOUBLE SIDED SHUGART OR SHUGART COMPATIBLE 

DRIVES. THE MCP/FDC OPERATES IN SINGLE OR DOUBLE DENSITY MODE WITH 4 MHZ 

SYSTEMS. 

ASSEMBLED AND TESTED LIST $359.95 SALE PRICE $339.95 

THE MCP/VDB 80X24 VIDEO BOARD FEATURES: 

A 7X9 CHARACTER MATRIX WITH LOWERCASE DESCENDERS. MEMORY MAPPED WITH 2K 
ONBOARD RAM. KEYBOARD INPUT PORT. PROGRAMMABLE FORMAT. HARDWARE SCROLL. 
NON DESTRUCTIVE CURSOR WITH 2 BLINK RATES. AND REVERSE VIDEO. ASSEMBLED AND 
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MCP/VDB BARK BOARD AND DOCUMENTATION. $65 00 



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Medical-Dental SYS $2500 

HP85A SPEC1A1 $2795 

HP-M 2590 

We carry the complete HP line. 

COMMODORE (PET): 

2001 32 K BorN Keyboard $1<> 1 '<> 

2001 -16K $ 859 

8032 [80 Column Screenl $1599 

2040 Dual Floppy Drive $1090 

8050 Dual Floppy (1 MEG) $1599 

2022 Tractor Printer $ 749 

Word PRO IV $ 290 

VISK'AI C $ 195 

APPLE II PLUS Call For Price! 

ATARI koo $ 849 

TI 99/4 Console & Monitor $ 990 

INTERTEC SUPERBRAIN: 

32K HAM $2595 

64K RAM $2695 

PRINTERS 

Letter Quality: 

NEC 5510 or 5530 $2550 

NEC 5520 KSR $2950 

DIABLO 630 $2390 

C ITOH 11690 

Dot Matrix 

CENTRONICS 730 $599 

CENTRONICS 737-1 $ 799 

( I NTRONICS 799 $ 999 

EPSON MX-80 $ 599 

PAPER TIGER 4bOG $1250 

PAPER TIGER 445G $ 820 

DISPLAY TERMINALS 

HA/ELTINE 1420 $ 949 

HA/ELTINE 1500 $ 999 

INTERTUBE III $ 775 

TELEVIDEO920C $ 849 

Complete sales and service since 1977 Most items in stock, prices are subject to change 

Visa and Master Charge Welcome 

m»„ w; Mon.lhruFri.900 8:0() 

MU1U Sat 9:30-3 = 00 

Business 

Computer Systems Inc. 

28 Marlborough St. Portland, CT064 80 ^81 

(203) 342-2747 TWX/TELEX 710-428-6345 



•See List of Advertisers on page 242 




Super 

Compuprism 

Color Graphics 



■j» -arc^r- 



For the S-100 Bus. 32K of on board memory 
allows a 288 H. x 192V. dot matrix, for a total 
of 55,296 pixels. Every pixel is programable in 
any one of 1 6 colors or 1 6 grey levels 
completely independent of all other pixels in the 
matrix. 

Compuprism Bare Board with documentation 
$45, kit $240, ass. and tested $280. 
(16K Memory 144H. x 192V.) 

Super Compuprism Bare Board with 

documentation $50, kit $350, ass. and tested 

$395. 

(32K Memory 288H. x 192V.) 

Add $ 1 5 to A & T price for 1 6 level grey scale . 

Add $ 1 5 to A & T price for memory 

management port. 

Compuprism software package, includes alpa- 
numberics, point plot, line draw, and TRS-80* 
graphics simulation $20 or FREE with A & T un